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  • Journal article
    Marchesini S, McGilvery CM, Bailey J, Petit Cet al., 2017,

    Template-Free Synthesis of Highly Porous Boron Nitride: Insights into Pore Network Design and Impact on Gas Sorption

    , ACS NANO, Vol: 11, Pages: 10003-10011, ISSN: 1936-0851

    Production of biocompatible and stable porous materials, e.g., boron nitride, exhibiting tunable and enhanced porosity is a prerequisite if they are to be employed to address challenges such as drug delivery, molecular separations, or catalysis. However, there is currently very limited understanding of the formation mechanisms of porous boron nitride and the parameters controlling its porosity, which ultimately prevents exploiting the material’s full potential. Herein, we produce boron nitride with high and tunable surface area and micro/mesoporosity via a facile template-free method using multiple readily available N-containing precursors with different thermal decomposition patterns. The gases are gradually released, creating hierarchical pores, high surface areas (>1900 m2/g), and micropore volumes. We use 3D tomography techniques to reconstruct the pore structure, allowing direct visualization of the mesopore network. Additional imaging and analytical tools are employed to characterize the materials from the micro- down to the nanoscale. The CO2 uptake of the materials rivals or surpasses those of commercial benchmarks or other boron nitride materials reported to date (up to 4 times higher), even after pelletizing. Overall, the approach provides a scalable route to porous boron nitride production as well as fundamental insights into the material’s formation, which can be used to design a variety of boron nitride structures.

  • Journal article
    Crake A, Christoforidis KC, Kafizas A, Zafeiratos S, Petit Cet al., 2017,

    CO2 capture and photocatalytic reduction using bifunctional TiO2/MOF nanocomposites under UV-vis irradiation

    , Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, Vol: 210, Pages: 131-140, ISSN: 0926-3373

    TiO2 nanosheets and metal-organic framework (NH2-UiO-66) were effectively coupled via an in‐situ growth strategy to form bifunctional materials for the combined capture and photocatalytic reduction of CO2 under UV–vis light irradiation. This was done to take advantage of the high CO2 adsorption capacity of the MOF and the photocatalytic properties of pre-formed TiO2 nanosheets in a single material. The prepared materials were thoroughly characterized using a variety of techniques. They were subsequently tested for CO2 adsorption and CO2 photocatalytic reduction using a heterogeneous gas/solid set-up to imitate both CO2 capture and fixation in a single process. The adopted synthesis process allowed the development of a tight interaction between TiO2 and NH2-UiO-66 forming a heterojunction, while maintaining both the high CO2 uptake and porosity of NH2-UiO-66. The nanocomposites were proven durable and significantly more efficient in reducing CO2 to CO than their single components. Photocatalytic activity was greatly affected by the nanocomposites composition with the optimum TiO2 content doubling the CO evolution rate compared with the pure TiO2. The improved photoactivity was assigned to the enhanced abundance of long lived charge carriers, as revealed by transient absorption spectroscopy (TAS). This most likely occurred due to the effective charge transfer via interface. A possible mechanism is discussed on the basis of the combined catalytic, spectroscopic and CO2 adsorption results.

  • Journal article
    Leeson D, Mac Dowell N, Shah N, Petit C, Fennell PSet al., 2017,

    A Techno-economic analysis and systematic review of carbon capture and storage (CCS) applied to the iron and steel, cement, oil refining and pulp and paper industries, as well as other high purity sources

    , International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control, Vol: 61, Pages: 71-84, ISSN: 1750-5836

    In order to meet the IPCC recommendation for an 80% cut in CO2 emissions by 2050, industries will be required to drastically reduce their emissions. To meet these targets, technologies such as carbon capture and storage (CCS) must be part of the economic set of decarbonisation options for industry. A systematic review of the literature has been carried out on four of the largest industrial sectors (the iron and steel industry, the cement industry, the petroleum refining industry and the pulp and paper industry) as well as selected high-purity sources of CO2 from other industries to assess the applicability of different CCS technologies. Costing data have been gathered, and for the cement, iron and steel and refining industries, these data are used in a model to project costs per tonne of CO2 avoided over the time period extending from first deployment until 2050. A sensitivity analysis was carried out on the model to assess which variables had the greatest impact on the overall cost of wide-scale CCS deployment for future better targeting of cost reduction measures. The factors found to have the greatest overall impact were the initial cost of CCS at the start of deployment and the start date at which large scale deployment is started, whilst a slower initial deployment rate after the start date also leads to significantly increased costs.

