BibTex format

author = {Hall, A and Gollan, B and Helaine, S},
doi = {10.1016/j.mib.2017.02.003},
journal = {Current Opinion in Microbiology},
pages = {102--110},
title = {Toxin-antitoxin systems: reversible toxicity},
url = {},
volume = {36},
year = {2017}

RIS format (EndNote, RefMan)

AB - Toxin–antitoxin (TA) systems encoded on the plasmids and chromosomes of bacteria are emerging as key players in stress adaptation. In particular, they have been implicated in the induction of persisters non-growing cells that can evade antibiotic exposure. TA toxins operate by a diverse range of mechanisms, either destructive or conservative, leading to the reversible growth arrest of bacterial cells. Whilst the molecular mechanisms of intoxication are now well understood, we still have very little information on how corrupted cells reawaken. Alongside the phenomenon of conditional cooperativity, new evidence suggests that the effects of some TA toxins can be reversed, allowing non-growing cells to be detoxified and growth to resume.
AU - Hall,A
AU - Gollan,B
AU - Helaine,S
DO - 10.1016/j.mib.2017.02.003
EP - 110
PY - 2017///
SN - 1879-0364
SP - 102
TI - Toxin-antitoxin systems: reversible toxicity
T2 - Current Opinion in Microbiology
UR -
UR -
VL - 36
ER -