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  • Journal article
    Parittotokkaporn T, Frasson L, Schneider A, Davies BL, Degenaar P, Rodriguez Y Baena Fet al., 2010,

    Insertion experiments of a biologically inspired microtextured and multi-part probe based on reciprocal motion.

    , Conference proceedings : ... Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society. IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society. Conference, Pages: 3190-3193, ISSN: 1557-170X

    While there have been significant advances in minimally invasive surgical instrumentation, the majority of tools still rely on a push from the back to aid insertion into the tissue, whether the process is manual or servo assisted. In this work, a novel approach to tool insertion is proposed which is based on the concept of a multi-part probe with at least three interlocking segments. By means of a sequential insertion process, where each segment is pushed further into the tissue while stabilized by the remaining stationary parts, the multi-part probe concept is shown to successfully "insinuate itself" within a synthetic soft tissue specimen without the need for an overall forward push. The presence of an anisotropic microtextured outer probe surface is also shown to affect the overall speed of insertion and can thus be used to optimize the interaction forces at the probe-tissue interface. A measured reduction in the force transferred to the back of the specimen also suggests that this approach to tool insertion may result in reduced tissue disruption, a result which could lead to less tissue damage and a reduction in target displacement.

  • Conference paper
    Parittotokkaporn T, Frasson L, Schneider A, Davies B, Degenaar P, Baena FRYet al., 2010,

    Insertion Experiments of a Biologically Inspired Microtextured and Multi-Part Probe Based on Reciprocal Motion

    , 32nd Annual International IEEE EMBS Conference
  • Conference paper
    Ko SY, Davies BL, Rodriguez y Baena F, 2010,

    Two-Dimensional Needle Steering with a "Programmable Bevel" Inspired by Nature: Modeling Preliminaries

    , IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems, Publisher: IEEE, Pages: 2319-2324, ISSN: 2153-0858
  • Conference paper
    Oldfield M, Dini D, Rodriguez y Baena F, 2010,

    Detailed Finite Element Simulations of Probe Insertion into Solid Elastic Material using a Cohesive Zone Approach

    , 32nd Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering-in-Medicine-and-Biology-Society (EMBC 10), Publisher: IEEE, Pages: 3198-3201, ISSN: 1557-170X
  • Journal article
    Frasson L, Parittotokkaporn T, Davies BL, Rodriguez y Baena Fet al., 2010,

    Early developments of a novel smart actuator inspired by nature

    , International Journal of Intelligent Systems Technologies and Applications, Vol: 8, Pages: 409-422, ISSN: 1740-8865

    Current research at Imperial College focuses on the development of a novel neurosurgical probe for Minimally Invasive Surgery (MIS), which exploits the design of certain ovipositing wasps. While conventional instruments are rigid and only used to achieve straight-line trajectories, the biomimetic design will enable curved paths connecting any entry point to any target within the brain to be followed autonomously. This paper reports on the successful outcome of an early feasibility study, where two of the key concepts behind the design are investigated: a robotic actuator was developed to demonstrate effective soft tissue traversal by reciprocating custom-built anisotropic surface textures, without the need to apply an external force to push the tissue along. Then, custom-designed rigid probes with bio-inspired surface topographies were fabricated and tested on cadaveric porcine brain with the aim to characterise the insertion and extraction forces due to friction and tribological interaction with biological tissue. © 2010 Inderscience Enterprises Ltd.

