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  • BOOK CHAPTER
    Jackson CAL, 2015,

    Growth of a Salt-Detached Normal Fault and Controls on Throw Rate Variability; Gudrun Field, South Viking Graben, Offshore Norway

    , Brae Play, Editors: Turner

    The growth and throw/displacement rate variability on normal faults can reflect fault interaction, plate tectonic forces and, in gravity-driven systems, variations in sediment loading. Because earthquakes may occur as faults slip, it is important to understand what processes influence throw rate variability on normal faults to be able to predict seismic hazards in extensional terranes. Furthermore, the rate of normal fault growth directly controls rift physiography, sediment erosion, dispersal and deposition, and the distribution and stratigraphic architecture of syn-rift reservoirs. Instrumental (e.g. geodetic) data may constrain the very short-term (i.e. days to years) throw rate history of normal faults, whereas palaeoearthquake data may provide important information on medium-term (i.e. 103-105 years) rates. Constraining longer-term (i.e. >106 Myr) variations typically requires the use of seismic reflection data, although their application may be problematic because of poor seismic resolution and the absence of, or poor age constraints on, coeval growth strata. In this study I use 3D seismic reflection and borehole data to constrain the growth and long-term throw rate variability on a gravity-driven, salt-detached normal fault (Middle-to-Late Jurassic) in the South Viking Graben, offshore Norway, and to assess the impact of throw rate variability on the thickness and character of syn-rift reservoirs. I recognise five kinematic phases: (i) Phase 1 (early Callovian) - fault initiation and a phase of moderate fault throw rates (0.06 mm yr-1); (ii) Phase 2 (early Callovian-to-end Callovian) - fault inactivity, during which time the fault was buried by sediment; (iii) Phase 3 (early Oxfordian-to-late Oxfordian) - fault reactivation and a phase of moderate throw rates (up to 0.03 mm yr-1); (iv) Phase 4 (late Oxfordian-to-end Oxfordian) – a marked increase in throw rate (up to 0.27 mm yr-1); and (v) Phase 5 (early Kimmeridgian-to-middle Volgian) – a decl

  • JOURNAL ARTICLE
    Jackson MD, Percival JR, Mostaghimi P, Tollit BS, Pavlidis D, Pain CC, Gomes JLMA, El-Sheikh AH, Salinas P, Muggeridge AH, Blunt MJet al., 2015,

    Reservoir modeling for flow simulation by use of surfaces, adaptive unstructured meshes, and an overlapping-control-volume finite-element method

    , SPE Reservoir Evaluation and Engineering, Vol: 18, Pages: 115-132, ISSN: 1094-6470

    Copyright © 2015 Society of Petroleum Engineers. We present new approaches to reservoir modeling and flow simulation that dispose of the pillar-grid concept that has persisted since reservoir simulation began. This results in significant improvements to the representation of multiscale geologic heterogeneity and the prediction of flow through that heterogeneity. The research builds on more than 20 years of development of innovative numerical methods in geophysical fluid mechanics, refined and modified to deal with the unique challenges associated with reservoir simulation. Geologic heterogeneities, whether structural, stratigraphic, sedimentologic, or diagenetic in origin, are represented as discrete volumes bounded by surfaces, without reference to a predefined grid. Petrophysical properties are uniform within the geologically defined rock volumes, rather than within grid cells. The resulting model is discretized for flow simulation by use of an unstructured, tetrahedral mesh that honors the architecture of the surfaces. This approach allows heterogeneity over multiple length-scales to be explicitly captured by use of fewer cells than conventional corner point or unstructured grids. Multiphase flow is simulated by use of a novel mixed finite-element formulation centered on a new family of tetrahedral element types, P < inf > N < /inf > (DG)-P < inf > N+1 < /inf > , which has a discontinuous Nth-order polynomial representation for velocity and a continuous (order N +1) representation for pressure. This method exactly represents Darcy-force balances on unstructured meshes and thus accurately calculates pressure, velocity, and saturation fields throughout the domain. Computational costs are reduced through dynamic adaptive-mesh optimization and efficient parallelization. Within each rock volume, the mesh coarsens and refines to capture key flow processes during a simulation, and also preserves the surface-based representation of geologic h

