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  • Journal article
    Jeon T, Kim SJ, Yoon J, Byun J, Hong HR, Lee TW, Kim JS, Shin B, Kim SOet al., 2017,

    Hybrid Perovskites: Effective Crystal Growth for Optoelectronic Applications

    , Advanced Energy Materials, Vol: 7, ISSN: 1614-6832

    Outstanding material properties of organic-inorganic hybrid perovskites have triggered a new insight into the next-generation solar cells. Beyond solar cells, a wide range of controllable properties of hybrid perovskites, particularly depending on crystal growth conditions, enables versatile high-performance optoelectronic devices such as light-emitting diodes, photodetectors, and lasers. This article highlights recent progress in the crystallization strategies of organic–inorganic hybrid perovskites for use as effective light harvesters or light emitters. Fundamental background on perovskite crystalline structures and relevant optoelectronic properties such as optical band-gap, electron-hole behavior, and energy band alignment are given. A detailed overview of the effective crystallization methods for perovskites, including thermal treatment, additives, solvent mediator, laser irradiation, nanostructure, and crystal dimensionalityis reported offering a comprehensive correlation among perovskite processing conditions, crystalline morphology, and relevant device performance. Finally, future research directions to overcome current practical bottlenecks and move towards reliable high performance perovskite optoelectronic applications are proposed.

  • Journal article
    Razzell-Hollis J, Fleischli F, Jahnke AA, Stingelin N, Seferos DS, Kim J-Set al., 2017,

    Effects of side-chain length and shape on polytellurophene molecular order and blend morphology

    , Journal of Physical Chemistry C, Vol: 121, Pages: 2088-2098, ISSN: 1932-7447

    We investigate the molecular order and thin film morphology of the conjugated polymer polytellurophene, in order to understand how the tellurium atom and the choice of side-chain influence the conjugated polymer’s backbone planarity and performance in organic transistors. We find that poly(3hexyltellurophene) (P3HTe) continues the trend from polythiophene (P3HT) to polyselenophene (P3HS): substitution with Tellurium leads to a more planar backbone, evident from the shifts of the C═C vibrational peak to lower wavenumbers (∼1389 cm–1) and a smaller optical band gap (∼1.4 eV). Resonant Raman spectroscopy revealed that molecular order was highly dependent on the structure of the P3ATe alkyl side-chain: a longer chains introduces kinetic hindrance, reducing the fraction of ordered phase obtained at room temperature, while a branched side-chain introduces steric hindrance, with intrinsic disorder present even when deposited at higher temperatures. When blended with the insulator HDPE, all three polymers exhibit little additional disorder and instead form phase-separated networks of high molecular order that are beneficial to percolated charge transport in transistors. We find that molecular order, as measured by Raman, correlates well with reported transistor mobilities and provides a greater understanding of the structure–property relationships that determine the performance of these novel organometallic polymers in electronic devices.

  • Journal article
    Wood S, Hollis JR, Kim J-S, 2017,

    Raman spectroscopy as an advanced structural nanoprobe for conjugated molecular semiconductors

    , Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics, Vol: 50, ISSN: 0022-3727

    Raman spectroscopy has emerged as a powerful and important characterisation tool for probing molecular semiconducting materials. The useful optoelectronic properties of these materials arise from the delocalised π-electron density in the conjugated core of the molecule, which also results in large Raman scattering cross-sections and a strong coupling between its electronic states and vibrational modes. For this reason, Raman spectroscopy offers a unique insight into the properties of molecular semiconductors, including: chemical structure, molecular conformation, molecular orientation, and fundamental photo- and electro-chemical processes—all of which are critically important to the performance of a wide range of optical and electronic organic semiconductor devices. Experimentally, Raman spectroscopy is non-intrusive, non-destructive, and requires no special sample preparation, and so is suitable for a wide range of in situ measurements, which are particularly relevant to issues of thermal and photochemical stability. Here we review the development of the family of Raman spectroscopic techniques, which have been applied to the study of conjugated molecular semiconductors. We consider the suitability of each technique for particular circumstances, and the unique insights it can offer, with a particular focus on the significance of these measurements for the continuing development of stable, high performance organic electronic devices.

