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  • JOURNAL ARTICLE
    Koullapis P, Kassinos SC, Muela J, Perez-Segarra C, Rigola J, Lehmkuhl O, Cui Y, Sommerfeld M, Elcner J, Jicha M, Saveljic I, Filipovic N, Lizal F, Nicolaou Let al., 2018,

    Regional aerosol deposition in the human airways: The SimInhale benchmark case and a critical assessment of in silico methods

    , European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Vol: 113, Pages: 77-94, ISSN: 0928-0987
  • JOURNAL ARTICLE
    Koullapis PG, Nicolaou L, Kassinos SC, 2018,

    In silico assessment of mouth-throat effects on regional deposition in the upper tracheobronchial airways

    , Journal of Aerosol Science, Vol: 117, Pages: 164-188, ISSN: 0021-8502
  • JOURNAL ARTICLE
    Nicolaou L, 2018,

    Inertial and gravitational effects on aerosol deposition in the conducting airways

    , Journal of Aerosol Science, Vol: 120, Pages: 32-51, ISSN: 0021-8502
  • CONFERENCE PAPER
    Koullapis P, Nicolaou L, Kassinos S, 2017,

    The effect of mouth-throat geometry on regional deposition in the tracheobronchial tree

    , 5th International Conference on Computational and Mathematical Biomedical Engineering – CMBE2017, Publisher: CMBE, Pages: 942-945, ISSN: 2227-3085

    In silico methods offer a valuable approach to predict localized deposition in the tracheobronchialtree, important in the topical treatment of respiratory diseases and the systemic administration ofdrugs with limited lung bioavailability. In this study, we examine the effect of extrathoracic airwayvariation on regional deposition in order to assess whether standard mouth-throat models canbe adopted for more efficient predictions. Despite large qualitative differences in the extrathoracicairways, deposition patterns and efficiencies in the tracheobronchial region remain largely unaffectedfor particles smaller than 6 microns. The findings suggest that for drug delivery applications, standardmouth-throat models could be adopted to predict deposition in the central airways.

  • CONFERENCE PAPER
    Koullapis P, Nicolaou L, Kassinos S, 2016,

    In silico assessment of mouth-throat effects on regional deposition in the conducting human airways

    , 14th International Symposium on Computer Methods in Biomechanics and Biomedical Engineering
  • CONFERENCE PAPER
    Nicolaou L, Zaki T, 2016,

    The instantaneous Stokes number for aerosol transport and deposition in the respiratory airways

    , 14th International Symposium on Computer Methods in Biomechanics and Biomedical Engineering
  • JOURNAL ARTICLE
    Nicolaou L, Zaki TA, 2016,

    Characterization of aerosol Stokes number in 90 degrees bends and idealized extrathoracic airways

    , JOURNAL OF AEROSOL SCIENCE, Vol: 102, Pages: 105-127, ISSN: 0021-8502
  • CONFERENCE PAPER
    Nicolaou L, Zaki TA, 2016,

    Deposition characteristics in particle-laden turbulent flows

    , 9th International Conference on Multiphase Flow
  • JOURNAL ARTICLE
    Nicolaou L, Jung SY, Zaki TA, 2015,

    A robust direct-forcing immersed boundary method with enhanced stability for moving body problems in curvilinear coordinates

    , Computers and Fluids, Vol: 119, Pages: 101-114, ISSN: 0045-7930

    A robust immersed boundary method for semi-implicit discretizations of the Navier-Stokes equations on curvilinear grids is presented. No-slip conditions are enforced via momentum forcing, and mass conservation at the immersed boundary is satisfied via a mass source term developed for moving bodies. The errors associated with an explicit evaluation of the momentum forcing are analysed, and their influence on the stability of the underlying Navier-Stokes solver is examined. An iterative approach to compute the forcing term implicitly is proposed, which reduces the errors at the boundary and retains the stability guarantees of the original semi-implicit discretization of the Navier-Stokes equations. The implementation in generalized curvilinear coordinates and the treatment of moving boundaries are presented, followed by a number of test cases. The tests include stationary and moving boundaries and curvilinear grid problems (decaying vortex problem, stationary cylinder, flow in 90° bend in circular duct and oscillating cylinder in fluid at rest).

  • CONFERENCE PAPER
    Nicolaou L, Zaki TA, 2015,

    On the Stokes number and characterization of aerosol deposition in the respiratory airways

    , 4th International Conference on Computational and Mathematical Biomedical Engineering - CMBE2015, Pages: 224-227, ISSN: 2227-3085

    Aerosol deposition in the respiratory airways has traditionally been examined in terms of the Stokes number based on the reference flow timescale. This choice leads to large scatter in deposition efficiency when plotted against the reference Stokes number because the velocity and length scales experienced by advected particles deviate considerably from the reference values. A time-average of the particle local Stokes number should be adopted instead. Our results demonstrate that this average, or effective, Stokes number can deviate significantly from the reference value, in particular in the intermediate Stokes number range where variation across subjects is largest.

  • CONFERENCE PAPER
    Nicolaou L, Zaki TA, 2015,

    AN IN SILICO LABORATORY FOR PATIENT-SPECIFIC TREATMENT OF ASTHMA AND COPD

    , Publisher: MARY ANN LIEBERT, INC, Pages: A21-A21, ISSN: 1941-2711
  • JOURNAL ARTICLE
    Nicolaou L, Zaki TA, 2013,

    Direct numerical simulations of flow in realistic mouth-throat geometries

    , JOURNAL OF AEROSOL SCIENCE, Vol: 57, Pages: 71-87, ISSN: 0021-8502
  • CONFERENCE PAPER
    Nicolaou L, Zaki TA, 2013,

    An immersed boundary method for patient-specific modelling of flow and aerosol deposition in the respiratory airways

    , Hong Kong, HK, 3rd International Conference on Computational and Mathematical Biomedical Engineering - CMBE2013, Publisher: CMBE, Pages: 414-417, ISSN: 2227-3085
  • CONFERENCE PAPER
    Nicolaou L, Zaki TA, 2013,

    An immersed boundary method for patient-specific modelling of flow and aerosol deposition in the extrathoracic airways

    , 3rd International Conference on Computational and Mathematical Biomedical Engineering - CMBE2013, Pages: 414-417, ISSN: 2227-3085
  • CONFERENCE PAPER
    Nicolaou L, Zaki TA, 2012,

    Prediction of flow and aerosol deposition in the extrathoracic airways using an implicit immersed boundary method

    , 9th International ERCOFTAC Symposium on Engineering Turbulence Modeling and Measurements (ETMM9)

    The effect of intrasubject variation on the turbulentflow and aerosol deposition in the extrathoracic airwaysis studied in two realistic mouth-throat geometriesfrom the same subject. An immersed boundarymethod is applied which simplifies the task of gridgeneration for the complex extrathoracic geometriesand allows the use of a structured grid solver. Curvilineargrids that roughly follow the shape of the geometriesare adopted, allowing for much higher resolutionwithin the geometries than Cartesian grids commonlyused in IB methods. An added advantage isthat the grid lines are approximately aligned with thestreamlines, which reduces numerical diffusive errors.The numerical simulations allow us to explain in vitroaerosol deposition data in the literature for the samemouth-throat models. The position of the tongue duringinhalation is shown to have a significant impact onboth the mean flow patterns and the turbulence intensities,which in turn affects extrathoracic deposition.

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