  • Journal article
    Woodward RT, Jobbe-Duval A, Marchesini S, Anthony DB, Petit C, Bismarck Aet al., 2017,

    Hypercrosslinked polyHIPEs as precursors to designable, hierarchically porous carbon foams

    , Polymer, Vol: 115, Pages: 146-153, ISSN: 0032-3861

    Hierarchically porous carbon foams were produced by carbonization of hypercrosslinked polymerized high internal phase water-in-styrene/divinylbenzene emulsions (HIPEs). The hypercrosslinking of these poly(ST-co-DVB)HIPEs was achieved using a dimethoxymethane external crosslinker to ‘knit’ together aromatic groups within the polymers using FriedelCrafts alkylation. By varying the amount of divinylbenzene (DVB) in the HIPE templates and subsequent polymers, the BET surface area and micropore volume of the hypercrosslinked analogues can be varied systematically, allowing for the production of carbon foams, or ‘carboHIPEs’, with varied surface areas, micropore volumes and pore-size distributions. The carboHIPEs retain the emulsion-templated macropores of the original polyHIPE, display excellent electrical conductivities and have surface areas of up to 417 m2/g, all the while eliminating the need for inorganic templates. The use of emulsion templates allows for pourable, mouldable precursors to designable carbonaceous materials.

  • Journal article
    Marchesini S, Regoutz A, Payne D, Petit Cet al., 2017,

    Tunable porous boron nitride: Investigating its formation and its application for gas adsorption

    , Microporous and Mesoporous Materials, Vol: 243, Pages: 154-163, ISSN: 1873-3093

    Boron nitride (BN) has applications in a number of areas: it can be used as lubricant, as insulating thermoconductive filler or UV-light emitter. BN can also capture large amounts of hydrocarbons and gaseous molecules, provided that it exhibits a porous structure. This porous structure also enables its application as a drug-delivery nanocarrier. Little if anything is known on controlling the porosity of BN, even though it has tremendous implications in terms of adsorption performance and drug delivery properties. To address this aspect, we provide for the first time an in-depth investigation of the effects of the synthesis conditions on the formation of porous BN. The material was also tested for CO2 capture. We found that the intermediate preparation is of paramount importance and can in fact be used to tune the porosity of BN. Owing to a combination of spectroscopic and thermal analyses, we attributed this phenomenon to the variation of the thermal decomposition pattern of the intermediates. The most microporous BN produced was able to capture CO2 while not retaining N2. Overall, this study opens the route for the design of well-controlled porous BN structures to be applied as adsorbents and drug-delivery carriers.

  • Journal article
    Smit B, Graham R, Styring P, Yao J, Clough P, Lee J-SM, MacDowell N, Lyth S, Rochelle G, Hills T, Wilson G, Petit C, Kemper J, Cuellar-Franca R, Dowson G, Gazzani M, Fennell P, Sutter D, Scholes C, Azapagic A, Bell R, Gibbins J, Mazzotti M, Maitland G, Brandani S, Ocone R, Mota-Martinez M, Dunstan M, Liang P, Anantharaman R, Joss L, Stolaroff Jet al., 2016,

    CCS - A technology for the future: general discussion

    , Faraday Discussions, Vol: 192, Pages: 303-335, ISSN: 1359-6640
  • Conference paper
    Dias E, Petit C, 2016,

    Investigation of the Use of Metal-Organic Frameworks for Combined Water Purification and Catalytic H2 Production

    , AIChE Fall meeting 2016
  • Journal article
    Dias EM, Petit C, 2016,

    Correction: towards the use of metal–organic frameworks for water reuse: a review of the recent advances in the field of organic pollutants removal and degradation and the next steps in the field

    , Journal of Materials Chemistry A, Vol: 4, Pages: 3565-3565, ISSN: 2050-7496
  • Journal article
    Hong J, Chen C, Bedoya FE, Kelsall GH, O'Hare D, Petit Cet al., 2016,

    Carbon nitride nanosheet/metal–organic framework nanocomposites with synergistic photocatalytic activities

    , Catalysis Science & Technology, Vol: 6, Pages: 5042-5051, ISSN: 2044-4753

    Heterogeneous photocatalysis plays a key role in the implementation of novel sustainable technologies, e.g. CO2 conversion into fuel, H2 production from water or organics degradation. The progress of photocatalysis relies on the development of tuneable photocatalysts and particularly the ability to build nanocomposites exhibiting synergistic properties with reduced electron–hole recombination rates. We report for the first time the in situ synthesis of nanocomposites of carbon nitride nanosheets (CNNSs) and metal–organic frameworks (MOFs) for application as photocatalysts. This approach leads to the ‘nano-scale mixing’ of the components, thereby enabling a greater performance compared to other types of 2D materials/MOF composites typically obtained via physical mixing. The objective is to take advantage of the complementary features of the materials while forming a heterojunction. The structural, chemical, photophysical and electrochemical properties of the nanocomposites are characterized and compared to those of the parent materials and their physical mixture. The nanocomposites retain the high specific surface area and strong visible light absorbance of MIL-100(Fe). The intimate contact between the CNNSs and the MOF particles is found to promote the electron–hole separation significantly due to the formation of a heterojunction. Hence, more efficient photocatalytic dye degradation is achieved over the composites than the physical mixture.

