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  • Journal article
    Etard O, Reichenbach J, 2019,

    Neural speech tracking in the theta and in the delta frequency band differentially encode clarity and comprehension of speech in noise

    , Journal of Neuroscience, Vol: 39, Pages: 5750-5759, ISSN: 0270-6474

    Humans excel at understanding speech even in adverse conditions such as background noise. Speech processing may be aided by cortical activity in the delta and theta frequency bands that has been found to track the speech envelope. However, the rhythm of non-speech sounds is tracked by cortical activity as well. It therefore remains unclear which aspects of neural speech tracking represent the processing of acoustic features, related to the clarity of speech, and which aspects reflect higher-level linguistic processing related to speech comprehension. Here we disambiguate the roles of cortical tracking for speech clarity and comprehension through recording EEG responses to native and foreign language in different levels of background noise, for which clarity and comprehension vary independently. We then use a both a decoding and an encoding approach to relate clarity and comprehension to the neural responses. We find that cortical tracking in the theta frequency band is mainly correlated to clarity, while the delta band contributes most to speech comprehension. Moreover, we uncover an early neural component in the delta band that informs on comprehension and that may reflect a predictive mechanism for language processing. Our results disentangle the functional contributions of cortical speech tracking in the delta and theta bands to speech processing. They also show that both speech clarity and comprehension can be accurately decoded from relatively short segments of EEG recordings, which may have applications in future mind-controlled auditory prosthesis.

  • Conference paper
    Campos-Pires R, Mohamed-Ali N, Balaet M, Aldhoun J, Abelleira-Hervas L, Aitken P, Edge CJ, Franks NP, Dickinson Ret al., 2019,


    , 37th Annual National Neurotrauma Symposium, Publisher: MARY ANN LIEBERT, INC, Pages: A116-A116, ISSN: 0897-7151
  • Conference paper
    Campos-Pires R, Hirnet T, Valeo F, Ong BE, Radyushkin K, Aldhoun J, Saville J, Edge CJ, Franks NP, Thal SC, Dickinson Ret al., 2019,


    , 37th Annual National Neurotrauma Symposium, Publisher: MARY ANN LIEBERT, INC, Pages: A47-A47, ISSN: 0897-7151
  • Conference paper
    Campos-Pires R, Yonis A, Pau A, Macdonald W, Harris K, Franks N, Edge C, Dickinson Ret al., 2019,

    Delayed xenon treatment prevents injury development following blast-neurotrauma in vitro

    , 37th Annual National Neurotrauma Symposium, Publisher: Mary Ann Liebert, Pages: A40-A41, ISSN: 0897-7151
  • Journal article
    Campos-Pires R, Hirnet T, Valeo F, Ong BE, Radyushkin K, Aldhoun J, Saville J, Edge CJ, Franks NP, Thal SC, Dickinson Ret al., 2019,

    Xenon improves long-term cognitive function, reduces neuronal loss and chronic neuroinflammation, and improves survival after traumatic brain injury in mice

    , British Journal of Anaesthesia, Vol: 123, Pages: 60-73, ISSN: 0007-0912
  • Conference paper
    Nguyen TT, Masouros S, 2019,

    Penetration of Blast Fragments to the Thorax

    , International Research Council On Biomechanics Of Injury 2019
  • Conference paper
    Nguyen TT, Masouros S, 2019,

    Penetration of Blast Fragments to the Thorax

    , International Research Council On Biomechanics Of Injury
  • Conference paper
    Nguyen TT, Meek G, Masouros S, 2019,

    Blast Fragment Protection for The Extremities

    , Light Weight Armour for Defense & Security 2019
  • Conference paper
    Campos-Pires R, Mohamed-Ali N, Balaet M, Aldhoun J, Abelleira-Hervas L, Aitken P, Edge C, Franks N, Dickinson Ret al., 2019,

    Xenon Treatment Reduces Secondary Injury Development and Prevents Neuronal Loss and Microglial Proliferation in a Rat Model of Traumatic Brain Injury

    , 13th World Conference on Brain injury, Pages: 222-222, ISSN: 0269-9052
  • Conference paper
    Campos-Pires R, Hirnet T, Valeo F, Ong BE, Saville J, Radyushkin K, Edge C, Franks N, Thal S, Dickinson Ret al., 2019,

    Xenon Treatment Prevents Late Onset Cognitive Impairment and Improves Survival Following Traumatic Brain Injury in Mice

