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    Luan S, Eftekhar A, Murphy OH, Constandinou TGet al., 2011,

    Towards an Inductively Coupled Power/Data Link for Bondpad-less Silicon Chips

    , IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems (ISCAS), Publisher: IEEE, Pages: 2597-2600, ISSN: 0271-4302
    Nikolic K, Constandinou TG, Toumazou C, 2011,

    Method and Apparatus for Optically Outputting Information from a Semiconductor Device

    A method of optically outputting information (e.g. digital data) from a semiconductor device, the method comprising: providing a semiconductor device having a semiconducting p-n junction, the p-n junction having a region of reduced free charge carrier density; applying an electrical signal to modulate the extent of the said region, the electrical signal being representative of the information to be outputted; arranging incident light to pass through at least part of the said region, such that the light is at least partially absorbed in dependence upon the modulated extent of the said region, thereby producing intensity-modulated output light; and detecting the intensity of the output light and thereby determining the outputted information. Also provided is an electro-optical assembly, a package module for mounting a semiconductor device on a printed circuit board, and an integrated circuit chip.

    Nikolic K, Serb A, Constandinou TG, 2011,

    An Optical Modulator in Unmodified, Commercially Available CMOS Technology

    , IEEE PHOTONICS TECHNOLOGY LETTERS, Vol: 23, Pages: 1115-1117, ISSN: 1041-1135
    Paraskevopoulou SE, Constandinou TG, 2011,

    A sub-1 mu W Neural Spike-Peak Detection and Spike-Count Rate Encoding Circuit

    , Annual IEEE Biomedical Circuits and Systems Conference (BioCAS) - Engineering Tomorrow's Healthcare, Publisher: IEEE, Pages: 29-32, ISSN: 2163-4025
    Serb A, Nikolic K, Constandinou TG, 2011,

    A CMOS-based light modulator for contactless data transfer: theory and concept.

    , Conference on Silicon Photonics VI, Publisher: SPIE-INT SOC OPTICAL ENGINEERING, ISSN: 0277-786X
    Serb A, Nikolic K, Constandinou TG, 2011,

    Feasibility of an Electro-Optic Link for Bondpad-less CMOS Lab-on-Chips

    , Annual IEEE Biomedical Circuits and Systems Conference (BioCAS) - Engineering Tomorrow's Healthcare, Publisher: IEEE, Pages: 353-356, ISSN: 2163-4025
    Sole M, Sanni A, Vilches A, Toumazou C, Constandinou TGet al., 2011,

    A Bio-Implantable Platform for Inductive Data and Power Transfer with Integrated Battery Charging

    , IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems (ISCAS), Publisher: IEEE, Pages: 2605-2608, ISSN: 0271-4302
    Woods SP, Constandinou TG, 2011,

    Towards a micropositioning system for targeted drug delivery in wireless capsule endoscopy

    , Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society (EMBS), Publisher: IEEE, Pages: 7372-7375, ISSN: 1557-170X

    This paper describes a novel micropositioningmechanism for achieving 1ml of targeted drug delivery within wireless capsule endoscopes. The mechanism allows a needle to be positioned within a 22.5° segment of a cylindrical capsule and be extendible by up to 4mm. The mechanism achieves both these functions using only a single micromotor and occupying a volume of just 200mm³ (including micromotor), this represents only 6.6% of the total available space. Through a detailed stress analysis it has been shown that the proposed mechanismcan be fabricated using FDA approved materials and requires a power budget of under 3.3% of the available capacity. It is envisaged this mechanism would empower a new breed of capsule microrobots for therapy in addition to diagnostics for pathologies such as ulcerative colitis and small intestinal Crohn’s disease.

    Constandinou TG, Georgiou P, Prodromakis T, Toumazou Cet al., 2010,

    A CMOS-based lab-on-chip array for the combined magnetic stimulation and opto-chemical sensing of neural tissue

    This paper presents a novel CMOS-based labon-chip platform for non-contact magnetic stimulation and recording of neural tissue. The proposed system is the first of its kind to integrate magnetic-stimulation and optochemical sensing in a single pixel, tesselated to form an 8×8 array. Fabricated in a commercially-available 0.35μm CMOS technology, the system can be intrinsically used for both optical imaging and pH sensing and includes mechanisms for calibrating out sensor variation and mismatch. In addition to sensory acquisition via an integrated 10-bit ADC, a 64-instruction spatiotemporal pattern generator has been embedded within the array for driving the microscale magnetic neural stimulation. In this application the ISFET-based sensors are used to capacitively-couple neuronal charge in close proximity to the floating gate. Optical imaging hardware has also been embedded to provide topographic detail of the neural tissue. © 2010 IEEE.