  • Journal article
    Calvez CL, Zouboulaki M, Petit C, Peeva L, Shirshova Net al., 2016,

    One step synthesis of MOF–polymer composites

    , RSC Adv., Vol: 6, Pages: 17314-17317
  • Journal article
    Woodward RT, Fam DWH, Anthony DB, Hong J, McDonald TO, Petit C, Shaffer MSP, Bismarck Aet al., 2016,

    Hierarchically porous carbon foams from pickering high internal phase emulsions

    , Carbon, Vol: 101, Pages: 253-260, ISSN: 0008-6223

    Carbon foams were produced from a macroporous poly(divinylbenzene) (poly(DVB) precursor, synthesized by polymerizing the continuous but minority phase of water-in-oil high internal phase emulsions (HIPEs) stabilized by molecular and/or particulate emulsifiers. Both permeable and non-permeable hierarchically porous carbon foams, or ‘carboHIPEs’, were prepared by carbonization of the resulting macroporous polymers at 800 °C. The carbon yields were as high as 26 wt.% of the original polymer. CarboHIPEs retain the pore structure of the macroporous polymer precursor, but with surface areas of up to 505 m2/g and excellent electrical conductivities of 81 S/m. Contrary to some previous reports, the method does not require further modification, such as sulfonation or additional crosslinking of the polyHIPE prior to carbonization, due to the inherently crosslinked structure of poly(DVB). The use of a pourable, aqueous emulsion-template enables simple moulding, minimises waste and avoids the strong acid treatments used to remove many conventional solid-templates. The retention of the macroporous structure is coupled with the introduction of micropores during carbonization, producing hierarchically porous carboHIPEs, suitable for a wide range of applications as sorbents and electrodes.

  • Journal article
    Wang J, Petit C, Zhang X, Cui Set al., 2016,

    Phase Equilibrium Study of the AlCl3–CaCl2–H2O System for the Production of Aluminum Chloride Hexahydrate from Ca-Rich Flue Ash

    , Journal of Chemical and Engineering Data, Vol: 61, Pages: 359-369, ISSN: 1520-5134

    The study of the solid–liquid phase equilibrium for the AlCl3–CaCl2–H2O system is of significance to separate aluminum chloride hexahydrate from the leachate obtained by the reaction of Ca-rich fly ash and a waste hydrochloride from chemical plant. The phase equilibrium data for the binary AlCl3–H2O system and the ternary AlCl3–CaCl2–H2O system over the temperature range from 278.15 K to 363.15 K were measured. A rigorous and thermodynamically consistent model representing the AlCl3–CaCl2–H2O system developed on the basis of the Pitzer’s activity coefficient model embedded in the Aspen Plus. On the basis of this, the phase behavior of the ternary AlCl3–CaCl2–H2O system at different temperatures was visualized with lucidity on an equilateral triangle. The phase-equilibrium diagram generated by modeling was illustrated to identify the course of crystallization to recover AlCl3·6H2O from the solutions containing calcium chloride. All of these will provide a thermodynamic basis for the separation of aluminum chloride from calcium chloride solutions.

  • Journal article
    Dias EM, Petit C, 2015,

    Towards the use of metal–organic frameworks for water reuse: a review of the recent advances in the field of organic pollutants removal and degradation and the next steps in the field

    , Journal of Materials Chemistry A, Vol: 3, Pages: 22484-22506, ISSN: 2050-7496
  • Journal article
    Lin K-YA, Yang H, Petit C, Chen S-Yet al., 2015,

    Removal of oil droplets from water using carbonized rice husk: enhancement by surface modification using polyethylenimine

    , ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE AND POLLUTION RESEARCH, Vol: 22, Pages: 8316-8328, ISSN: 0944-1344
  • Journal article
    Wang J, Li Z, Park A-HA, Petit Cet al., 2015,

    Thermodynamic and kinetic studies of the MgCl2-NH4Cl-NH3-H2O system for the production of high purity MgO from calcined low-grade magnesite

    , AICHE JOURNAL, Vol: 61, Pages: 1933-1946, ISSN: 0001-1541
  • Journal article
    Lin K-YA, Yang H, Petit C, Lee W-Det al., 2015,

    Magnetically controllable Pickering emulsion prepared by a reduced graphene oxide-iron oxide composite

    , JOURNAL OF COLLOID AND INTERFACE SCIENCE, Vol: 438, Pages: 296-305, ISSN: 0021-9797
  • Journal article
    Petit C, Bandosz TJ, 2014,

    Engineering the surface of a new class of adsorbents: metal–organic framework/graphite oxide composites

    , Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, Vol: 447, Pages: 139-151, ISSN: 1095-7103
  • Conference paper
    Petit C, Park A-HA, 2014,

    Novel liquid-like nanoparticle organic hybrid materials for CO2 captrue and conversion

    , 248th National Meeting of the American-Chemical-Society (ACS), Publisher: AMER CHEMICAL SOC, ISSN: 0065-7727
  • Journal article
    Lin K-YA, Yang H, Petit C, Hsu F-Ket al., 2014,

    Removing oil droplets from water using a copper-based metal organic frameworks

    , CHEMICAL ENGINEERING JOURNAL, Vol: 249, Pages: 293-301, ISSN: 1385-8947
  • Conference paper
    Petit C, Park A-HA, 2014,

    Designing the next generation of CO2 capture solvents: Nanoparticle organic hybrid materials (NOHMs)

    , 247th National Spring Meeting of the American-Chemical-Society (ACS), Publisher: AMER CHEMICAL SOC, ISSN: 0065-7727

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