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  • Journal article
    Mazur NI, Higgins D, Nunes MC, Melero JA, Langedijk AC, Horsley N, Buchholz UJ, Openshaw PJ, McLellan JS, Englund JA, Mejias A, Karron RA, Simões EA, Knezevic I, Ramilo O, Piedra PA, Chu HY, Falsey AR, Nair H, Kragten-Tabatabaie L, Greenough A, Baraldi E, Papadopoulos NG, Vekemans J, Polack FP, Powell M, Satav A, Walsh EE, Stein RT, Graham BS, Bont LJ, Respiratory Syncytial Virus Network ReSViNET Foundationet al., 2018,

    The respiratory syncytial virus vaccine landscape: lessons from the graveyard and promising candidates

    , Lancet Infectious Diseases, Vol: 18, Pages: e295-e311, ISSN: 1473-3099

    The global burden of disease caused by respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is increasingly recognised, not only in infants, but also in older adults (aged ≥65 years). Advances in knowledge of the structural biology of the RSV surface fusion glycoprotein have revolutionised RSV vaccine development by providing a new target for preventive interventions. The RSV vaccine landscape has rapidly expanded to include 19 vaccine candidates and monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) in clinical trials, reflecting the urgency of reducing this global health problem and hence the prioritisation of RSV vaccine development. The candidates include mAbs and vaccines using four approaches: (1) particle-based, (2) live-attenuated or chimeric, (3) subunit, (4) vector-based. Late-phase RSV vaccine trial failures highlight gaps in knowledge regarding immunological protection and provide lessons for future development. In this Review, we highlight promising new approaches for RSV vaccine design and provide a comprehensive overview of RSV vaccine candidates and mAbs in clinical development to prevent one of the most common and severe infectious diseases in young children and older adults worldwide.

  • Journal article
    Barclay W, Openshaw P, 2018,

    The 1918 Influenza Pandemic: one hundred years of progress, but where now?

    , Lancet Respiratory Medicine, Vol: 6, ISSN: 2213-2600
  • Journal article
    Schwarze J, Openshaw P, Jha A, Del Giacco SR, Firinu D, Tsilochristou O, Roberts G, Selby A, Akdis C, Agache I, Custovic A, Heffler E, Pinna G, Khaitov M, Nikonova A, Papadopoulos N, Akhlaq A, Nurmatov U, Renz H, Sheikh A, Skevaki Cet al., 2018,

    Influenza burden, prevention and treatment in asthma - a scoping review by the EAACI Influenza in Asthma Task Force

    , Allergy, Vol: 73, Pages: 1151-1181, ISSN: 0105-4538

    To address uncertainties in the prevention and management of influenza in people with asthma, we performed a scoping review of the published literature on influenza burden; current vaccine recommendations; vaccination coverage; immunogenicity, efficacy, effectiveness and safety of influenza vaccines; and the benefits of antiviral drugs in people with asthma. We found significant variation in the reported rates of influenza detection in individuals with acute asthma exacerbations making it unclear to what degree influenza causes exacerbations of underlying asthma. The strongest evidence of an association was seen in studies of children. Countries in the European Union currently recommend influenza vaccination of adults with asthma; however, coverage varied between regions. Coverage was lower among children with asthma. Limited data suggest that good seroprotection and seroconversion can be achieved in both children and adults with asthma and that vaccination confers a degree of protection against influenza illness and asthma related morbidity to children with asthma. There were insufficient data to determine efficacy in adults. Overall, influenza vaccines appeared to be safe for people with asthma. We identify knowledge gaps and make recommendations on future research needs in relation to influenza in patients with asthma. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  • Journal article
    Dunning J, Blankley S, Hoang LT, Cox M, Graham CM, James PL, Bloom CI, Chaussabel D, Banchereau J, Brett SJ, Moffatt MF, OGarra A, Openshaw PJMet al., 2018,

    Progression of whole-blood transcriptional signatures from interferon-induced to neutrophil-associated patterns in severe influenza

    , Nature Immunology, Vol: 19, Pages: 625-635, ISSN: 1529-2916

    Transcriptional profiles and host-response biomarkers are used increasingly to investigate the severity, subtype and pathogenesis of disease. We now describe whole-blood mRNA signatures and concentrations of local and systemic immunological mediators in 131 adults hospitalized with influenza, from whom extensive clinical and investigational data were obtained by MOSAIC investigators. Signatures reflective of interferon-related antiviral pathways were common up to day 4 of symptoms in patients who did not require mechanical ventilator support; in those who needed mechanical ventilation, an inflammatory, activated-neutrophil and cell-stress or death (‘bacterial’) pattern was seen, even early in disease. Identifiable bacterial co-infection was not necessary for this ‘bacterial’ signature but was able to enhance its development while attenuating the early ‘viral’ signature. Our findings emphasize the importance of timing and severity in the interpretation of host responses to acute viral infection and identify specific patterns of immune-system activation that might enable the development of novel diagnostic and therapeutic tools for severe influenza.

  • Journal article
    Thwaites RS, Gunawardana NC, Broich V, Mann EH, Ahnström J, Campbell GA, Lindsley S, Singh N, Tunstall T, Lane DA, Openshaw PJ, Hawrylowicz CM, Hansel TTet al., 2018,

    Biphasic activation of complement and fibrinolysis during the human nasal allergic response

    , Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, Vol: 141, Pages: 1892-1895.e6, ISSN: 0091-6749

    Complement, coagulation and fibrinolysis contribute to the pathology of many respiratory diseases. Here we detail the biphasic activation of these pathways following nasal allergen challenge. Understanding these mechanisms may lead to therapeutic insight in common respiratory diseases.