    , 13th World Conference on Brain Injury, Pages: 220-220, ISSN: 0269-9052
  • Conference paper
    Campos-Pires R, Yonis A, Pau A, Macdonald W, Harris K, Edge C, Franks N, Dickinson Ret al., 2019,

    The Noble Gas Xenon Prevents Injury Development Following Blast-Traumatic Brain Injury In Vitro

    , 13th World Conference on Brain Injury, Pages: 218-218, ISSN: 0269-9052
  • Conference paper
    Etard O, Reichenbach J, 2019,

    Neural speech tracking in the delta and theta frequency bands differentially encode comprehension and clarity of speech in noise

    , AR0 2019
  • Journal article
    Webster CE, Clasper J, Gibb I, Masouros SDet al., 2019,

    Environment at the time of injury determines injury patterns in pelvic blast

    , JOURNAL OF THE ROYAL ARMY MEDICAL CORPS, Vol: 165, Pages: 15-17, ISSN: 0035-8665
  • Journal article
    Stewart SK, Pearce AP, Clasper JC, 2019,

    Fatal head and neck injuries in military underbody blast casualties

    , Journal of the Royal Army Medical Corps, Vol: 165, Pages: 18-21, ISSN: 2052-0468

    INTRODUCTION: Death as a consequence of underbody blast (UBB) can most commonly be attributed to central nervous system injury. UBB may be considered a form of tertiary blast injury but is at a higher rate and somewhat more predictable than injury caused by more classical forms of tertiary injury. Recent studies have focused on the transmission of axial load through the cervical spine with clinically relevant injury caused by resultant compression and flexion. This paper seeks to clarify the pattern of head and neck injuries in fatal UBB incidents using a pragmatic anatomical classification. METHODS: This retrospective study investigated fatal UBB incidents in UK triservice members during recent operations in Afghanistan and Iraq. Head and neck injuries were classified by anatomical site into: skull vault fractures, parenchymal brain injuries, base of skull fractures, brain stem injuries and cervical spine fractures. Incidence of all injuries and of each injury type in isolation was compared. RESULTS: 129 fatalities as a consequence of UBB were identified of whom 94 sustained head or neck injuries. 87 casualties had injuries amenable to analysis. Parenchymal brain injuries (75%) occurred most commonly followed by skull vault (55%) and base of skull fractures (32%). Cervical spine fractures occurred in only 18% of casualties. 62% of casualties had multiple sites of injury with only one casualty sustaining an isolated cervical spine fracture. CONCLUSION: Improvement of UBB survivability requires the understanding of fatal injury mechanisms. Although previous biomechanical studies have concentrated on the effect of axial load transmission and resultant injury to the cervical spine, our work demonstrates that cervical spine injuries are of limited clinical relevance for UBB survivability and that research should focus on severe brain injury secondary to direct head impact.

  • Journal article
    Nguyen T-T, Pearce AP, Carpanen D, Sory D, Grigoriadis G, Newell N, Clasper J, Bull A, Proud WG, Masouros SDet al., 2019,

    Experimental platforms to study blast injury

    , Journal of the Royal Army Medical Corps, Vol: 165, Pages: 33-37, ISSN: 2052-0468

    Injuries sustained due to attacks from explosive weapons are multiple in number, complex in nature, and not well characterised. Blast may cause damage to the human body by the direct effect of overpressure, penetration by highly energised fragments, and blunt trauma by violent displacements of the body. The ability to reproduce the injuries of such insults in a well-controlled fashion is essential in order to understand fully the unique mechanism by which they occur, and design better treatment and protection strategies to alleviate the resulting poor long-term outcomes. This paper reports a range of experimental platforms that have been developed for different blast injury models, their working mechanism, and main applications. These platforms include the shock tube, split-Hopkinson bars, the gas gun, drop towers and bespoke underbody blast simulators.

  • Journal article
    Grigoriadis G, Carpanen D, Webster CE, Ramasamy A, Newell N, Masouros SDet al., 2019,

