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  • Journal article
    Butler BJ, Bo C, Boddy RL, Arora H, Williams A, Proud WG, Brown KAet al., 2015,

    Composite nature of fresh skin revealed during compression

    , Bioinspired, Biomimetic and Nanobiomaterials, Vol: 4, Pages: 133-139, ISSN: 2045-9858
  • Book chapter
    Halewood C, Masouros S, Amis AA, 2015,

    Structure and function of the menisci

    , Meniscal Allograft Transplantation. A comprehensive review., Editors: Getgood, Spalding, Cole, Gersoff, Verdonk, ISBN: 978-0-9558873-5-2
  • Conference paper
    Villette CC, Phillips ATM, Zaharie DT,

    Frangible optimised lower limb surrogate for assessing underbelly blast injury

    , International Research Council on Biomechanics of Injury
  • Conference paper
    Koziakova M, Harris K, Campos-Pires R, Malhotra D, Franks N, Dickinson Ret al., 2015,

    The neuroprotective efficacy of noble gases in an in vitro model of ischemic brain injury.

    , British Neuroscience Association, Publisher: BNA
  • Conference paper
    Campos-Pires R, Sebastiani A, Hirnet T, Luh C, Radyushkin K, Thal S, Franks N, Dickinson Ret al., 2015,

    Xenon provides short term & long term neuroprotection in an in vivo model of traumatic brain injury

    , British Neuroscience Associaton
  • Conference paper
    Campos-Pires R, Armstrong S, Sebastiani A, Hirnet T, Luh C, Radyushkin K, Thal S, Franks N, Dickinson Ret al., 2015,

    Xenon provides short term & long term neuroprotection in an in vivo model of traumatic brain injury.

    , BNA Festival of Neuroscience, Pages: 1-1
  • Journal article
    Arora H, Kelly M, Worley A, Del Linz P, Fergusson A, Hooper PA, Dear JPet al., 2015,

    Compressive strength after blast of sandwich composite materials.

    , Philosophical Transactions A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences, Vol: 372, ISSN: 1471-2962

    Composite sandwich materials have yet to be widely adopted in the construction of naval vessels despite their excellent strength-to-weight ratio and low radar return. One barrier to their wider use is our limited understanding of their performance when subjected to air blast. This paper focuses on this problem and specifically the strength remaining after damage caused during an explosion. Carbon-fibre-reinforced polymer (CFRP) composite skins on a styrene-acrylonitrile (SAN) polymer closed-cell foam core are the primary composite system evaluated. Glass-fibre-reinforced polymer (GFRP) composite skins were also included for comparison in a comparable sandwich configuration. Full-scale blast experiments were conducted, where 1.6×1.3 m sized panels were subjected to blast of a Hopkinson-Cranz scaled distance of 3.02 m kg(-1/3), 100 kg TNT equivalent at a stand-off distance of 14 m. This explosive blast represents a surface blast threat, where the shockwave propagates in air towards the naval vessel. Hopkinson was the first to investigate the characteristics of this explosive air-blast pulse (Hopkinson 1948 Proc. R. Soc. Lond. A 89, 411-413 (doi:10.1098/rspa.1914.0008)). Further analysis is provided on the performance of the CFRP sandwich panel relative to the GFRP sandwich panel when subjected to blast loading through use of high-speed speckle strain mapping. After the blast events, the residual compressive load-bearing capacity is investigated experimentally, using appropriate loading conditions that an in-service vessel may have to sustain. Residual strength testing is well established for post-impact ballistic assessment, but there has been less research performed on the residual strength of sandwich composites after blast.

  • Journal article
    Phillips ATM, Villette CC, Modenese L, 2015,

    Femoral bone mesoscale structural architecture prediction using musculoskeletal and finite element modelling

    , International Biomechanics, Vol: 2, Pages: 43-61, ISSN: 2333-5432

    Through much of the anatomical and clinical literature bone is studied with a focus on its structural architecture, while it is rare for bone to be modelled using a structural mechanics as opposed to a continuum mechanics approach in the engineering literature. A novel mesoscale structural model of the femur is presented in which truss and shell elements are used to represent trabecular and cortical bone, respectively. Structural optimisation using a strain-based bone adaptation algorithm is incorporated within a musculoskeletal and finite element modelling framework to predict the structure of the femur subjected to two loading scenarios; a single load case corresponding to the frame of maximum hip joint contact force during walking and a full loading regime consisting of multiple load cases from five activities of daily living. The use of the full loading regime compared to the single load case has a profound influence on the predicted trabecular and cortical structure throughout the femur, with dramatic volume increases in the femoral shaft and the distal femur, and regional increases at the femoral neck and greater trochanter in the proximal femur. The mesoscale structural model subjected to the full loading regime shows agreement with the observed structural architecture of the femur while the structural approach has potential application in bone fracture prediction, prevention and treatment. The mesoscale structural approach achieves the synergistic goals of computational efficiency similar to a macroscale continuum approach and a resolution nearing that of a microscale continuum approach.

