Resources list

2020 Progress Report - AMR industry alliance

2020 Progress Report - (Available here)

"The report contributes to the global response to the AMR challenge by documenting Alliance
members’ activities in the areas of research & science, access, appropriate use, and manufacturing.
It not only offers consolidated data on member companies’ AMR-related actions and partnerships,
but it also gives an account of a variety of antimicrobial products and diagnostic tools that are
already available on the market or in development. The report includes a number of case studies
from all four sectors of the life sciences industry. The case studies present efforts by individual
member companies and demonstrate their strong commitment to investing in AMR-related
research & science; improving access to and optimizing use of antimicrobials, vaccines, and
diagnostics tools; and promoting the responsible manufacture of antibiotics." - AMR Industry Alliance, 2020

Antimicrobial Resistance Benchmark 2020 - Access to Medicine Foundation

Antimicrobial Resistance Benchmark 2020 - (Available here)

"The impact of drug resistance is already being felt today. Antibiotic resistance causes more than 500,000 deaths each year, including more than 200,000 infant deaths. In India, for example, resistance exceeds 70% for many widespread bacteria. Most at risk are patients living in the poorest countries, where medicine choices are limited." - Access to Medicine Foundation, 2020

Bad Medicine: How the pharmaceutical industry is contributing to the global rise of antibiotic-resistant superbugs - SumOfUs

Bad Medicine: How the pharmaceutical industry is contributing to the global rise of antibiotic-resistant superbugs - (Available here). 

"The report reveals that the largest pharmaceutical corporations are complicit in fuelling one of the most serious public health crises facing society today. It is essential for pharmaceutical companies to lift the veil on their supply chains and stop buying antibiotic APIs from polluting Chinese factories. In an age when AMR is threatening to destroy the health system as we know it, there is simply no excuse for turning a blind eye." - SumOfUs, 2020

Impacts Of Pharmaceutical Pollution On Communities and Environment In India - Changing Markets

Impacts of Pharmaceutical Pollution On Communities and Environment in India -  (Available here)

"As is explored at length in this report, people
living in the vicinity of dirty pharmaceutical
manufacturing sites, who are often poor and reliant
on subsistence farming, are those whose health is
at most immediate risk from the toxic effluents and
API-laden waste being deposited in their rivers,
lakes, groundwater and fields. However, because
of the way in which antibiotic manufacturing
discharges trigger resistance in bacteria present in
the environment, spreading to human pathogens
which then travel the world, antibiotic pollution
puts everyone at risk, wherever they live. This is
why AMR is often compared to climate change,
given the scale of the challenge it poses, and the
coordinated global response which is required to
tackle it" - Changing Markets, 2016

Hyderabad’s pharmaceutical pollution crisis - Changing Markets

Hyderabad’s pharmaceutical pollution crisis: Heavy metal and solvent contamination at factories in a major Indian drug manufacturing hub- (Available here)

"This report explores the impacts of pollution from pharmaceutical production sites in the Indian city of Hyderabad, one of the world’s largest “bulk drug” manufacturing hubs, which supplies tonnes of medicines to markets across the European Union and United States every year. As part of its ongoing engagement with drug companies and their suppliers regarding pollution in the pharmaceutical supply chain, and following the publication of “Impacts of Pharmaceutical Pollution on Communities and Environment in India” in March 2016, Nordea commissioned the Changing Markets Foundation to conduct a follow-up investigation in India, the results of which are presented here." - Changing Markets, 2018

Initiatives for Addressing Antimicrobial Resistance in the Environment - Wellcome

Initiatives for Addressing Antimicrobial Resistance in the Environment: Current Situation and Challenges - (Available here)

"AMR—when microbes (i.e., bacteria and fungi) develop the ability to defeat the drugs designed to combat them—is a threat to public health and a priority across the globe. Pathogenic antimicrobial-resistant microbes can cause
infections in humans that are difficult, and sometimes impossible, to treat. This report highlights data identifying the potential for the environment (waterways and soils) to be a source of pathogenic antimicrobial-resistant microbes that could affect human health. The report also highlights significant knowledge gaps and measures that could be most important for mitigating risks." - Wellcome, 2018

Pulling Together to Beat Superbugs: Knowledge and Implantation - World Bank

 Pulling Together to Beat Superbugs Knowledge and Implementation Gaps in Addressing Antimicrobial Resistance - (Available here).

"AMR is not just a health problem, it’s a development problem. Unchecked, it will impact people’s health and life
prospects, and ultimately, countries’ human capital. It will also hamper progress towards the 2030 Sustainable Development Goals and harm economies. If unabated, AMR’s economic impact is projected at more than US$ 1 trillion annually after 2030" - World Bank, 2019

Reducing Emissions from Antibiotic Production - SIWI

Reducing Emissions from Antibiotic Production:  Whitepaper on policies, technologies, and enabling conditions for sustainable antibiotics manufacturing - (Available here)

"This whitepaper summarizes the findings of the project  Reducing Emissions from Antibiotics (REAP), that
SIWI has run in partnership with UNDP, funded by the Swedish Postcode Foundation. It analyses AMR policies and strategies and practical solutions to address emissions of antibiotics from manufacturing sites as well as the enabling factors required to implement the solutions. While the solutions should be globally applicable, the focus is on practices, challenges and regulations in India, with India being one of the key global suppliers of antibiotics and several regulative and industry initiatives already addressing these factors." - SIWI, 2020

Scoping Report on Antimicrobial Resistance in India - CDDEP

Scoping Report on Antimicrobial Resistance in India - (Available here)

"The aims of the mapping exercise are to understand the current situation of AMR, with particular focus on ABR in India, and to identify the current research gaps todetermine the future research priorities in India." - CDDEP, 2017

Superbugs in the Supply Chain - Changing Markets

Superbugs in the Supply Chain: How pollution from antibiotics factories in India and China is fuelling the global rise of drug-resistant infections - (Available here)

"This report, for the first time, exposes the occurrence of resistant bacteria surrounding pharmaceutical manufacturing plants in India and maps out the supply chain which delivers antibiotics from the dirty factories where they are produced to patients in Europe and the United States. An on-the-ground investigation by the investigative agency Ecostorm which took place in June 2016 and subsequent analysis of water samples under the supervision of Dr Mark Holmes from the University of Cambridge found high levels of drug resistant bacteria at sites in three Indian cities: Hyderabad, New Delhi and Chennai" - Changing Markets, 2016

The Environmental Impact Of Pharmaceutical Manufacturing - HCWH

The Environmental Impact Of Pharmaceutical Manufactoring: How does industry address its own waste - (Available here) 

"Pharmaceutical pollution is increasingly recognised as a threat to ecosystems and human health globally. Pharmaceuticals can enter the environment at all stages of their life cycle (production, use, and disposal), meaning they can ultimately end up in our drinking water as well as accumulate in vegetables and fish. Pharmaceutical residues have been detected in surface water, sewage effluents, groundwater, drinking water, manure, soil, and other environmental matrices globally" - HCWH, 2018

Global Antimicrobial Resistance and Use Surveillance System (GLASS) Report - WHO

GLASS Report - (available here) 

"Launched by the World Health Organization
(WHO) in 2015 to support the strengthening of
the antimicrobial resistance (AMR) evidence
base, the Global Antimicrobial Resistance
and Use Surveillance System (GLASS) is the
first system that enables harmonized global
reporting of official national AMR and
antimicrobial consumption (AMC) data"  - WHO, 2021