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  • JOURNAL ARTICLE
    Williams I, Constandinou TG, 2014,

    Computationally efficient modeling of proprioceptive signals in the upper limb for prostheses: a simulation study

    , FRONTIERS IN NEUROSCIENCE, Vol: 8, ISSN: 1662-453X
  • CONFERENCE PAPER
    Yang Y, Boling S, Eftekhar A, Paraskevopoulou SE, Constandinou TG, Mason AJet al., 2014,

    Computationally Efficient Feature Denoising Filter and Selection of Optimal Features for Noise Insensitive Spike Sorting

    , 36th Annual International Conference of the IEEE-Engineering-in-Medicine-and-Biology-Society (EMBC), Publisher: IEEE, Pages: 1251-1254, ISSN: 1557-170X
  • CONFERENCE PAPER
    Yoshizaki S, Serb A, Liu Y, Constandinou TGet al., 2014,

    Octagonal CMOS Image Sensor with Strobed RGB LED Illumination for Wireless Capsule Endoscopy

    , IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems (ISCAS), Publisher: IEEE, Pages: 1857-1860, ISSN: 0271-4302
  • CONFERENCE PAPER
    Zheng L, Leene LB, Liu Y, Constandinou TGet al., 2014,

    An Adaptive 16/64 kHz, 9-bit SAR ADC with Peak-Aligned Sampling for Neural Spike Recording

    , IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems (ISCAS), Publisher: IEEE, Pages: 2385-2388, ISSN: 0271-4302
  • CONFERENCE PAPER
    Barsakcioglu DY, Eftekhar A, Constandinou TG, 2013,

    Design Optimisation of Front-End Neural Interfaces for Spike Sorting Systems

    , IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems (ISCAS), Publisher: IEEE, Pages: 2501-2504, ISSN: 0271-4302
  • CONFERENCE PAPER
    Koutsos E, Paraskevopoulou SE, Constandinou TG, 2013,

    A 1.5μW NEO-based Spike Detector with Adaptive-Threshold for Calibration-free Multichannel Neural Interfaces

    , IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems (ISCAS)

    This paper presents a novel front-end circuit for detecting action potentials in extracellular neural recordings. By implementing a real-time, adaptive algorithm to determine an effective threshold for robustly detecting a spike, the need for calibration and/or external monitoring is eliminated. The input signal is first pre-processed by utilising a non-linear energy operator (NEO) to effectively boost the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the spike feature of interest. The spike detection threshold is then determined by tracking the peak NEO response and applying a non-linear gain to realise an adaptive response to different spike amplitudes and background noise levels. The proposed algorithm and its implementation is shown to achieve both accurate and robust spike detection, by minimising falsely detected spikes and/or missed spikes. The system has been implemented in a commercially available 0.18μm technology requiring a total power consumption of 1.5μW from a 1.8V supply and occupying a compact footprint of only 0.03$\,$mm$^2$ silicon area. The proposed circuit is thus ideally suited for high-channel count, calibration-free, neural interfaces.

  • CONFERENCE PAPER
    Leene LB, Liu Y, Constandinou TG, 2013,

    A Compact Recording Array for Neural Interfaces

    , IEEE Biomedical Circuits and Systems Conference (BioCAS), Publisher: IEEE, Pages: 97-100, ISSN: 2163-4025
  • CONFERENCE PAPER
    Leene LB, Luan S, Constandinou TG, 2013,

    A 890fJ/bit UWB transmitter for SOC integration in high bit-rate transcutaneous bio-implants

    , IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems (ISCAS), Publisher: IEEE, Pages: 2271-2274, ISSN: 0271-4302
  • JOURNAL ARTICLE
    Paraskevopoulou SE, Barsakcioglu DY, Saberi MR, Eftekhar A, Constandinou TGet al., 2013,

    Feature extraction using first and second derivative extrema (FSDE) for real-time and hardware-efficient spike sorting

    , JOURNAL OF NEUROSCIENCE METHODS, Vol: 215, Pages: 29-37, ISSN: 0165-0270
  • JOURNAL ARTICLE
    Williams I, Constandinou TG, 2013,

    An Energy-Efficient, Dynamic Voltage Scaling Neural Stimulator for a Proprioceptive Prosthesis

    , IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON BIOMEDICAL CIRCUITS AND SYSTEMS, Vol: 7, Pages: 129-139, ISSN: 1932-4545
  • CONFERENCE PAPER
    Williams I, Constandinou TG, 2013,

    Modelling muscle spindle dynamics for a proprioceptive prosthesis

    , Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society (EMBS), Publisher: IEEE

