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  • Journal article
    Wang Y, Downie S, Wood N, Firmin D, Xu XYet al., 2013,

    Finite element analysis of the deformation of deep veins in the lower limb under external compression

    , MEDICAL ENGINEERING & PHYSICS, Vol: 35, Pages: 515-523, ISSN: 1350-4533
  • Journal article
    Cheng Z, Riga C, Chan J, Hamady M, Wood NB, Cheshire NJW, Xu Y, Gibbs RGJet al., 2013,

    Initial findings and potential applicability of computational simulation of the aorta in acute type B dissection

    , JOURNAL OF VASCULAR SURGERY, Vol: 57, Pages: 35S-43S, ISSN: 0741-5214
  • Journal article
    Kousera CA, Wood NB, Seed WA, Torii R, O'Regan D, Xu XYet al., 2013,

    A Numerical Study of Aortic Flow Stability and Comparison With In Vivo Flow Measurements

    , JOURNAL OF BIOMECHANICAL ENGINEERING-TRANSACTIONS OF THE ASME, Vol: 135, ISSN: 0148-0731
  • Journal article
    Liu C, Krishnan J, Xu X-Y, 2013,

    Investigating the effects of ABC-transporter mediated acquired drug resistance mechanisms at the cell and tissue scale

    , Integrative Biology
  • Journal article
    Zhan W, Xu XY, 2013,

    A mathematical model for thermosensitive liposomal delivery of Doxorubicin to solid tumour.

    , J Drug Deliv, Vol: 2013, ISSN: 2090-3014

    The effectiveness of anticancer treatments is often hampered by the serious side effects owing to toxicity of anticancer drugs and their undesirable uptake by healthy cells in vivo. Thermosensitive liposome-mediated drug delivery has been developed as part of research efforts aimed at improving therapeutic efficacy while reducing the associated side effect. Since multiple steps are involved in the transport of drug-loaded liposomes, drug release, and its uptake, mathematical models become an indispensible tool to analyse the transport processes and predict the outcome of anticancer treatment. In this study, a computational model is developed which incorporates the key physical and biochemical processes involved in drug delivery and cellular uptake. The model has been applied to idealized tumour geometry, and comparisons are made between continuous infusion of doxorubicin and thermosensitive liposome-mediated delivery. Results show that thermosensitive liposome-mediated delivery performs better in reducing drug concentration in normal tissues, which may help lower the risk of associated side effects. Compared with direct infusion over a 2-hour period, thermosensitive liposome delivery leads to a much higher peak intracellular concentration of doxorubicin, which may increase cell killing in tumour thereby enhancing the therapeutic effect of the drug.

  • Journal article
    Moraldo M, Cecaro F, Shun-Shin M, Pabari P, Davies JE, Xu XY, Hughes AD, Manisty C, Francis DPet al., 2012,

    Evidence-based recommendations for PISA measurements in mitral regurgitation: systematic review, clinical and in-vitro study

    , Iinternational Journal of Cardiology

    BackgroundGuidelines for quantifying mitral regurgitation (MR) using “proximal isovelocity surface area” (PISA) instruct operators to measure the PISA radius from valve orifice to Doppler flow convergence “hemisphere”. Using clinical data and a physically-constructed MR model we (A) analyse the actually-observed colour Doppler PISA shape and (B) test whether instructions to measure a “hemisphere” are helpful.Methods and resultsIn part A, the true shape of PISA shells was investigated using three separate approaches. First, a systematic review of published examples consistently showed non-hemispherical, “urchinoid” shapes. Second, our clinical data confirmed that the Doppler-visualized surface is non-hemispherical. Third, in-vitro experiments showed that round orifices never produce a colour Doppler hemisphere.In part B, six observers were instructed to measure hemisphere radius rh and (on a second viewing) urchinoid distance (du) in 11 clinical PISA datasets; 6 established experts also measured PISA distance as the gold standard. rh measurements, generated using the hemisphere instruction significantly underestimated expert values (−28%, p<0.0005), meaning rh2 was underestimated by approximately 2-fold. du measurements, generated using the non-hemisphere instruction were less biased (+7%, p=0.03).Finally, frame-to-frame variability in PISA distance was found to have a coefficient of variation (CV) of 25% in patients and 9% in in-vitro data. Beat-to-beat variability had a CV of 15% in patients.ConclusionsDoppler-visualized PISA shells are not hemispherical: we should avoid advising observers to measure a hemispherical radius because it encourages underestimation of orifice area by approximately two-fold. If precision is needed (e.g. to detect changes reliably) multi-frame averaging is essential.

  • Conference paper
    Zhan W, Gedroyc W, Xu X, 2012,

    Computational Study of Drug Transport in Realistic Models of Solid Tumour

    , AIChE Annual Conference
  • Journal article
    Liu X, Fan Y, Xu XY, Deng Xet al., 2012,

    Nitric oxide transport in an axisymmetric stenosis

    , JOURNAL OF THE ROYAL SOCIETY INTERFACE, Vol: 9, Pages: 2468-2478, ISSN: 1742-5689
  • Journal article
    Paopo I, Xu XY, Mantalaris A, 2012,

    Differentiation of murine embryonic stem cells (mESCs) into type II pneumocytes in a 3D sparged bioreactor

    , JOURNAL OF TISSUE ENGINEERING AND REGENERATIVE MEDICINE, Vol: 6, Pages: 343-343, ISSN: 1932-6254
  • Journal article
    Massai D, Soloperto G, Gallo D, Xu XY, Morbiducci Uet al., 2012,