  • Journal article
    Yu JC, Kim DW, Kim DB, Jung ED, Lee K-S, Lee S, Di Nuzzo D, Kim J-S, Song MHet al., 2017,

    Effect of the solvent used for fabrication of perovskite films by solvent dropping on performance of perovskite light-emitting diodes

    , Nanoscale, Vol: 9, Pages: 2088-2094, ISSN: 2040-3364

    Organic–inorganic hybrid perovskites have emerged as a next-generation candidate for light-emitting device applications due to their excellent optical and electrical properties with narrow band emission compared to organic emitters. The morphological control of perovskite films with full surface coverage and few defect sites is essential for achieving highly efficient perovskite light-emitting diodes (PeLEDs). Here, we obtain a highly uniform perovskite film with a remarkably reduced number of defect sites in a perovskite crystal using chlorobenzene dropping. This effort leads to the enhanced performance of PeLEDs with a CH3NH3PbBr3 film using chlorobenzene dropping with a maximum luminance of 14 460 cd m−2 (at 3.8 V) and a maximum external quantum efficiency (EQE) of 0.71% (at 2.8 V). This research confirms that the role of the solvent in the solvent dropping method is to fabricate a dense and uniform perovskite film and to passivate the defect sites of the perovskite crystal films.

  • Journal article
    Razzell-Hollis J, Thiburce Q, Tsoi WC, Kim J-Set al., 2016,

    Interfacial chemical composition and molecular order in organic photovoltaic blend thin films probed by surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy

    , ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces, Vol: 8, Pages: 31469-31481, ISSN: 1944-8244

    Organic electronic devices invariably involve transfer of charge carriers between the organic layer and at least one metal electrode, and they are sensitive to the local properties of the organic film at those interfaces. Here, we demonstrate a new approach for using an advanced technique called surface-enhanced raman spectroscopy (SERS) to quantitatively probe interfacial properties relevant to charge injection/extraction. Exploiting the evanescent electric field generated by a ∼7 nm thick layer of evaporated silver, Raman scattering from nearby molecules is enhanced by factors of 10–1000× and limited by a distance dependence with a measured decay length of only 7.6 nm. When applied to the study of an all-polymer 1:1 blend of P3HT and F8TBT used in organic solar cells, we find that the as-cast film is morphologically suited to charge extraction in inverted devices, with a top (anode) interface very rich in hole-transporting P3HT (74.5%) and a bottom (cathode) interface slightly rich in electron-transporting F8TBT (55%). While conventional, uninverted P3HT:F8TBT devices are reported to perform poorly compared to inverted devices, their efficiency can be improved by thermal annealing but only after evaporation of a metallic top electrode. This is explained by changes in composition at the top interface: annealing prior to silver evaporation leads to a greater P3HT concentration at the top interface to 83.3%, exaggerating the original distribution that favored inverted devices, while postevaporation annealing increases the concentration of F8TBT at the top interface to 34.8%, aiding the extraction of electrons in a conventional device. By nondestructively probing buried interfaces, SERS is a powerful tool for understanding the performance of organic electronic devices.

  • Journal article
    Boufflet P, Wood S, Wade J, Fei Z, Kim JS, Heeney Met al., 2016,

    Comparing blends and blocks: Synthesis of partially fluorinated diblock polythiophene copolymers to investigate the thermal stability of optical and morphological properties

    , Beilstein Journal of Organic Chemistry, Vol: 12, Pages: 2150-2163, ISSN: 1860-5397

    The microstructure of the active blend layer has been shown to be a critically important factor in the performance of organic solar devices. Block copolymers provide a potentially interesting avenue for controlling this active layer microstructure in solar cell blends. Here we explore the impact of backbone fluorination in block copolymers of poly(3-octyl-4-fluorothiophene)s and poly(3-octylthiophene) (F-P3OT-b-P3OT). Two block co-polymers with varying block lengths were prepared via sequential monomer addition under Kumada catalyst transfer polymerisation (KCTP) conditions. We compare the behavior of the block copolymer to that of the corresponding homopolymer blends. In both types of system, we find the fluorinated segments tend to dominate the UV–visible absorption and molecular vibrational spectral features, as well as the thermal behavior. In the block copolymer case, non-fluorinated segments appear to slightly frustrate the aggregation of the more fluorinated block. However, in situ temperature dependent Raman spectroscopy shows that the intramolecular order is more thermally stable in the block copolymer than in the corresponding blend, suggesting that such materials may be interesting for enhanced thermal stability of organic photovoltaic active layers based on similar systems.