    Muscle spindles are found throughout our skeletalmuscle tissue and continuously provide us with a sense of our limbs position and motion (proprioception). This paper advances a model for generating artificial muscle spindle signalsfor a prosthetic limb, with the aim of one day providing amputees with a sense of feeling in their artificial limb. By utilising the Opensim biomechanical modelling package the relationship between a joints angle and the length of surrounding muscles is estimated for a prosthetic limb. This is then applied to the established Mileusnic model to determine the associated muscle spindle firing pattern. This complete system model is then reduced to allow for a computationallyefficient hardware implementation. This reduction is achieved with minimal impact on accuracy by selecting key monoarticular muscles and fitting equations to relate joint angle to muscle length. Parameter values fitting the Mileusnic modelto human spindles are then proposed and validated against previously published human neural recordings. Finally, a model for fusimotor signals is also proposed based on data previously recorded from reduced animal experiments.

  • JOURNAL ARTICLE
    Woods SP, Constandinou TG, 2013,

    Wireless Capsule Endoscope for Targeted Drug Delivery: Mechanics and Design Considerations

    , IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON BIOMEDICAL ENGINEERING, Vol: 60, Pages: 945-953, ISSN: 0018-9294
  • JOURNAL ARTICLE
    Constandinou TG, Hafliger P, 2012,

    Guest Editorial-Special Issue on Selected Papers From BioCAS 2011

    , IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON BIOMEDICAL CIRCUITS AND SYSTEMS, Vol: 6, Pages: 401-402, ISSN: 1932-4545
  • CONFERENCE PAPER
    Guilvard A, Eftekhar A, Luan S, Toumazou C, Constandinou TGet al., 2012,

    A Fully-Programmable Neural Interface for Multi-Polar, Multi-Channel Stimulation Strategies

    , IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems, Publisher: IEEE, Pages: 2235-2238, ISSN: 0271-4302
  • CONFERENCE PAPER
    Haaheim B, Constandinou TG, 2012,

    A Sub-1μW, 16kHz Current-Mode SAR-ADC for Neural Spike Recording

    , International Symposium on Circuits and Systems (ISCAS), Publisher: IEEE, ISSN: 0271-4302

    This paper presents an ultra-low-power 8-bit asynchronous current-mode (CM) successive approximation (SAR) analogue-to-digital converter (ADC) for single-neuron spike recording. The novel design exploits CM techniques to support operation at supply voltages down to 1.2V, consuming under500nA at 16kSamples/s. The design features easy scalability, and allows for a tuneable sampling frequency and dynamic range (DR). The circuit is designed in a commercially-available 0.18u mCMOS technology and occupies a chip area of 0.078 sq.mm. The system requires a single, post-fabrication current calibration supportedby on-chip circuitry to ensure robust operation through process and mismatch variations.

  • CONFERENCE PAPER
    Luan S, Constandinou TG, 2012,

    A Novel Charge-Metering Method for Voltage Mode Neural Stimulation

    , IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems, Publisher: IEEE, Pages: 2239-2242, ISSN: 0271-4302
  • CONFERENCE PAPER
    Mirza KB, Luan S, Eftekhar A, Constandinou TGet al., 2012,

    Towards a Fully-Integrated Solution for Capacitor-based Neural Stimulation

    , IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems, Publisher: IEEE, Pages: 2243-2246, ISSN: 0271-4302
  • CONFERENCE PAPER
    Paraskevopoulou SE, Constandinou TG, 2012,

    An Ultra-Low-Power Front-end Neural Interface with Automatic Gain for Uncalibrated Monitoring

    , IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems, Publisher: IEEE, Pages: 193-196, ISSN: 0271-4302
  • CONFERENCE PAPER
    Williams I, Constandinou TG, 2012,

    An Energy-Efficient, Dynamic Voltage Scaling Neural Stimulator for a Proprioceptive Prosthesis

    , IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems, Publisher: IEEE, Pages: 1091-1094, ISSN: 0271-4302
  • CONFERENCE PAPER
    Abshire P, Bermak A, Berner R, Cauwenberghs G, Chen S, Christen JB, Constandinou TG, Culurciello E, Dandin M, Datta T, Delbrück T, Dudek P, Eftekhar A, Etienne-Cummings R, Indiveri G, Law MK, Linares-Barranco B, Tapson J, Tang W, Zhai Yet al., 2011,

    Confession session: Learning from others mistakes.

    , Publisher: IEEE, Pages: 1149-1162

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