  • JOURNAL ARTICLE
    Jackson MD, Percival JR, Mostaghiml P, Tollit BS, Pavlidis D, Pain CC, Gomes JLMA, El-Sheikh AH, Salinas P, Muggeridge AH, Blunt MJet al., 2015,

    Reservoir Modeling for Flow Simulation by Use of Surfaces, Adaptive Unstructured Meshes, and an Overlapping-Control-Volume Finite-Element Method

    , SPE RESERVOIR EVALUATION & ENGINEERING, Vol: 18, Pages: 115-132, ISSN: 1094-6470
  • JOURNAL ARTICLE
    Jacobs CT, Avdis A, Mouradian SL, Piggott MDet al., 2015,

    Integrating research data management into geographical information systems

    , CEUR Workshop Proceedings, Vol: 1529, Pages: 7-17, ISSN: 1613-0073

    Ocean modelling requires the production of high-fidelity com-putational meshes upon which to solve the equations of motion. The production of such meshes by hand is often infeasible, considering the complexity of the bathymetry and coastlines. The use of Geographical Information Systems (GIS) is therefore a key component to discretising the region of interest and producing a mesh appropriate to resolve the dynamics. However, all data abociated with the production of a mesh must be provided in order to contribute to the overall recomputability of the subsequent simulation. This work presents the integration of re-search data management in QMesh, a tool for generating meshes using GIS. The tool uses the PyRDM library to provide a quick and easy way for scientists to publish meshes, and all data required to regenerate them, to persistent online repositories. These repositories are abigned unique identifiers to enable proper citation of the meshes in journal articles.

  • CONFERENCE PAPER
    Jacobs CT, Avdis A, Mouradian SL, Piggott MDet al., 2015,

    Integrating Research Data Management into Geographical Information Systems

    , http://ceur-ws.org/Vol-1529/, 5th International Workshop on Semantic Digital Archives (SDA 2015), Pages: 7-17

    Ocean modelling requires the production of high-fidelity computational meshes upon which to solve the equations of motion. The production of such meshes by hand is often infeasible, considering the complexity of the bathymetry and coastlines. The use of Geographical Information Systems (GIS) is therefore a key component to discretising the region of interest and producing a mesh appropriate to resolve the dynamics. However, all data associated with the production of a mesh must be provided in order to contribute to the overall recomputability of the subsequent simulation. This work presents the integration of research data management in QMesh, a tool for generating meshes using GIS. The tool uses the PyRDM library to provide a quick and easy way for scientists to publish meshes, and all data required to regenerate them, to persistent online repositories. These repositories are assigned unique identifiers to enable proper citation of the meshes in journal articles.

  • JOURNAL ARTICLE
    Jacobs CT, Goldin TJ, Collins GS, Piggott MD, Kramer SC, Melosh HJ, Wilson CRG, Allison PAet al., 2015,

    An improved quantitative measure of the tendency for volcanic ash plumes to form in water: implications for the deposition of marine ash beds

    , JOURNAL OF VOLCANOLOGY AND GEOTHERMAL RESEARCH, Vol: 290, Pages: 114-124, ISSN: 0377-0273
  • JOURNAL ARTICLE
    Jacobs CT, Piggott MD, 2015,

    Firedrake-Fluids v0.1: numerical modelling of shallow water flows using an automated solution framework

    , GEOSCIENTIFIC MODEL DEVELOPMENT, Vol: 8, Pages: 533-547, ISSN: 1991-959X
  • CONFERENCE PAPER
    Jardine RJ, Brosse A, Coop MR, Hosseini-Kamal Ret al., 2015,

    Shear strength and stiffness anisotropy of geologically aged stiff clays.

    , International Symposium on Deformation Behaviour of Geomaterials, Publisher: IOS Press, Pages: 156-191

    This paper considers the deformation behaviour of four geologically aged, medium-plasticity, heavily overconsolidated stiff clays that affect a broad swathe of infrastructure projects in the SE of the United Kingdom. Static triaxial and hollow cylinder stress path experiments on high quality samples are examined along with dynamic multi-axial bender element and resonant-column measurements. Patterns of undrained shear strength anisotropy are revealed that are governed by the clays' meso and micro-structures. The clays are brittle in shear and their stiffness characteristics are shown to be markedly anisotropic, highly non-linear and pressure dependent. The results obtained have many implications for practical geotechnical engineering.

