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    Sukkar A, Lett A, Frost G, Chambers Eet al., 2019,

    Regulation of energy expenditure and substrate oxidation by short chain fatty acids

    , Journal of Endocrinology, Vol: 242, Pages: R1-R8, ISSN: 1479-6805

    Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) are metabolites produced from the fermentation of dietary fibre by the gut microbiota. High-fibre diets have been associated with lower weight gain and a number of reports have therefore investigated if these positive effects of a dietary fibre on body weight can be replicated through the direct administration of SCFAs. Many of these studies have reported that SCFAs can prevent or attenuate long-term body weight gain by increasing energy expenditure through increased lipid oxidation. The aim of the present review is to therefore evaluate the current evidence for an effect of SCFAs on whole-body energy expenditure and to assess the potential underlying mechanisms. The available data highlights that SCFAs can exert multiple effects at various organ and tissue sites that would cumulatively raise energy expenditure via a promotion of lipid oxidation. In conclusion, the present review proposes that dietary interventions and other therapies that augment gut-derived SCFAs and systemic availability may present an effective strategy to improve long-term energy balance and body weight management.

    Carpenter G, Bozorgi S, Vladescu S, Forte A, Myant C, Potineni R, Reddyhoff T, Baier Set al., 2019,

    A study of saliva lubrication using a compliant oral mimic

    , Food Hydrocolloids, Vol: 92, Pages: 10-18, ISSN: 0268-005X

    Due to ethical issues and the difficulty in obtaining biological tissues, it is important to find synthetic elastomers that can be used as replacement test media for research purposes. An important example of this is friction testing to understand the mechanisms behind mouthfeel attributes during food consumption (e.g. syrupy, body and clean finish), which requires an oral mimic. In order to assess the suitability of possible materials to mimic oral surfaces, a sliding contact is produced by loading and sliding a hemispherical silica pin against either a polydimethyl siloxane (PDMS), agarose, or porcine tongue sample. Friction is measured and elastohydrodynamic film thickness is calculated based on the elastic modulus of the samples, which is measured using an indentation method. Tests were performed with both saliva and pure water as the lubricating fluid and results compared to unlubricated conditions.PDMS mimics the tongue well in terms of protein adhesion, with both samples showing significant reductions in friction when lubricated with saliva versus water, whereas agarose showed no difference between saliva and water lubricated conditions. This is attributed to PDMS's OSi(CH3)2- group which provides excellent adhesion for the saliva protein molecules, in contrast with the hydrated agarose surface. The measured modulus of the PDMS (2.2 MPa) is however significantly greater than that of tongue (3.5 kPa) and agarose (66–174 kPa). This affects both the surface (boundary) friction, at low sliding speeds, and the entrained elastohydrodynamic film thickness, at high speeds.Utilising the transparent PDMS sample, we also use fluorescence microscopy to monitor the build-up and flow of dyed-tagged saliva proteins within the contact during sliding. Results confirm the lubricous boundary film forming nature of saliva proteins by showing a strong correlation between friction and average protein intensity signals (cross correlation coefficient = 0.87). This demonstrates

    Miraldo M, Silva F, Gregorio M, Cruz-e-Silva D, Severo M, Nogueira P, Nunes A, Graça P, Lopes C, Breda J, Allen L, Wickramasinghe K, Darzi A, Mikkelsen B, Araújo Fet al.,

    Modelling the impact of a food industry co-regulation agreement on Portugal’s non-communicable disease mortality

    , Bulletin of the World Health Organization, ISSN: 0042-9686

    ObjectiveIn this paper we model the reduction in premature mortality associated with Noncommunicacle Diseases as a result of the establishment of a co-regulation agreement between the Portuguese Ministry of Health and the Portuguese food industry. We also assess whether Portugal is on track to meet the international targets of reducing baseline 2010 premature deaths from noncommunicable diseases by 25% by 2025, and by 30% before 2030. We also aimed to model the impact of the industry co-regulation agreement on premature mortality.MethodsThe 2015co-regulation agreement agreement between the Portuguese food industry and the Portuguese government sets targets of reducing sugar by 20%, salt content by 16% (30% for bread), and <2g trans fatty acids per 100g of fat in a range of products by 2021. The WHO Europe-endorsed PRIME modelling tool was used to estimate the number of Noncommunicacle Diseases deaths that would be averted if these reformulation targets were fully met in the year 2016. Using data on population structure, Noncommunicacle Diseases mortality, and dietary intake from the Portuguese Directorate General of Health, we calculated the actual trends on premature mortality probability for Noncommunicacle Diseases, and projected future trends using regression modelling. FindingsThe risk of premature Noncommunicacle Diseases mortality fell from 13.9% to 10.9% between 2000-2010 but remained relatively unchanged up until 2016. We project that the risk will rise to 11.0% by 2030. If the industry reformulation targets are met we estimate reductions in salt intake of around 7%; total energy reductions from 1,911Kcal/day to 1,897 kcal/day due to reduced sugar intake; and reductions in total fat (% total energy) from 30.4% to 30.3% due to reduced trans fat intake. The PRIME modelling tool calculates that this consumption profile would have resulted in 873 fewer Noncommunicacle Diseases deaths (95%CI 483–1,107) and 247 fewer premature Noncommunicacle Diseases

    Aurino E, Fledderjohann J, Vellakkal S, 2019,

    Inequalities in adolescent learning: Does the timing and persistence of food insecurity at home matter?