  • Journal article
    Wood S, Kim J-H, Wade J, Park JB, Hwang D-H, Kim J-Set al., 2016,

    Systematic control of heteroatoms in donor-acceptor copolymers and its effects on molecular conformation and photovoltaic performance

    , JOURNAL OF MATERIALS CHEMISTRY C, Vol: 4, Pages: 7966-7978, ISSN: 2050-7526
  • Journal article
    Perevedentsev A, Chander N, Kim J-S, Bradley DDCet al., 2016,

    Spectroscopic properties of poly(9,9-dioctylfluorene) thin films possessing varied fractions of -phase chain segments: enhanced photoluminescence efficiency via conformation structuring

    , Journal of Polymer Science Part B-Polymer Physics, Vol: 54, Pages: 1995-2006, ISSN: 1099-0488

    Poly(9,9-dioctylfluorene) (PFO) is a widely studied blue-emitting conjugated polymer, the optoelectronic properties of which are strongly affected by the presence of a well-defined chain-extended “β-phase” conformational isomer. In this study, optical and Raman spectroscopy are used to systematically investigate the properties of PFO thin films featuring a varied fraction of β-phase chain segments. Results show that the photoluminescence quantum efficiency (PLQE) of PFO films is highly sensitive to both the β-phase fraction and the method by which it was induced. Notably, a PLQE of ∼69% is measured for PFO films possessing a ∼6% β-phase fraction induced by immersion in solvent/nonsolvent mixtures; this value is substantially higher than the average PLQE of ∼55% recorded for other β-phase films. Furthermore, a linear relationship is observed between the intensity ratios of selected Raman peaks and the β-phase fraction determined by commonly used absorption calibrations, suggesting that Raman spectroscopy can be used as an alternative means to quantify the β-phase fraction. As a specific example, spatial Raman mapping is used to image a mm-scale β-phase stripe patterned in a glassy PFO film, with the extracted β-phase fraction showing excellent agreement with the results of optical spectroscopy.

  • Journal article
    Razzell-Hollis J, Limbu S, Kim J-S, 2016,

    Spectroscopic investigations of three-phase morphology evolution in polymer: fullerene solar cell blends

    , Journal of Physical Chemistry C, Vol: 120, Pages: 10806-10814, ISSN: 1932-7447

    Nanoscale morphology is critical to determining the device efficiency of bulk heterojunction organic solar cells, and the ideal structure is often described as a three-phase network with one well-mixed phase for efficient charge separation and two purer phases for efficient charge transport. In order to understand such nanoscale morphology, we have performed detailed spectroscopic investigations and identified the three-phase morphology evolution in one of the classic blend systems, P3HT:PCBM. The impact of different phases on polymer molecular (chain conformational) order and blend thermal and optical properties were monitored in situ using resonant Raman, absorption, and photoluminescence spectroscopy techniques. Semicrystalline P3HT was found to accommodate up to ∼25% PCBM (by weight) in its amorphous phase, with very little impact on either polymer molecular order or aggregation. Higher concentrations of PCBM resulted in a greater proportion of amorphous mixed phase and reduced polymer molecular order and aggregation. On the other hand, the formation of crystalline purer phases via phase separation was evident during in situ thermal annealing, revealing a consistent glass transition temperature (Tg) of ∼50 °C in blends with up to 50% wt PCBM. This indicates similar local chemical compositions in the amorphous mixed phase present in blends despite different overall blend ratios. A much higher Tg (80–100 °C) was observed for blends with >50% wt PCBM, indicating a stronger impact of PCBM on P3HT molecular order and thermal properties, requiring a higher annealing temperature to ensure formation of the preferred three-phase morphology.

  • Journal article
    Bogatko SA, Haynes PD, Sathian J, Wade J, Kim J-S, Tan K-J, Breeze J, Salvadori E, Horsfield AP, Oxborrow Met al., 2016,

    Molecular design of a room-temperature maser

    , The Journal of Physical Chemistry C, Vol: 120, Pages: 8251-8260, ISSN: 1932-7447
  • Journal article
    Kang C-M, Wade J, Yun S, Lim J, Cho H, Roh J, Lee H, Nam S, Bradley DDC, Kim J-S, Lee Cet al., 2016,

    1 GHz Pentacene Diode Rectifiers Enabled by Controlled Film Deposition on SAM-Treated Au Anodes

  • Journal article
    Suh M, Bailey J, Kim SW, Kim K, Yun DJ, Jung Y, Hamilton I, Chander N, Wang X, Bradley DD, Jeon DY, Kim JSet al., 2015,

    High-Efficiency Polymer LEDs with Fast Response Times Fabricated via Selection of Electron-Injecting Conjugated Polyelectrolyte Backbone Structure.

    , ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces, Vol: 7, Pages: 26566-26571, ISSN: 1944-8244

    Imidazolium ionic side-group-containing fluorene-based conjugated polyelectrolytes (CPEs) with different π-conjugated structures, poly[(9,9-bis(8'-(3″-methyl-1″-imidazolium)octyl)-2,7-fluorene)-alt-2,7-(9,9-dioctylfluorene)] dibromide (F8im-Br) and poly[(9,9-bis(8'-(3″-methyl-1″-imidazolium)octyl)-2,7-fluorene)-alt-(benzo(2,1,3)thiadiazol-4,8-diyl) dibromide (F8imBT-Br), are synthesized and utilized as an electron injection layer (EIL) in green-emitting F8BT polymer light-emitting diodes (PLEDs). Both CPE EIL devices significantly outperform Ca cathode devices; 17.9 cd A(-1) (at 3.8 V) and 16.6 lm W(-1) (at 3.0 V) for F8imBT-Br devices, 11.1 cd A(-1) (at 4.2 V) and 9.1 lm W(-1) (at 3.4 V) for F8im-Br devices, and 7.2 cd A(-1) (at 3.6 V) and 7.0 lm W(-1) (at 3.0 V) for Ca devices. Importantly, unlike the F8im-Br EIL devices, F8imBT-Br PLEDs exhibit much faster electroluminescence turn-on times (<10 μs) despite both EILs possessing the same tethered imidazolium and mobile bromide ions. The F8imBT-Br devices represent, to the best of our knowledge, the highest efficiency in thin (70 nm) single-layer F8BT PLEDs in conventional device architecture with the fastest EL response time using CPE EIL with mobile ions. Our results clearly indicate the importance of an additional factor of EIL materials, specifically the conjugated backbone structure, to determine the device efficiency and response times.

  • Journal article
    Abdulla M, Renero-Lecuna C, Kim JS, Friend RHet al., 2015,

    Morphological study of F8BT:PFB thin film blends

    , ORGANIC ELECTRONICS, Vol: 23, Pages: 87-98, ISSN: 1566-1199
  • Journal article
    Wade J, Wood S, Beatrup D, Hurhangee M, Bronstein H, McCulloch I, Durrant JR, Kim JSet al., 2015,

    Operational electrochemical stability of thiophene-thiazole copolymers probed by resonant Raman spectroscopy.

    , Journal of Chemical Physics, Vol: 142, Pages: 244904-244904, ISSN: 1089-7690

    We report on the electrochemical stability of hole polarons in three conjugated polymers probed by resonant Raman spectroscopy. The materials considered are all isostructural to poly(3-hexyl)thiophene, where thiazole units have been included to systematically deepen the energy level of the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO). We demonstrate that increasing the thiazole content planarizes the main conjugated backbone of the polymer and improves the electrochemical stability in the ground state. However, these more planar thiazole containing polymers are increasingly susceptible to electrochemical degradation in the polaronic excited state. We identify the degradation mechanism, which targets the C=N bond in the thiazole units and results in disruption of the main polymer backbone conjugation. The introduction of thiazole units to deepen the HOMO energy level and increase the conjugated backbone planarity can be beneficial for the performance of certain optoelectronic devices, but the reduced electrochemical stability of the hole polaron may compromise their operational stability.

  • Journal article
    Wood S, Kim J-H, Hwang D-H, Kim J-Set al., 2015,

    Effects of Fluorination and Side Chain Branching on Molecular Conformation and Photovoltaic Performance of Donor-Acceptor Copolymers

    , CHEMISTRY OF MATERIALS, Vol: 27, Pages: 4196-4204, ISSN: 0897-4756
  • Journal article
    Fei Z, Boufflet P, Wood S, Wade J, Moriarty J, Gann E, Ratcliff EL, McNeill CR, Sirringhaus H, Kim JS, Heeney Met al., 2015,

    Influence of backbone fluorination in regioregular poly(3-alkyl-4-fluoro)thiophenes.