  • Conference paper
    Frasson L, Neubert J, Reina S, Oldfield M, Davies BL, Rodriguez y Baena Fet al., 2010,

    Development and Validation of a Numerical Model for Cross-section Optimization of a Multi-Part Probe for Soft Tissue Intervention

    , 32nd Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering-in-Medicine-and-Biology-Society (EMBC 10), Publisher: IEEE, Pages: 3202-3205, ISSN: 1557-170X
  • Journal article
    Iranpour F, Merican AM, Rodriguez y Baena F, Cobb JP, Amis AAet al., 2010,

    Patellofemoral Joint Kinematics: The Circular Path of the Patella around the Trochlear Axis

    , J Orthop Res, Vol: 28, Pages: 589-594, ISSN: 0736-0266

    Differing descriptions of patellar motion relative to the femur have resulted from previous studies. We hypothesized that patellar kinematics would correlate to the trochlear geometry and that differing descriptions could be reconciled by accounting for differing alignments of measurement axes. Seven normal fresh-frozen knees were CT scanned, and their kinematics with quadriceps loading was measured by an optical tracker system. Kinematics was calculated in relation to the femoral epicondylar, anatomic, and mechanical axes. A novel trochlear axis was defined, between the centers of spheres best fitted to the medial and lateral trochlear articular surfaces. The path of the center of the patella was circular and uniplanar (root-mean-square error 0.3 mm) above 16 +/- 3 degrees (mean +/- SD) knee flexion. In the coronal plane, this circle was aligned 6 +/- 2 degrees from the femoral anatomical axis, close to the mechanical axis alignment. It was 91 +/- 3 degrees from the epicondylar axis, and 88 +/- 3 degrees from the trochlear axis. In the transverse plane it was 91 +/- 3 degrees and 88 +/- 3 degrees from the epicondylar and trochlear axes, respectively. Manipulation of the data to different axis alignments showed that differing previously published data could be reconciled. The circular path of patellar motion around the trochlea, aligned with the mechanical axis of the leg, is easily visualized and understood. (C) 2009 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 28:589-594, 2010

  • Conference paper
    Tenzer Y, Davies BL, Rodriguez y Baena F, 2010,

    Programmable differential brake for passive haptics

    , Robotics and Autonomous Systems, Pages: 249-255, ISSN: 0921-8890

    This paper outlines work on a novel programmable braking system, which is widely applicable to most passive haptic applications and benefits from a simple design, theoretically infinite positional resolution and the ability to generate stiff collision forces, without the need for any explicit force measurements. Results are also given of a preliminary concept demonstrator which is based on a simple 2-Degrees-Of-Freedom (DOF) Revolute-Revolute (RR) manipulator incorporating the programmable brakes. Performance measures for the joint, as well as figures describing the ability of the 2-DOF prototype to constrain the end effector motion to a plane and a circle. are also provided. (C) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • Journal article
    Rodriguez y Baena F, Davies B, 2010,

    Robotic surgery: from autonomous systems to intelligent tools

    , Robotica, Vol: 28, Pages: 163-170, ISSN: 0263-5747

    A brief history of robotic surgery is provided, which describes the transition from autonomous robots to hands-on systems that are under the direct control of the surgeon. An example of the latter is the Acrobot (for active-constraint robot) system used in orthopaedics, whilst soft-tissue Surgery is illustrated by the daVinci telemanipulator system. Non-technological aspects of robotic surgery have often been a major impediment to their widespread clinical use. These are discussed in detail, together with the role of navigation systems, which are considered a major competitor to Surgical robots. A detailed description is then given of a registration method for robots to achieve improved accuracy. Registration is a major source of error in robotic surgery, particularly in orthopaedics. The paper describes the design and clinical implementation of a novel method, coined the bounded registration method, applied to minimally invasive registration of the femur. Results of simulations which compare the performance of bounded registration with a standard implementation of the iterative closest point algorithm are also presented, alongside a description of their application in the Acrobot hands-on robot, used clinically for uni-condylar knee arthroplasty.