    , Economics of Education Review, ISSN: 0272-7757

    We investigated inequalities in learning achievements at 12 years by household food insecurity trajectories at ages 5, 8 and 12 years in a longitudinal sample of 1,911 Indian children. Estimates included extensive child and household controls and lagged cognitive scores to address unobserved individual heterogeneity in ability and early investments. Overall, household food insecurity at any age predicted lower vocabulary, reading, maths and English scores in early adolescence. Adolescents from households that transitioned out from food insecurity at age 5 to later food security, and adolescents from chronically food insecure households had the lowest scores across all outcomes. There was heterogeneity in the relationship between temporal occurrence of food insecurity and cognitive skills, based on developmental and curriculum-specific timing of skill formation. Results were robust to additional explanations of the “household food insecurity gap”, i.e. education and health investments, parental and child education aspirations, and child psychosocial skills.KeywordsCognitive skillsLearningAdolescentFood insecurityIndiaEducation inequalityHuman capitalLongitudinalEducationLifecourseJEL classificationI24, I29, I39, H52

    Goiana-da-Silva F, Cruz-e-Silva D, Miraldo M, Calhau C, Bento A, Cruz D, Almeida F, Darzi A, Araujo Fet al., 2019,

    Front-of-pack labelling policies and the need for guidance

    , Lancet Public Health, Vol: 4, Pages: E15-E15, ISSN: 2468-2667
    Azupogo F, Aurino E, Gelli A, Bosompem KM, Ayi I, Osendarp SJM, Brouwer ID, Folson Get al., 2019,

    Agro-ecological zone and farm diversity are factors associated with haemoglobin and anaemia among rural school-aged children and adolescents in Ghana

    , MATERNAL AND CHILD NUTRITION, Vol: 15, ISSN: 1740-8695
    Goiana-da-Silva F, Cruz-e-Silva D, Gregorio MJ, Miraldo M, Darzi A, Araujo Fet al., 2018,

    The future of the sweetened beverages tax in Portugal

    , Lancet Public Health, Vol: 3, Pages: E562-E562, ISSN: 2468-2667
    Aurino E, Morrow V, 2018,

    “Food prices were high, and the dal became watery”. Mixed-method evidence on household food insecurity and children’s diets in India

    , World Development, Vol: 111, Pages: 211-224, ISSN: 0305-750X

    Food insecurity and malnutrition are key policy priorities in India. Evidence on children’s experiences of household food insecurity and how food insecurity influences their dietary quality is limited for India and other low- and middle-income countries. Evidence on mid-childhood and adolescence is even scarcer. We present longitudinal evidence on household food insecurity and child diets by drawing on a mixed methods study with two cohorts of children from Andhra Pradesh and Telangana (India).Analysis of survey data shows that children living in food insecure households had lower dietary diversity and probability of consumption of micronutrient- and protein-rich foods, which are critical for their healthy development. Inequalities in child dietary quality by household food security status were most pronounced at preschool age.Children identified dietary quality as a critical dimension of their well-being. From an early age, children were able to describe and explain the food security challenges of their families and recognize the negative consequences of household food insecurity on their diets, health and education. Children were not only cognizant of household responses to food insecurity, but they were also actively involved in such strategies through limiting the quantity and quality of food purchased and consumed, reducing dietary diversity, and/or engaging in work or social protection. The latter were often mentioned as critical safety nets in face of economic, demographic or climate shocks, although children expressed criticism about implementation.Longitudinal mixed methods can enhance our understanding of children’s experiences of household food insecurity and its repercussion on their health and broader well-being. Child-focused evidence is key to shaping social protection implementation to context-specific needs at critical human development stages

    Miguel-Aliaga I, Jasper H, Lemaitre B, 2018,

    Anatomy and physiology of the digestive tract of drosophila melanogaster

    , Genetics, Vol: 210, Pages: 357-396, ISSN: 0016-6731

    The gastrointestinal tract has recently come to the forefront of multiple research fields. It is now recognized as a major sourceof signals modulating food intake, insulin secretion and energy balance. It is also a key player in immunity and, through its interaction withmicrobiota, can shape our physiology and behavior in complex and sometimes unexpected ways. The insect intestine had remained, bycomparison, relatively unexplored until the identification of adult somatic stem cells in the Drosophila intestine over a decade ago. Sincethen, a growing scientific community has exploited the genetic amenability of this insect organ in powerful and creative ways. By doingso, we have shed light on a broad range of biological questions revolving around stem cells and their niches, interorgan signaling andimmunity. Despite their relatively recent discovery, some of the mechanisms active in the intestine of flies have already been shown to bemore widely applicable to other gastrointestinal systems, and may therefore become relevant in the context of human pathologies such asgastrointestinal cancers, aging, or obesity. This review summarizes our current knowledge of both the formation and function of theDrosophila melanogaster digestive tract, with a major focus on its main digestive/absorptive portion: the strikingly adaptable adult midgut.

    Picchioni F, Aurino E, Aleksandrowicz L, Bruce M, Chesterman S, Dominguez-Salas P, Gersten Z, Kalamatianou S, Turner C, Yates Jet al., 2018,

    Roads to interdisciplinarity - working at the nexus among food systems, nutrition and health (vol 9, pg 181, 2017)

    , FOOD SECURITY, Vol: 10, Pages: 1141-1141, ISSN: 1876-4517

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