  • Conference paper
    Villette CC, Phillips ATM,

    Predictive mesoscale structural modelling of bone informed by microscale poroelastic analyses

    , XXV congress of the International Society of Biomechanics
  • Conference paper
    Zaharie D, Villette C, Phillips A,

    FRANGIBLE OPTIMISED LOWER LIMB SURROGATE FOR ASSESSING INJURY CAUSED BY UNDERBELLY BLAST

    , XV International Symposium on Computer Simulation in Biomechanics
  • Journal article
    Bonner TJ, Newell N, Karunaratne A, Pullen AD, Amis AA, Bull AMJ, Masouros SDet al., 2015,

    Strain-rate sensitivity of the lateral collateral ligament of the knee

    , JOURNAL OF THE MECHANICAL BEHAVIOR OF BIOMEDICAL MATERIALS, Vol: 41, Pages: 261-270, ISSN: 1751-6161
  • Conference paper
    Reichenbach T, Stefanovic A, Nin F, Hudspeth AJet al., 2015,

    Otoacoustic Emission Through Waves on Reissner's Membrane

    , 12th International Workshop on the Mechanics of Hearing, Publisher: AMER INST PHYSICS, ISSN: 0094-243X
  • Journal article
    Campos-Pires R, Armstrong SP, Sebastiani A, Luh C, Gruss M, Radyushkin K, Hirnet T, Werner C, Engelhard K, Franks NP, Thal SC, Dickinson Ret al., 2015,

    Xenon Improves Neurologic Outcome and Reduces Secondary Injury Following Trauma in an In Vivo Model of Traumatic Brain Injury

    , Critical Care Medicine, Vol: 43, Pages: 149-158, ISSN: 1530-0293

    Objectives: To determine the neuroprotective efficacy of the inert gas xenon following traumatic brain injury and to determine whether application of xenon has a clinically relevant therapeutic time window.Design: Controlled animal study.Setting: University research laboratory.Subjects: Male C57BL/6N mice (n = 196).Interventions: Seventy-five percent xenon, 50% xenon, or 30% xenon, with 25% oxygen (balance nitrogen) treatment following mechanical brain lesion by controlled cortical impact.Measurements and Main Results: Outcome following trauma was measured using 1) functional neurologic outcome score, 2) histological measurement of contusion volume, and 3) analysis of locomotor function and gait. Our study shows that xenon treatment improves outcome following traumatic brain injury. Neurologic outcome scores were significantly (p < 0.05) better in xenon-treated groups in the early phase (24 hr) and up to 4 days after injury. Contusion volume was significantly (p < 0.05) reduced in the xenon-treated groups. Xenon treatment significantly (p < 0.05) reduced contusion volume when xenon was given 15 minutes after injury or when treatment was delayed 1 or 3 hours after injury. Neurologic outcome was significantly (p < 0.05) improved when xenon treatment was given 15 minutes or 1 hour after injury. Improvements in locomotor function (p < 0.05) were observed in the xenon-treated group, 1 month after trauma.Conclusions: These results show for the first time that xenon improves neurologic outcome and reduces contusion volume following traumatic brain injury in mice. In this model, xenon application has a therapeutic time window of up to at least 3 hours. These findings support the idea that xenon may be of benefit as a neuroprotective treatment in patients with brain trauma.

  • Journal article
    Kelly M, Arora H, Dear JP, 2014,

    The comparison of various foam polymer types in composite sandwich panels subjected to full scale air blast loading

    , Procedia Engineering, Vol: 88, Pages: 48-53, ISSN: 1877-7058

    Full scale air blast testing has been performed on a range of polymeric foam composite panels. These panels employed glass fibre reinforced polymer (GFRP) face-sheets with different polymer foam cores, namely: Styrene acrylonitrile (SAN); Polyvinylchloride (PVC) and Polymethacrylimide (PMI). The three sandwich panels were all subjected to 100 kg TNT equivalent blast loading at a stand-off distance of 15 m, and the responses of the panels were measured using Digital Image Correlation (DIC). The extent of damage in the sandwich panels was then inspected via post-blast sectioning, and it was found that the SAN core suffered the least damage, and the PMI suffered the most. The DIC showed that the deflection of the SAN core sandwich panel was much less than the other two foam polymer cores, due to less damage meaning a greater stiffness was retained. All blast research to date is part of a programme sponsored by the Office of Naval Research (ONR).