    Lower limb posture affects the mechanism of injury in under-body blast

    , Annals of Biomedical Engineering, Vol: 47, Pages: 306-316, ISSN: 0090-6964

    Over 80% of wounded Service Members sustain at least one extremity injury. The 'deck-slap' foot, a product of the vehicle's floor rising rapidly when attacked by a mine to injure the limb, has been a signature injury in recent conflicts. Given the frequency and severity of these combat-related extremity injuries, they require the greatest utilisation of resources for treatment, and have caused the greatest number of disabled soldiers during recent conflicts. Most research efforts focus on occupants seated with both tibia-to-femur and tibia-to-foot angles set at 90°; it is unknown whether results obtained from these tests are applicable when alternative seated postures are adopted. To investigate this, lower limbs from anthropometric testing devices (ATDs) and post mortem human subjects (PMHSs) were loaded in three different seated postures using an under-body blast injury simulator. Using metrics that are commonly used for assessing injury, such as the axial force and the revised tibia index, the lower limb of ATDs were found to be insensitive to posture variations while the injuries sustained by the PMHS lower limbs differed in type and severity between postures. This suggests that the mechanism of injury depends on the posture and that this cannot be captured by the current injury criteria. Therefore, great care should be taken when interpreting and extrapolating results, especially in vehicle qualification tests, when postures other than the 90°-90° are of interest.

  • Journal article
    Campos Pires R, Yonis A, Macdonald W, Harris K, Edge C, Mahoney P, Dickinson Ret al., 2018,

    A novel In vitro model of blast traumatic brain injury

    , Jove-Journal of Visualized Experiments, Vol: 142, ISSN: 1940-087X

    Traumatic brain injury is a leading cause of death and disability in military and civilian populations. Blast traumatic brain injury results from the detonation of explosive devices, however, the mechanisms that underlie the brain damage resulting from blast overpressure exposure are not entirely understood and are believed to be unique to this type of brain injury. Preclinical models are crucial tools that contribute to better understand blast-induced brain injury. A novel in vitro blast TBI model was developed using an open-ended shock tube to simulate real-life open-field blast waves modelled by the Friedlander waveform. C57BL/6N mouse organotypic hippocampal slice cultures were exposed to single shock waves and the development of injury was characterized up to 72 h using propidium iodide, a well-established fluorescent marker of cell damage that only penetrates cells with compromised cellular membranes. Propidium iodide fluorescence was significantly higher in the slices exposed to a blast wave when compared with sham slices throughout the duration of the protocol. The brain tissue injury is very reproducible and proportional to the peak overpressure of the shock wave applied.

  • Journal article
    Logan N, Camman M, Williams G, Higgins Cet al., 2018,

    Demethylation of ITGAV accelerates osteogenic differentiation in a blast-induced heterotopic ossification in vitro cell culture model

    , BONE, Vol: 117, Pages: 149-160, ISSN: 8756-3282

    Trauma-induced heterotopic ossification is an intriguing phenomenon involving the inappropriate ossification of soft tissues within the body such as the muscle and ligaments. This inappropriate formation of bone is highly prevalent in those affected by blast injuries. Here, we developed a simplified cell culture model to evaluate the molecular events involved in heterotopic ossification onset that arise from the shock wave component of the disease. We exposed three subtypes of human mesenchymal cells in vitro to a single, high-energy shock wave and observed increased transcription in the osteogenic master regulators, Runx2 and Dlx5, and significantly accelerated cell mineralisation. Reduced representation bisulfite sequencing revealed that the shock wave altered methylation of gene promoters, leading to opposing changes in gene expression. Using a drug to target ITGAV, whose expression was perturbed by the shock wave, we found that we could abrogate the deposition of mineral in our model. These findings show how new therapeutics for the treatment of heterotopic ossification can be identified using cell culture models.

  • Journal article
    Rosenberg N, Bull AMJ, 2018,

    Application of a mechanobiological algorithm to investigate mechanical mediation of heterotopic bone in trans-femoral amputees

    , Scientific Reports, Vol: 8, ISSN: 2045-2322

    Heterotopic ossification (HO) is the process of bone formation in tissues that are not usually osseous. It occurs in 60% of those with blast-related amputations. HO can result in reduced range of motion, pain, nerve impingement and can affect prosthesis fitting and is caused by a combination of mechanical, biological, local and systemic factors. As with normal bone formation and remodelling, it is expected that heterotopic bone responds to mechanical stimuli and understanding this relationship can give insight into the pathology. The objective of this research was to investigate whether a physiological 2D computational model that considers both mechanical and biological factors can be used to simulate HO in the residual limb of a trans-femoral amputee. The study found that characteristic morphologies of HO were reproduced by adjusting the loading environment. Significant effects were produced by changing the loading direction on the femur; this is potentially associated with different initial surgical interventions such as muscle myodesis. Also, initial treatment such as negative pressure through a dressing was found to change the shape of heterotopic bone.

  • Conference paper
    Nguyen TT, Carpanen D, Tear G, Stinner D, Clasper J, Proud W, Masouros Set al., 2018,

    Fragment Penetrating Injury to the tibia

    , Personal Armour Systems Symposia 2018

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