  • CONFERENCE PAPER
    Jardine RJ, Merritt AS, Schroeder FC, 2015,

    The ICP design method and application to a North Sea offshore wind farm

    , Pages: 247-256, ISSN: 0895-0563

    © ASCE 2015. This paper outlines the Imperial College Pile (ICP) approach for developing reliable predictions for the axial capacity of driven piles. The ICP's advantages over traditional design methods have led to widespread use in offshore oil and gas developments. The methods are now playing a critical role in major Northern European offshore wind projects. Hundreds of large steel tubular piles are being driven in the North and Baltic seas and improving design efficiency is crucial to the industry's economic success. This paper provides an overview of the development of the ICP design methods and summarizes their key features, together with experience-based guidance on their application. Their application is illustrated by reference to the North Sea Borkum West II wind farm, where 40 turbines have been installed on steel tripods founded on large diameter steel piles driven in very dense sands. The paper reports how the significant effects of axial and lateral cyclic loading were addressed for Borkum West II through the ICP design methodology.

  • CONFERENCE PAPER
    Jardine RJ, Thomsen NV, Mygind M, Liingaard MA, Thilsted CLet al., 2015,

    Axial capacity design practice for North European wind-turbine projects

    , Pages: 581-586

    © 2015 Taylor & Francis Group, London. Improving foundation design is central to the offshore wind industry developing deeper water sites. This paper reviews the technical and regulatory difficulties for design of axially loaded piles to German offshore windfarm projects. It is argued that moving towards reliable forward predictive pile design methods and away from ‘dynamic proving tests’ will be vital to reducing unnecessarily high material and installation costs, installation risks and disturbance to marine mammals. Steps are outlined to implement such a change either in combination with regional or international load and resistance factors.

  • JOURNAL ARTICLE
    Jordan JR, Kimura S, Holland PR, Jenkins A, Piggott MDet al., 2015,

    On the Conditional Frazil Ice Instability in Seawater

    , JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL OCEANOGRAPHY, Vol: 45, Pages: 1121-1138, ISSN: 0022-3670
  • JOURNAL ARTICLE
    Lewis MM, Jackson CA-L, Gawthorpe RL, Whipp PSet al., 2015,

    Early synrift reservoir development on the flanks of extensional forced folds: A seismic-scale outcrop analog from the Hadahid fault system, Suez rift, Egypt

    , AAPG BULLETIN, Vol: 99, Pages: 985-1012, ISSN: 0149-1423
  • JOURNAL ARTICLE
    Maes J, Muggeridge AH, Jackson MD, Quintard M, Lapene Aet al., 2015,

    Scaling heat and mass flow through porous media during pyrolysis

    , HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER, Vol: 51, Pages: 313-334, ISSN: 0947-7411
  • JOURNAL ARTICLE
    Magee C, Duffy OB, Purnell K, Bell RE, Jackson CA-L, Reeve Met al., 2015,

    Fault-controlled fluid flow inferred from hydrothermal vents imaged in 3D seismic reflection data, offshore NW Australia

    , Basin Research, Vol: 28, Pages: 299-318, ISSN: 1365-2117

    Fluid migration pathways in the subsurface are heavily influenced by pre-existing faults. Although studies of active fluid-escape structures can provide insights into the relationships between faults and fluid flow, they cannot fully constrain the geometry of and controls on the contemporaneous subsurface fluid flow pathways. We use 3D seismic reflection data from offshore NW Australia to map 121 ancient hydrothermal vents, likely related to magmatic activity, and a normal fault array considered to form fluid pathways. The buried vents consist of craters up to 264 m deep, which host a mound of disaggregated sedimentary material up to 518 m thick. There is a correlation between vent alignment and underlying fault traces. Seismic-stratigraphic observations and fault kinematic analyses reveal that the vents were emplaced on an intra-Tithonian seabed in response to the explosive release of fluids hosted within the fault array. We speculate that during the Late Jurassic the convex-upwards morphology of the upper tip-lines of individual faults acted to channelize ascending fluids and control where fluid expulsion and vent formation occurred. This contribution highlights the usefulness of 3D seismic reflection data to constraining normal fault-controlled subsurface fluid flow.