  • Journal article
    Gopalakrishnan A, Modenese L, Phillips ATM, 2014,

    A novel computational framework for deducing muscle synergies from experimental joint moments

    , Frontiers in Computational Neuroscience, ISSN: 1662-5188

    Prior experimental studies have hypothesized the existence of a ‘muscle synergy’ based control scheme for producing limb movements and locomotion in vertebrates. Such synergies have been suggested to consist of fixed muscle grouping schemes with the co-activation of all muscles in a synergy resulting in limb movement. Quantitative representations of these groupings (termed muscle weightings) and their control signals (termed synergy controls) have traditionally been derived by the factorization of experimentally measured EMG. This study presents a novel approach for deducing these weightings and controls from inverse dynamic joint moments that are computed from an alternative set of experimental measurements – movement kinematics and kinetics. This technique was applied to joint moments for healthy human walking at 0.7 and 1.7 m/s, and two sets of ‘simulated’ synergies were computed based on two different criteria (1) synergies were required to minimize errors between experimental and simulated joint moments in a musculoskeletal model (pure-synergy solution) (2) along with minimizing joint moment errors, synergies also minimized muscle activation levels (optimal-synergy solution). On comparing the two solutions, it was observed that the introduction of optimality requirements (optimal-synergy) to a control strategy solely aimed at reproducing the joint moments (pure-synergy) did not necessitate major changes in the muscle grouping within synergies or the temporal profiles of synergy control signals. Synergies from both the simulated solutions exhibited many similarities to EMG derived synergies from a previously published study, thus implying that the analysis of the two different types of experimental data reveals similar, underlying synergy structures.

  • Conference paper
    Gopalakrishnan A, Modenese L, Phillips ATM, 2014,

    A dynamic simulation approach for computing muscle synergies from joint moments

    , 12th International Symposium on Computer Methods in Biomechanics and Biomedical Engineering
  • Journal article
    Walker NM, Eardley W, Clasper JC, 2014,

    UK combat-related pelvic junctional vascular injuries 2008-2011: Implications for future intervention

    , INJURY-INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF THE CARE OF THE INJURED, Vol: 45, Pages: 1585-1589, ISSN: 0020-1383
  • Journal article
    Eftaxiopoulou T, Macdonald W, Britzman D, Bull AMJet al., 2014,

    Gait compensations in rats after a temporary nerve palsy quantified using temporo-spatial and kinematic parameters

    , JOURNAL OF NEUROSCIENCE METHODS, Vol: 232, Pages: 16-23, ISSN: 0165-0270
  • Journal article
    Reichenbach T, Hudspeth AJ, 2014,

    The physics of hearing: fluid mechanics and the active process of the inner ear

    , REPORTS ON PROGRESS IN PHYSICS, Vol: 77, ISSN: 0034-4885
  • Conference paper
    Tchumatchenko T, Reichenbach T, 2014,

    A wave of cochlear bone deformation can underlie bone conduction and otoacoustic emissions

    , 12th International Workshop on the Mechanics of Hearing, Publisher: AIP Publishing LLC, ISSN: 0094-243X

    A sound signal is transmitted to the cochlea through vibration of the middle ear that induces a pressure difference across the cochlea’s elastic basilar membrane. In an alternative pathway for transmission, the basilar membrane can also be deflected by vibration of the cochlear bone, without participation of the middle ear. This second pathway, termed bone conduction, is increasingly used in commercial applications, namely in bone-conduction headphones that deliver sound through vibration of the skull. The mechanism of this transmission, however, remains unclear. Here, we study a cochlear model in which the cochlear bone is deformable. We show that deformation of the cochlear bone, such as resulting from bone stimulation, elicits a wave on the basilar membrane and can hence explain bone conduction. Interestingly, stimulation of the basilar membrane can in turn elicit a wave of deformation of the cochlear bone. We show that this has implications for the propagation of otoacoustic emissions: these can emerge from the cochlea through waves of bone deformation.

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