  • Journal article
    Hopkins AR, New AM, Rodriguez y Baena F, Taylor Met al., 2010,

    Finite element analysis of unicompartmental knee arthroplasty

    , Med Eng Phys, Vol: 32, Pages: 14-21, ISSN: 1350-4533

    Concerns over accelerated damage to the untreated compartment of the knee following unicompartmental knee arthroplasty (UKA), as well as the relatively poor success rates observed for lateral as opposed to the medial arthroplasty, remain issues for attention. Finite element analysis (FEA) was used to assess changes to the kinematics and potential for cartilage damage across the knee joint in response to the implantation of the Oxford Mobile Bearing UKA. FE models of lateral and medial compartment arthroplasty were developed, in addition to a healthy natural knee model, to gauge changes incurred through the arthroplasty. Varus-valgus misalignments were introduced to the femoral components to simulate surgical inaccuracy or over-correction. Boundary conditions from the Stanmore knee simulator during the stance phase of level gait were used. AP translations of the tibia in the medial UKA models were comparable to the behaviour of the natural knee models (+/- 0.6 mm deviation from pre-operative motion). Following lateral UKA, 4.1 mm additional posterior translation of the tibia was recorded than predicted for the natural knee. IF rotations of the medial UKA models were less consistent with the pre-operative knee model than the lateral UKA models (7.7 degrees vs. 3.6 degrees deviation). Varus misalignment of the femoral prosthesis was more influential than valgus for medial UKA kinematics, whereas in lateral UKA, a valgus misalignment of the femoral prosthesis was most influential on the kinematics. Resection of the cartilage in the medial compartment reduced the overall risk of progressive OA in the knee, whereas removing the cartilage from the lateral compartment, and in particular introducing a valgus femoral misalignment, increased the overall risk of progressive OA in the knee. Based on these results, under the conditions tested herein, both medial and lateral UKA can be said to induce kinematics of the knee which could be considered broadly comparable to those of t

  • Journal article
    Frasson L, Parittotokkaporn T, Davies BL, Rodriguez y Baena Fet al., 2010,

    Early developments of a novel smart actuator inspired by nature

    , International Journal of Intelligent Systems Technologies and Applications, Vol: 8, Pages: 409-422, ISSN: 1740-8865
  • Journal article
    Frasson L, Ko SY, Turner A, Parittotokkaporn T, Vincent JF, Rodriguez y Baena Fet al., 2010,

    STING: a soft-tissue intervention and neurosurgical guide to access deep brain lesions through curved trajectories

    , Vol: 224, Pages: 775-788, ISSN: 0954-4119

    Current trends in surgical intervention favour a minimally invasive approach, in which complex procedures are performed through very small incisions. Specifically, in neurosurgery there is a need for minimally invasive keyhole access, which conflicts with the lack of manoeuvrability of conventional rigid instruments. In an attempt to address this shortcoming, the current state of progress is reported on a soft-tissue intervention and neurosurgical guide (STING) to access deep brain lesions through curved trajectories. The underlying mechanism of motion, based on the reciprocal movement of interlocked probe segments, is biologically inspired and was designed around the unique features of the ovipositor of certain parasitic wasps. Work to date has focused on probe development, low- and high-level control, and trajectory planning. These aspects are described, together with results on each aspect of the work, including biomimetic microtexturing of the probe surface. Progress is very encouraging and demonstrates that forward motion into soft tissue through a reciprocating mechanism is indeed viable and can be achieved through a suitable combination of microtexturing and microfabrication techniques.

  • Journal article
    Dogangil G, Davies BL, Rodriguez y Baena F, 2010,

    A review of medical robotics for minimally invasive soft tissue surgery

    , Vol: 224, Pages: 653-679, ISSN: 0954-4119

    This paper provides an overview of recent trends and developments in medical robotics for minimally invasive soft tissue surgery, with a view to highlight some of the issues posed and solutions proposed in the literature. The paper includes a thorough review of the literature, which focuses on soft tissue surgical robots developed and published in the last five years (between 2004 and 2008) in indexed journals and conference proceedings. Only surgical systems were considered; imaging and diagnostic devices were excluded from the review. The systems included in this paper are classified according to the following surgical specialties: neurosurgery; eye surgery and ear, nose, and throat (ENT); general, thoracic, and cardiac surgery; gastrointestinal and colorectal surgery; and urologic surgery. The systems are also cross-classified according to their engineering design and robotics technology, which is included in tabular form at the end of the paper. The review concludes with an overview of the field, along with some statistical considerations about the size, geographical spread, and impact of medical robotics for soft tissue surgery today.