    , Journal of the American Chemical Society, Vol: 137, Pages: 6866-6879, ISSN: 1520-5126

    We report two strategies toward the synthesis of 3-alkyl-4-fluorothiophenes containing straight (hexyl and octyl) and branched (2-ethylhexyl) alkyl groups. We demonstrate that treatment of the dibrominated monomer with 1 equiv of alkyl Grignard reagent leads to the formation of a single regioisomer as a result of the pronounced directing effect of the fluorine group. Polymerization of the resulting species affords highly regioregular poly(3-alkyl-4-fluoro)thiophenes. Comparison of their properties to those of the analogous non-fluorinated polymers shows that backbone fluorination leads to an increase in the polymer ionization potential without a significant change in optical band gap. Fluorination also results in an enhanced tendency to aggregate in solution, which is ascribed to a more co-planar backbone on the basis of Raman and DFT calculations. Average charge carrier mobilities in field-effect transistors are found to increase by up to a factor of 5 for the fluorinated polymers.

  • Journal article
    Higgins SG, Muir BVO, Wade J, Chen J, Striedinger B, Gold H, Stadlober B, Caironi M, Kim J-S, Steinke JHG, Campbell AJet al., 2015,

    Self-aligned megahertz organic transistors solution-processed on plastic

    , Advanced Electronic Materials, Vol: 1, ISSN: 2199-160X
  • Journal article
    Hellmann C, Treat ND, Scaccabarozzi AD, Hollis JR, Fleischli FD, Bannock JH, de Mello J, Michels JJ, Kim J-S, Stingelin Net al., 2015,

    Solution Processing of Polymer Semiconductor: Insulator Blends-Tailored Optical Properties Through Liquid-Liquid Phase Separation Control

    , JOURNAL OF POLYMER SCIENCE PART B-POLYMER PHYSICS, Vol: 53, Pages: 304-310, ISSN: 0887-6266
  • Journal article
    Perevedentsev A, Sonnefraud Y, Belton CR, Sharma S, Cass AEG, Maier SA, Kim J-S, Stavrinou PN, Bradley DDCet al., 2015,

    Dip-pen patterning of poly(9,9-dioctylfluorene) chain-conformation-based nano-photonic elements

    , Nature Communications, ISSN: 2041-1723

    Metamaterials are a promising new class of materials, in which sub-wavelength physical structures, rather than variations in chemical composition, can be used to modify the nature of their interaction with electromagnetic radiation. Here we show that a metamaterials approach, using a discrete physical geometry (conformation) of the segments of a polymer chain as the vector for a substantial refractive index change, can be used to enable visible wavelength, conjugated polymer photonic elements. In particular, we demonstrate that a novel form of dip-pen nanolithography provides an effective means to pattern the so-called β-phase conformation in poly(9,9-dioctylfluorene) thin films. This can be done on length scales ≤500 nm, as required to fabricate a variety of such elements, two of which are theoretically modelled using complex photonic dispersion calculations.

  • Journal article
    Kim JS, Wood S, Shoaee S, Spencer SJ, Castro FA, Tsoi WC, Murphy CE, Sim M, Cho K, Durrant JR, Kim J-Set al., 2015,

    Morphology-performance relationships in polymer/fullerene blends probed by complementary characterisation techniques - effects of nanowire formation and subsequent thermal annealing

    , JOURNAL OF MATERIALS CHEMISTRY C, Vol: 3, Pages: 9224-9232, ISSN: 2050-7526
  • Journal article
    Wood S, Wade J, Shahid M, Collado-Fregoso E, Bradley DDC, Durrant JR, Heeney M, Kim J-Set al., 2015,

    Natures of optical absorption transitions and excitation energy dependent photostability of diketopyrrolopyrrole (DPP)-based photovoltaic copolymers

    , ENERGY & ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE, Vol: 8, Pages: 3222-3232, ISSN: 1754-5692
  • Journal article
    Wade J, Steiner F, Niedzialek D, James DT, Jung Y, Yun D-J, Bradley DDC, Nelson J, Kim J-Set al., 2014,

    Charge mobility anisotropy of functionalized pentacenes in organic field effect transistors fabricated by solution processing

    , JOURNAL OF MATERIALS CHEMISTRY C, Vol: 2, Pages: 10110-10115, ISSN: 2050-7526
  • Journal article
    Lee S, Lee BR, Kim J-S, Song MHet al., 2014,

    Combination effect of polar solvent treatment on ZnO and polyfluorene-based polymer blends for highly efficient blue-based hybrid organic-inorganic polymer light-emitting diodes

    , JOURNAL OF MATERIALS CHEMISTRY C, Vol: 2, Pages: 8673-8677, ISSN: 2050-7526
  • Journal article
    Murdock D, Harris SJ, Luke J, Grubb MP, Orr-Ewing AJ, Ashfold MNRet al., 2014,