    Shear-induced platelet activation and its relationship with blood flow topology in a numerical model of stenosed carotid bifurcation

    , EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF MECHANICS B-FLUIDS, Vol: 35, Pages: 92-101, ISSN: 0997-7546
  • Journal article
    Torii R, El-Hamamsy I, Donya M, Babu-Narayan SV, Ibrahim M, Kilner PJ, Mohiaddin RH, Xu XY, Yacoub MHet al., 2012,

    Integrated morphologic and functional assessment of the aortic root after different tissue valve root replacement procedures

    , JOURNAL OF THORACIC AND CARDIOVASCULAR SURGERY, Vol: 143, Pages: 1422-+, ISSN: 0022-5223
  • Conference paper
    Foin N, Torii R, Mortier P, De Beule M, Xu Y, Davies J, Di Mario Cet al., 2012,

    OPTIMISATION OF RESULTS IN BIFURCATION STENTING: INSIGHTS FROM BENCH MODELS, COMPUTATIONAL SIMULATIONS AND 3D OCT

    , 61st Annual Scientific Session and Expo of the American-College-of-Cardiology (ACC), Publisher: ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC, Pages: E87-E87, ISSN: 0735-1097
  • Conference paper
    Prapa S, Mccarthy KP, Kilner PJ, Xu XY, Johnson MR, Ho SY, Gatzoulis MAet al., 2012,

    Biomechanical perspectives of thoracic aortic aneurysm formation in patients with a bicuspid aortic valve: an integrated analysis

    , 2nd Congress of the European-Society-of-Cardiology Council on Basic Cardiovascular Science - Frontiers in Cardiovascular Biology, Publisher: OXFORD UNIV PRESS, Pages: S86-S86, ISSN: 0008-6363
  • Journal article
    Ma CYJ, Panoskaltsis N, Kumar R, Xu XY, Mantalaris Aet al., 2012,

    Simulation of ex vivo bone marrow culture: Application to chronic myeloid leukaemia growth model

    , BIOCHEMICAL ENGINEERING JOURNAL, Vol: 61, Pages: 66-77, ISSN: 1369-703X
  • Journal article
    Liu D, Wood NB, Witt N, Hughes AD, Thom SA, Xu XYet al., 2012,

    Assessment of Energy Requirement for the Retinal Arterial Network in Normal and Hypertensive Subjects

    , JOURNAL OF BIOMECHANICAL ENGINEERING-TRANSACTIONS OF THE ASME, Vol: 134, ISSN: 0148-0731
  • Journal article
    Foin N, Toni R, Mortier P, De Beule M, Viceconte N, Chan PH, Davies JE, Xu XY, Krams R, Di Mario Cet al., 2012,

    Kissing Balloon or Sequential Dilation of the Side Branch and Main Vessel for Provisional Stenting of Bifurcations Lessons From Micro-Computed Tomography and Computational Simulations

    , JACC-CARDIOVASCULAR INTERVENTIONS, Vol: 5, Pages: 47-56, ISSN: 1936-8798
  • Journal article
    Wang Y, Pierce I, Gatehouse P, Wood N, Firmin D, Xu XYet al., 2012,

    Analysis of flow and wall shear stress in the peroneal veins under external compression based on real-time MR images

    , MEDICAL ENGINEERING & PHYSICS, Vol: 34, Pages: 17-27, ISSN: 1350-4533
  • Conference paper
    Liu C, Krishnan J, Xu X-Y, 2012,

    An investigation of effects of drugs on solid tunmours within a systems-based mathematical modelling framework

    , Innovative simulation methods in healthcare
  • Journal article
    Tan FPP, Xu XY, Torii R, Wood NB, Delahunty N, Mullen M, Moat N, Mohiaddin Ret al., 2012,

    Comparison of Aortic Flow Patterns Before and After Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation

    , Cardiovascular Engineering and Technology, Vol: 3, Pages: 123-135

    Abstract—Little is known of the likely changes in blood flowvelocity profiles and aortic wall shear stress (WSS) followingtranscatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI). The objectiveof this study was to investigate the effects of TAVI onflow patterns in the thoracic aorta by using cardiovascularmagnetic resonance imaging (CMR) and computational fluiddynamics (CFD). An elderly patient with aortic stenosis wasexamined using MRI pre- and post-TAVI, and CFDsimulations were carried out incorporating MRI-derivedpatient-specific anatomy and upstream flow conditions. Pre-TAVI velocity profiles demonstrated the highly disturbedturbulent flow and jet impacting the wall of the arch owing tothe partial opening of the stenosed aortic valve, with likelypathological effects. In the Post-TAVI aorta, velocity profileswere similar to those of healthy aortas with spatially moreuniform WSS and lower turbulence levels, demonstrating thefavourable effects of the TAVI procedure in restoring normalaortic flow. This study has shown both the effectiveness ofTAVI on an individual patient and the advantage of thecombined CMR and CFD method for a comprehensivepatient-specific assessment of pre- and post-TAVI aortic flowpatterns and WSS over CMR alone.

  • Journal article
    Pierce IT, Gatehouse PD, Kalodiki E, Lattimer C, Geroulakos G, Xu XY, Firmin DNet al., 2012,

    Magnetic resonance venous velocity mapping during intermittent pneumatic compression of the calf and foot

    , Phlebology, Vol: 27, Pages: 352-359

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