Urban Energy Systems
The urban energy systems session included the below presentations.
You can download a PDF of the combined presentations.
This session was also recorded and can be found embedded below or on our youtube channel.
Environmental benefits from optimal operation of urban energy systems including demand-side management and distributed generation
Student: Stephane Cremel
Supervisor(s): Dr Miao Guo (Department of Chemical Engineering), Dr Koen Van Dam (Department of Chemical Engineering), and Mr Gonzalo Bustos Turu (Department of Chemical Engineering)
Poster: #28 Download PDF COMING SOON
Paradigm shifts from centrally controlled energy networks towards demand-side management and distributed generation are significantly disrupting energy systems and their operation. In urban areas, high energy densities and the simultaneity of different types of demand potentially make these emerging changes even more valuable. This research explores the possible environmental benefits from smart consumption strategies combined with distributed generation at the community level, discussing modelling approaches as well as dedicated grid architectures and policies for the effective implementation of optimal solutions.
How cooperation and integrating energy resources can improve community energy planning
Student: Hayden Dahmm
Supervisor(s): Dr Nilay Shah (Department of Chemical Engineering), Professor Timothy Green (Director of the Energy Futures Laboratory), Dr Salvador Acha (Department of Chemical Engineering)
Poster: #29 Download PDF COMING SOON
Community Energy (CE), the ownership of distributed energy resources by local communities, can contribute to Climate Change mitigation efforts. Recent reductions in UK government support for distributed energy jeopardize traditional CE business plans, so this paper describes a modeling framework for how communities can realize new opportunities through cooperation. The model disaggregates a community into sectors, having unique combinations of energy profiles, financial conditions, and technologies available for instillation. The Nash Bargaining technique from game theory was used to optimize the selection and operation of boiler, heat pump and CHP technologies, while also managing the exchange of energy vectors between sectors and the larger community; sectors were able to cooperate first by exchanging electricity through an energy supply company, exchanging heat through a district heat network, and then exchanging electricity and heat together. This approach adds to the literature by comparing forms of community cooperation, while also capturing how sectors of the community will pursue their own self-interest. A case study was developed from London residential data, combined with profiles of five non-residential sectors. Results show that the exchange of electricity and the exchange of heat can both increase CO2 mitigation relative to when cooperation is not present, but exchanging electricity and heat together can magnify the mitigation levels that are possible. The economic benefits vary between sectors and scenarios, but exchanging electricity and heat together is preferred by the Nash Bargaining procedure, and it allows several sectors to become exceptionally profitable. Not only are benefits strengthened under cooperation, but the community becomes more resilient to reductions in government support. Bolstering of existing policy tools that pay individual generation sites could actually discourage cooperation, so other mechanisms may need to be developed. CE groups can improve their business plans by exchanging energy vectors within the community, allowing lower emission scenarios to become economically feasible.
Commercial framework and risk management for VPP
Student: Orkhan Karimzada
Supervisor(s): Dr Danny Pudjianto (Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering)
Poster: #30 Download PDF COMING SOON
Increased DER penetration will lead to the rise in investment and operation costs of the system and ultimately impact the pace of DER adoption. There is an alternative approach where the DERs are aggregated into controllable and functional Virtual Power Plants (VPPs) allowing for the DERS to be visible and controllable by the system and market operators. This work will utilise VPP market research to investigate the commercial framework and integration of individual DERs, enabling them to access energy markets and maximise their capital returns.
Urban AC grid with embedded HVDC network for reliable, efficient and economic power distribution
Student: Myrto Thoma
Supervisor(s): Professor Timothy Green (Director of the Energy Futures Laboratory)
Poster: #31 Download PDF COMING SOON
Power demand increases and low carbon heating and transport technologies are emerging, both of which necessitate the reinforcement of existing electricity grids. This project addresses these challenges for the city of London and investigates the integration of High Voltage Direct Current (HVDC) systems in the existing meshed AC distribution grid of the city. More specifically, Voltage Source Converter (VSC) HVDC topologies are suggested and tested, so that London’s distribution grid can meet the needs of the future while maintaining the system’s stability and obeying grid regulations.
Urban energy generation as a sustainable resilience mechanism
Student: Veronica Uribe Uribe
Supervisor(s): Dr Koen van Dam (Department of Chemical Engineering), Dr Miao Guo (Department of Chemical Engineering), Mr Gonzalo Bustos-Turu (Department of Chemical Engineering)
Poster: #32 Download PDF COMING SOON
Energy resilience is a major concern for governments. Different methodologies exist to analyse energy resilience; however, renewable energy has rarely been at the core of the assessments and environmental impact has been restricted to CO2 emissions. This study evaluates the impact of solar PV penetration on energy resilience combining optimisation, composite indices and a life cycle perspective for sustainability. The methodology was applied to the Colombian case, evaluating the effects of urban solar PV implementation on national energy resilience. The case of study revealed that solar PV enhanced energy resilience and the effects were boosted by reducing energy intensity. Moreover, substituting a portion of fossil energy sources by solar PV reduced the environmental impact and partially compensated for the cost of solar implementation. Grid strategies are fundamental to ensure the successful implementation of urban solar PV and may be subject of future work.
Optimisation of locating charging iInfrastructure for electric vehicles
Student: Wei Xin
Supervisor(s): Dr Salvador Acha Izquierdo (Department of Chemical Engineering), Dr Koen van Dam (Department of Chemical Engineering), and Mr Gonzalo Bustos Turu (Department of Chemical Engineering)
Poster: #33 Download PDF COMING SOON
The electrification of urban transport is playing an important role in reducing emissions, improving local air quality and securing domestic energy supply. Although governments have shown considerable interest in adopting policy measures that encourage consumer purchase of electric vehicles (EVs), the limited range and the lack of charging infrastructure hinder such efforts. This research explores optimising approaches to place charging infrastructure in urban areas to support EV users and to minimise the associated costs. Various methods have been proposed in the literature to reduce the costs and maximising EV’s penetrations. This research focuses on utilising optimisation methods and agent-based models to strategically locate charging infrastructures.