  • Journal article
    Thwaites RS, Coates M, Ito K, Ghazaly M, Feather C, Abdulla F, Tunstall T, Jain P, Cass L, Rapeport G, Hansel TT, Nadel S, Openshaw PJet al., 2018,

    Reduced nasal viral load and IFN responses in infants with RSV bronchiolitis and respiratory failure

    , American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, Vol: 198, Pages: 1074-1084, ISSN: 1073-449X

    RATIONALE: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) bronchiolitis is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in infancy. Severe disease is thought to result from uncontrolled viral replication, an excessive immune response, or both. OBJECTIVES: To determine RSV load and immune mediator levels in nasal mucosal lining fluid by serial sampling of nasal fluids from cases of moderate and severe bronchiolitis over the course of infection. METHODS: Infants with viral bronchiolitis necessitating admission (n=55) were recruited from a paediatric centre during 2016/17. Of these, 30 were RSV infected (18 'moderate', and 12 mechanically ventilated 'severe'). Nasal fluids were sampled frequently over time using nasosorption devices and nasophayngeal aspiration (NPA). Hierarchical clustering of time weighted averages (TWA) was performed to investigate cytokine and chemokine levels, and gene expression profiling was conducted. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Unexpectedly, cases of severe RSV bronchiolitis had lower nasal viral loads and reduced interferon (IFN)-γ and CCL5/RANTES levels compared to those with moderate disease, especially when allowance was made for disease duration (all P<0.05). Reduced cytokine/chemokine levels in severe disease were also seen in children with other viral infections. Gene expression analysis of NPA samples (n=43) confirmed reduced type-I IFN gene expression in severe bronchiolitis accompanied by enhanced expression of MUC5AC and IL17A. CONCLUSIONS: Infants with severe RSV bronchiolitis have lower nasal viral load, IP-10/CXCL10 and type-I IFNs levels compared to moderately ill children, but enhanced MUC5AC and IL17A gene expression in nasal cells.

  • Journal article
    Petrarca L, Midulla F, Openshaw PJ, 2018,

    Vaccination policies in Europe: Common goals, diverse approaches and public doubts.

    , European Journal of Immunology, Vol: 48, Pages: 10-12, ISSN: 0014-2980
  • Journal article
    Thwaites RS, Jarvis HC, Singh N, Jha A, Pritchard A, Fan H, Tunstall T, Nanan J, Nadel S, Kon OM, Openshaw PJ, Hansel TTet al., 2018,

    Absorption of nasal and bronchial fluids: precision sampling of the human respiratory mucosa and laboratory processing of samples

    , Jove-Journal of Visualized Experiments, ISSN: 1940-087X

    The methods of nasal absorption (NA) and bronchial absorption (BA) use synthetic absorptive matrices (SAM) to absorb the mucosal lining fluid (MLF) of the human respiratory tract. NA is a non-invasive technique which absorbs fluid from the inferior turbinate, and causes minimal discomfort. NA has yielded reproducible results with the ability to frequently repeat sampling of the upper airway. By comparison, alternative methods of sampling the respiratory mucosa, such as nasopharyngeal aspiration (NPA) and conventional swabbing, are more invasive and may result in greater data variability. Other methods have limitations, for instance, biopsies and bronchial procedures are invasive, sputum contains many dead and dying cells and requires liquefaction, exhaled breath condensate (EBC) contains water and saliva, and lavage samples are dilute and variable. BA can be performed through the working channel of a bronchoscope in clinic. Sampling is well tolerated and can be conducted at multiple sites in the airway. BA results in MLF samples being less dilute than bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) samples. This article demonstrates the techniques of NA and BA, as well as the laboratory processing of the resulting samples, which can be tailored to the desired downstream biomarker being measured. These absorption techniques are useful alternatives to the conventional sampling techniques used in clinical respiratory research.

  • Conference paper
    Vlachantoni I, Ascough S, Grimaldi R, Leenhouts K, Chiu C, Openshaw Pet al., 2017,


    , Winter Meeting of the British-Thoracic-Society, Publisher: BMJ PUBLISHING GROUP, Pages: A43-A44, ISSN: 0040-6376
  • Journal article
    Tripp RA, Power UF, Openshaw PJM, Kauvar LMet al., 2017,

    Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV): Targeting the G Protein Provides a New Approach for an Old Problem.

    , Journal of Virology, Vol: 92, ISSN: 1098-5514

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a major cause of lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) annually affecting >2 million children in the US <5 years old. In the elderly (>65 years old), RSV results in ∼175,000 hospitalizations annually in the US with worldwide incidence ∼34 million. There is no approved RSV vaccine and treatments are limited. Recently, a Phase 3 trial in the elderly using a recombinant RSV F protein vaccine failed to meet its efficacy objectives, namely prevention of moderate-to-severe RSV-associated LRTI and reduced incidence of acute respiratory disease. Moreover, a recent Phase 3 trial evaluating suptavumab (REGN2222), an antibody to RSV F protein, did not meet its primary endpoint of preventing medically attended RSV infections in pre-term infants. Despite these setbacks, numerous efforts targeting the RSV F protein with vaccines, antibodies, and small molecules continue based on the commercial success of a monoclonal antibody (mAb) against the RSV F protein (palivizumab). As the understanding of RSV biology has improved, the other major coat protein, the RSV G protein, has re-emerged as an alternative target reflecting progress in understanding its roles in infecting bronchial epithelial cells and in altering the host immune response. In mouse models, a high-affinity, strain-independent human mAb to the RSV G protein has shown potent direct antiviral activity combined with the alleviation of virus-induced immune system effects that contribute to disease pathology. This mAb, being prepared for clinical trials, provides a qualitatively new approach to managing RSV for populations not eligible for prophylaxis with palivizumab.

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