  • Journal article
    Di Ieva A, Grizzi F, Rognone E, Tse ZTH, Parittotokkaporn T, Rodriguez y Baena F, Tschabitscher M, Matula C, Trattnig S, Rodriguez y Baena Ret al., 2010,

    Magnetic resonance elastography: a general overview of its current and future applications in brain imaging

    , Neurosurg Rev, Vol: 33, Pages: 137-145, ISSN: 0344-5607

    Magnetic resonance elastography (MRE) has been developed over the last few years as a non-invasive means of evaluating the elasticity of biological tissues. The presence of the skull has always prevented semeiotic palpation of the brain, but MRE now offers the possibility of "palpating by imaging" in order to detect brain consistency under physiological and pathological conditions. The aim of this article is to review the current state-of-the-art of MRE imaging and discuss its possible future diagnostic applications in neuroscience.

  • Journal article
    Brett PN, Rodriguez y Baena F, 2010,

    Special issue on microtechnologies for surgery

    , Vol: 224, Pages: i-ii, ISSN: 0954-4119
  • Conference paper
    Frasson L, Reina S, Davies BL, Rodriguez y Baena Fet al., 2009,

    Design Optimisation of a Biologically Inspired MultiPart Probe for Soft Tissue Surgery

    , 11th International Congress of the IUPESM/World Congress on Medical Physics and Biomedical Engineering, Publisher: SPRINGER, Pages: 307-310, ISSN: 1680-0737
  • Conference paper
    Schneider A, Frasson L, Parittotokkaporn T, Rodriguez y Baena F, Davies BL, Huq SEet al., 2009,

    Biomimetic microtexturing for neurosurgical probe surfaces to influence tribological characteristics during tissue penetration

    , Microelectronic Engineering, Pages: 1515-1517, ISSN: 0167-9317
  • Conference paper
    Parittotokkaporn T, Frasson L, Schneider A, Huq SE, Davies B, Degenaar P, Biesenack J, Rodriguez y Baena Fet al., 2008,

    Soft tissue traversal with zero net force: Feasibility study of a biologically inspired design based on reciprocal motion

    , ROBIO 2008, IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Biomimetics, Publisher: IEEE, Pages: 80-85
  • Journal article
    Frasson L, Parittotokkaporn T, Schneider A, Davies BL, Vincent JV, Huq SE, Degenaar P, Baena FMRet al., 2008,

    Biologically inspired microtexturing: investigation into the surface topography of next-generation neurosurgical probes.

    , Conference proceedings : ... Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society. IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society. Conference, Pages: 5611-5614, ISSN: 1557-170X

    Minimally Invasive (MI) surgery represents the future of many types of medical intervention (keyhole neurosurgery, natural orifice trans-luminal endoscopic surgery, etc.). However, the shortcomings of today's surgical tools fuel the need for the development of next-generation 'smart instrumentation', which will be more accurate and safer for the patient. This paper presents the preliminary results of a biologically inspired microtexturing method, based on UV-lithography, and its application to MI neurosurgery. These results suggest that the size and geometry of the texture 'printed' on the outer surface of a neurosurgical probe clearly affect the insertion and extraction forces generated at the brain-probe interface. Thus, by carefully choosing an appropriate microtexture, unique insertion characteristics can be obtained, which can improve the performance of existing instruments (e.g. reducing slippage in permanent electrodes such as those used in deep brain stimulation) or enable the development of novel designs altogether.

  • Conference paper
    Schneider A, Frasson L, Parittotokkaporn T, rodriguez y Baena F, Davies BLD, Huq SEet al., 2008,

    Microfabrication of components for a novel biomimetic neurological endoscope

    , 4th International Conference on Multi-Material Micro Manufacture 2008

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