    Transient UV pump-IR probe investigation of heterocyclic ring-opening dynamics in the solution phase: the role played by n sigma* states in the photoinduced reactions of thiophenone and furanone

    , PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY CHEMICAL PHYSICS, Vol: 16, Pages: 21271-21279, ISSN: 1463-9076
  • Journal article
    Lee BR, Jung ED, Park JS, Nam YS, Min SH, Kim B-S, Lee K-M, Jeong J-R, Friend RH, Kim JS, Kim SO, Song MHet al., 2014,

    Highly efficient inverted polymer light-emitting diodes using surface modifications of ZnO layer

    , NATURE COMMUNICATIONS, Vol: 5, ISSN: 2041-1723
  • Journal article
    Kim JS, Fei Z, Wood S, James DT, Sim M, Cho K, Heeney M, Kim J-Set al., 2014,

    Germanium- and Silicon-Substituted Donor–Acceptor Type Copolymers: Effect of the Bridging Heteroatom on Molecular Packing and Photovoltaic Device Performance

    , Advanced Energy Materials

    The effects of heteroatom substitution from a silicon atom to a germanium atom in donor-acceptor type low band gap copolymers, poly[(4,4′-bis(2-ethylhexyl)dithieno[3,2-b:2′,3′-d]silole)-2,6-diyl-alt-(2,1,3-benzothiadiazole)-4,7-diyl] (PSiBTBT) and poly[(4,4′-bis(2-ethylhexyl)dithieno[3,2-b:2′,3′-d]germole)-2,6-diyl-alt-(2,1,3-benzothiadiazole)-4,7-diyl] (PGeBTBT), are studied. The optoelectronic and charge transport properties of these polymers are investigated with a particular focus on their use for organic photovoltaic (OPV) devices in blends with phenyl-C70-butyric acid methyl ester (PC70BM). It is found that the longer C-Ge bond length, in comparison to C-Si, modifies the molecular conformation and leads to a more planar chain conformation in PGeBTBT than PSiBTBT. This increase in molecular planarity leads to enhanced crystallinity and an increased preference for a face-on backbone orientation, thus leading to higher charge carrier mobility in the diode configuration. These results provide important insight into the impact of the heavy atom substitution on the molecular packing and device performance of polymers based on the poly[2,6-(4,4-bis-(2-ethylhexyl)-4H-cyclopenta[2,1-b;3,4-b]-dithiophene)-alt-4,7-(2,1,3-benzothiadiazole) (PCPDTBT) backbone.

  • Journal article
    Blakesley JC, Castro FA, Kylberg W, Dibb GFA, Arantes C, Valaski R, Cremona M, Kim JS, Kim J-Set al., 2014,

    Towards reliable charge-mobility benchmark measurements for organic semiconductors

    , ORGANIC ELECTRONICS, Vol: 15, Pages: 1263-1272, ISSN: 1566-1199
  • Journal article
    Bailey J, Wright EN, Wang X, Walker AB, Bradley DDC, Kim J-Set al., 2014,

    Understanding the role of ultra-thin polymeric interlayers in improving efficiency of polymer light emitting diodes

    , JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSICS, Vol: 115, ISSN: 0021-8979
  • Journal article
    Vaklev NL, Müller R, Muir BVO, James DT, Pretot R, van der Schaaf P, Genoe J, Kim J-S, Steinke JHG, Campbell AJet al., 2014,

    High-Performance Flexible Bottom-Gate Organic Field-Effect Transistors with Gravure Printed Thin Organic Dielectric

    , Advanced Materials Interfaces

    Gravure-printed dielectric films are presented, which are 100-nm thick, have about 1-nm root mean-square surface roughness and show high electric field strength (>300 MV/m). This dielectric is combined with an ultra-thin—less than 10 nm—layer of poly(α-methylstyrene) on top which gives state-of-the-art field-effect mobility in transistors with thermally-evaporated pentacene (0.6 cm2/Vs) and zone-cast TIPS-pentacene (0.3 cm2/Vs).

  • Journal article
    Wood S, Garnett O, Tokmoldin N, Tsoi WC, Haque SA, Kim J-Set al., 2014,

    In situ formation of organic-inorganic hybrid nanostructures for photovoltaic applications

    , FARADAY DISCUSSIONS, Vol: 174, Pages: 267-279, ISSN: 1359-6640

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