NORMS modelThe NORMS group has developed two specialist software packages for simulating the self-potential (SP) in subsurface reservoirs. 

SP-SIM treats the reservoir as a continuum and simulates the self-potential arising from gradients in water pressure and composition.  SP-SIM is a post-processor using the outputs of widely available hydrodynamic simulators such as ECLIPSE or SUTRA: simulated pressure and composition values from these are used in SP-SIM to calculate electrical conductivity and SP. 

SP-PNM is a pore-scale network model modified to calculate the SP arising during multiphase displacements.  It can be used to predict the SP during multiphase flow for different rock microstructures and wetting behaviour.

We use the specialist facilities in the Norms Laboratory to measure and determine the link between changes in self-potential, electrical conductivity, water saturation and water composition and use these data as input to SP-SIM.  We also use the data to test and calibrate SP-PNM.  The software packages are used in our research and development of WISP (Waterfront Imaging using Self-Potential) and SISP (Saline Imaging using Self-Potential) applied to oil and gas reservoirs and groundwater resources.

The software packages may be available on request from the Head of Group, Professor Matthew Jackson.

Selected References

Graham MT, MacAllister DJ, Vinogradov J, Jackson MD, Butler AP, et al., 2018, Self-Potential as a Predictor of Seawater Intrusion in Coastal Groundwater Boreholes, Water Resources Research, ISSN: 0043-1397

MacAllister DJ, Jackson MD, Butler AP, Vinogradov J, et al., 2018, Remote Detection of Saline Intrusion in a Coastal Aquifer Using Borehole Measurements of Self-Potential, WATER RESOURCES RESEARCH, Vol: 54, Pages: 1669-1687, ISSN: 0043-1397

Jackson MD, Gulamali MY, Leinov E, Saunders JH, Vinogradov J, et al., 2012, Spontaneous Potentials in Hydrocarbon Reservoirs During Waterflooding: Application to Water-Front Monitoring, SPE JOURNAL, Vol: 17, Pages: 53-69, ISSN: 1086-055X

Saunders JH, Jackson MD, Gulamali MY, Vinogradov J, Pain CC, et al., 2012, Streaming potentials at hydrocarbon reservoir conditions, GEOPHYSICS, Vol: 77, Pages: E77-E90, ISSN: 0016-8033

Gulamali MY, Leinov E, Jackson MD, 2011, Self-potential anomalies induced by water injection into hydrocarbon reservoirs, Geophysics, Vol: 76, Pages: F283-F292, ISSN: 1942-2156