  • JOURNAL ARTICLE
    Magee C, Maharaj SM, Wrona T, Jackson CA-Let al., 2015,

    Controls on the expression of igneous intrusions in seismic reflection data

    , GEOSPHERE, Vol: 11, Pages: 1024-1041, ISSN: 1553-040X
  • JOURNAL ARTICLE
    Martin-Short R, Hill J, Kramer SC, Avdis A, Allison PA, Piggott MDet al., 2015,

    .Tidal resource extraction in the Pentland Firth, UK: Potential impacts on flow regime and sediment transport in the Inner Sound of Stroma

    , RENEWABLE ENERGY, Vol: 76, Pages: 596-607, ISSN: 0960-1481
  • CONFERENCE PAPER
    Martinez Calonge D, Gawecka KA, Zdravkovic L, Sim WW, Taborda DMGet al., 2015,

    Development of a new temperature-controlled triaxial apparatus for saturated soils

    , Pages: 3219-3224

    © The authors and ICE Publishing: All rights reserved, 2015. In recent years, the study of the Thermo-Hydro-Mechanical (THM) behaviour of geomaterials has become a growing area in geotechnical engineering due to the increasing interest in energy geostructures and underground nuclear waste disposal. Advanced laboratory testing is essential in gaining an understanding of the THM behaviour of soils and solving these complex geomechanical problems. This paper describes the development of a new triaxial apparatus at the Imperial College Geotechnics Laboratory, capable of testing saturated soils at temperatures up to 85°C and pressures up to 800kPa. In order to aid its design, numerical analysis of the thermal response of the cell was conducted using the Imperial College Finite Element Program (ICFEP) with its newly developed THM capabilities.

  • CONFERENCE PAPER
    Mason PJ, Ghail RC, Bischoff C, Skipper JAet al., 2015,

    Detecting and monitoring small-scale discrete ground movements across London, using Persistent Scatterer InSAR (PSI)

    , XVI ECSMGE, Publisher: ICE Publishing

    The geology of London is surprisingly poorly understood and, until recently, has been accepted as that of an unfaulted subsidingintraplate basin. The detection of deformation in such quiescent intraplate regions is, however, rather difficult since the movementrates are at least an order of magnitude less than those at plate margins. Growing evidence from across the capital indicates that London'sground conditions are considerably more complex than expected and that faulting is almost always involved.PSInSAR is a developing technique widely used to detect and monitor ground subsidence, especially in urban settings, the movements ofwhich may be up to tens of millimetres. This work focuses on the detection of smaller scale ground movements (of a few millimetres),which we believe are caused by fault-controlled intraplate adjustments, using PSInSAR.The London PSInSAR dataset derives from an imaging SAR archive spanning 18 years (1992 - 2000 and 2001 to 2010). Our preliminaryfindings have revealed systematic patterns of both vertical and horizontal ground displacement. These displacements appear to be faultconstrained and fit the predicted framework of Caledonian, Variscan/Alpine structures known to exist across southern Britain. More detailedanalysis has revealed some surprising patterns, which hint at discrete movements rather than continuous 'creep' over the 18 year period;we believe these are driven by basement faults beneath an inverting London basin.

  • JOURNAL ARTICLE
    Milbury C, Johnson BC, Melosh HJ, Collins GS, Blair DM, Soderblom JM, Nimmo F, Bierson CJ, Phillips RJ, Zuber MTet al., 2015,

    Preimpact porosity controls the gravity signature of lunar craters

    , GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH LETTERS, Vol: 42, Pages: 9711-9716, ISSN: 0094-8276
  • JOURNAL ARTICLE
    Miljkovic K, Wieczorek MA, Collins GS, Solomon SC, Smith DE, Zuber MTet al., 2015,

    Excavation of the lunar mantle by basin-forming impact events on the Moon

    , EARTH AND PLANETARY SCIENCE LETTERS, Vol: 409, Pages: 243-251, ISSN: 0012-821X

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