    Constandinou TG, Hafliger P, 2010,

    Guest Editorial - Special Issue on Selected Papers from ISCAS 2009

    , IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems, Vol: 4, Pages: 137-138, ISSN: 1932-4545
    Eftekhar A, Paraskevopoulou SE, Constandinou TG, 2010,

    Towards a Next Generation Neural Interface: Optimizing Power, Bandwidth and Data Quality

    , Biomedical Circuits and Systems Conference (BioCAS), Publisher: IEEE, Pages: 122-125, ISSN: 2163-4025
    Garner DM, Bai H, Georgiou P, Constandinou TG, Reed S, Shepherd LM, Wong W, Lim KT, Toumazou Cet al., 2010,

    A multichannel DNA SoC for rapid point-of-care gene detection

    , Pages: 492-493, ISSN: 0193-6530

    Point-of-care diagnostics for detection of genetic sequences require biosensing platforms that are sensitive to the target sequence, and are also fast, mass-manufacturable, and - ideally - disposable. Conventional lab-based methods of detecting DNA sequences rely on optical methods, typically by the addition of fluorescent tags to the target DNA that in turn latches onto a DNA probe sequence only if there is a match between the two. These techniques are cumbersome as they require upfront tagging of the DNA with expensive reagents and laboratory equipment to detect the optical signals. Recently, developments have been made in transferring these optical methods to inexpensive CMOS ICs [1], although the requirement for tagging remains. Magnetic beads offer an alternative means of tagging the DNA and their presence can be detected by the shift in resonant frequency of an on-chip LC tank [2] . There have also been attempts based on "label-free" electrochemical detection using FETs [3,4], but none of these have been implemented in unmodified standard CMOS. ©2010 IEEE.

    Prodromakis T, Liu Y, Constandinou T, Georgiou P, Toumazou Cet al., 2010,

    Exploiting CMOS Technology to Enhance the Performance of ISFET Sensors

    , IEEE ELECTRON DEVICE LETTERS, Vol: 31, Pages: 1053-1055, ISSN: 0741-3106
  • BOOK
    Constandinou TG, 2009,

    Biologically Inspired Electronics for Micropower Vision Processing

    , Publisher: VDM Verlag, ISBN: 978-3639133912
    Constandinou TG, Georgiou J, 2009,

    A Micropower Tilt-Processing Circuit

    Constandinou TG, Georgiou J, Toumazou C, 2009,

    A Neural Implant ASIC for the Restoration of Balance in Individuals with Vestibular Dysfunction

    , IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems (ISCAS 2009), Publisher: IEEE, Pages: 641-+
    Eftekhar A, Constandinou TG, Abbruzzese D, Woods V, Triantis IF, Drakakis EM, Toumazou Cet al., 2009,

    A Programmable Neural Interface for Investigating Arbitrary Stimulation Strategies

    , 14th Annual International FES Society Conference
    Yan L, Georgiou P, Constandinou TG, Garner D, Toumazou Cet al., 2009,

    An Auto-Offset-Removal circuit for chemical sensing based on the PG-ISFET

    , IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems (ISCAS 2009), Publisher: IEEE, Pages: 1165-+
    Constandinou TG, Georgiou J, 2008,

    A Micropower Tilt Processing Circuit

    , IEEE Biomedical Circuits and Systems (BioCAS) Conference, Publisher: IEEE, Pages: 197-200

    This paper describes a novel analogue circuit for extracting the tilt angle from the output of a standard MEMS accelerometer. The circuit uses the accelerometer signal together with the gravitational acceleration vector to generate the tilt signal. Using a current-mode representation with devices operated in subthreshold, the appropriate trigonometric function has been realised to compute tilt. Furthermore, implementing a long-time constant filter to extract the mean tilt level provides adaptation to the static tilt level. Specifically, this circuit has been designed as part of an implantable vestibular prosthesis to provide inclination signals for bypassing dysfunctional otolith end-organs. The hardware has been implemented in AMS 0.35 mum 2P4M CMOS technology.

    Constandinou TG, Georgiou J, 2008,

    Micro-Optoelectromechanical Tilt Sensor

    , Journal of Sensors, Vol: 2008, Pages: 1-7, ISSN: 1687-725X

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