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  • Journal article
    Goiana-da-Silva F, Cruz-e-Silva D, Gregorio MJ, Miraldo M, Darzi A, Araujo Fet al., 2018,

    The future of the sweetened beverages tax in Portugal

    , Lancet Public Health, Vol: 3, Pages: E562-E562, ISSN: 2468-2667
  • Journal article
    Aurino E, Morrow V, 2018,

    “Food prices were high, and the dal became watery”. Mixed-method evidence on household food insecurity and children’s diets in India

    , World Development, Vol: 111, Pages: 211-224, ISSN: 0305-750X

    Food insecurity and malnutrition are key policy priorities in India. Evidence on children’s experiences of household food insecurity and how food insecurity influences their dietary quality is limited for India and other low- and middle-income countries. Evidence on mid-childhood and adolescence is even scarcer. We present longitudinal evidence on household food insecurity and child diets by drawing on a mixed methods study with two cohorts of children from Andhra Pradesh and Telangana (India).Analysis of survey data shows that children living in food insecure households had lower dietary diversity and probability of consumption of micronutrient- and protein-rich foods, which are critical for their healthy development. Inequalities in child dietary quality by household food security status were most pronounced at preschool age.Children identified dietary quality as a critical dimension of their well-being. From an early age, children were able to describe and explain the food security challenges of their families and recognize the negative consequences of household food insecurity on their diets, health and education. Children were not only cognizant of household responses to food insecurity, but they were also actively involved in such strategies through limiting the quantity and quality of food purchased and consumed, reducing dietary diversity, and/or engaging in work or social protection. The latter were often mentioned as critical safety nets in face of economic, demographic or climate shocks, although children expressed criticism about implementation.Longitudinal mixed methods can enhance our understanding of children’s experiences of household food insecurity and its repercussion on their health and broader well-being. Child-focused evidence is key to shaping social protection implementation to context-specific needs at critical human development stages

  • Journal article
    Miguel-Aliaga I, Jasper H, Lemaitre B, 2018,

    Anatomy and physiology of the digestive tract of drosophila melanogaster

    , Genetics, Vol: 210, Pages: 357-396, ISSN: 0016-6731

    The gastrointestinal tract has recently come to the forefront of multiple research fields. It is now recognized as a major sourceof signals modulating food intake, insulin secretion and energy balance. It is also a key player in immunity and, through its interaction withmicrobiota, can shape our physiology and behavior in complex and sometimes unexpected ways. The insect intestine had remained, bycomparison, relatively unexplored until the identification of adult somatic stem cells in the Drosophila intestine over a decade ago. Sincethen, a growing scientific community has exploited the genetic amenability of this insect organ in powerful and creative ways. By doingso, we have shed light on a broad range of biological questions revolving around stem cells and their niches, interorgan signaling andimmunity. Despite their relatively recent discovery, some of the mechanisms active in the intestine of flies have already been shown to bemore widely applicable to other gastrointestinal systems, and may therefore become relevant in the context of human pathologies such asgastrointestinal cancers, aging, or obesity. This review summarizes our current knowledge of both the formation and function of theDrosophila melanogaster digestive tract, with a major focus on its main digestive/absorptive portion: the strikingly adaptable adult midgut.

  • Journal article
    Picchioni F, Aurino E, Aleksandrowicz L, Bruce M, Chesterman S, Dominguez-Salas P, Gersten Z, Kalamatianou S, Turner C, Yates Jet al., 2018,

    Roads to interdisciplinarity - working at the nexus among food systems, nutrition and health (vol 9, pg 181, 2017)

    , FOOD SECURITY, Vol: 10, Pages: 1141-1141, ISSN: 1876-4517
  • Journal article
    Goiana-da-Silva F, Nunes AM, Miraldo M, Bento A, Breda J, Araújo FFet al., 2018,

    [Using Pricing Policies to Promote Public Health: The Sugar Sweetened Beverages Taxation Experience in Portugal].

    , Acta Médica Portuguesa, Vol: 31, Pages: 191-195, ISSN: 0870-399X
  • Journal article
    Goiana-Da-Silva F, Nunes AM, Miraldo M, Bento A, Breda J, Araujo FFet al., 2018,

    Taxation in Public Health Service: The Experience in Taxation of Sugary Drinks in Portugal (vol 4, pg 233, 2018)

    , ACTA MEDICA PORTUGUESA, Vol: 31, Pages: 233-233, ISSN: 1646-0758
  • Journal article
    Grmai L, Hudry B, Miguel-Aliaga I, Bach EAet al., 2018,

    Chinmo prevents transformer alternative splicing to maintain male sex identity

    , PLoS Genetics, Vol: 14, Pages: 1-27, ISSN: 1553-7390

    Reproduction in sexually dimorphic animals relies on successful gamete production, executed by the germline and aided by somatic support cells. Somatic sex identity in Drosophila is instructed by sex-specific isoforms of the DMRT1 ortholog Doublesex (Dsx). Female-specific expression of Sex-lethal (Sxl) causes alternative splicing of transformer (tra) to the female isoform traF. In turn, TraF alternatively splices dsx to the female isoform dsxF. Loss of the transcriptional repressor Chinmo in male somatic stem cells (CySCs) of the testis causes them to “feminize”, resembling female somatic stem cells in the ovary. This somatic sex transformation causes a collapse of germline differentiation and male infertility. We demonstrate this feminization occurs by transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation of traF. We find that chinmo-deficient CySCs upregulate tra mRNA as well as transcripts encoding tra-splice factors Virilizer (Vir) and Female lethal (2)d (Fl(2)d). traF splicing in chinmo-deficient CySCs leads to the production of DsxF at the expense of the male isoform DsxM, and both TraF and DsxF are required for CySC sex transformation. Surprisingly, CySC feminization upon loss of chinmo does not require Sxl but does require Vir and Fl(2)d. Consistent with this, we show that both Vir and Fl(2)d are required for tra alternative splicing in the female somatic gonad. Our work reveals the need for transcriptional regulation of tra in adult male stem cells and highlights a previously unobserved Sxl-independent mechanism of traF production in vivo. In sum, transcriptional control of the sex determination hierarchy by Chinmo is critical for sex maintenance in sexually dimorphic tissues and is vital in the preservation of fertility.

  • Journal article
    Viner RM, Kinra S, Nicholls D, Cole T, Kessel A, Christie D, White B, Croker H, Wong ICK, Saxena Set al., 2018,

    Burden of child and adolescent obesity on health services in England

    , Arch Dis Child, Vol: 103, Pages: 247-254, ISSN: 0003-9888

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the numbers of obese children and young people (CYP) eligible for assessment and management at each stage of the childhood obesity pathway in England. DESIGN: Pathway modelling study, operationalising the UK National Institute for Health and Care Excellence guidance on childhood obesity management against national survey data. SETTING: Data on CYP aged 2-18 years from the Health Survey for England 2006 to 2013. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Clinical obesity (body mass index (BMI) >98th centile), extreme obesity (BMI >/=99.86th centile); family history of cardiovascular disease or type 2 diabetes; obesity comorbidities defined as primary care detectable (hypertension, orthopaedic or mobility problems, bullying or psychological distress) or secondary care detectable (dyslipidaemia, hyperinsulinaemia, high glycated haemoglobin, abnormal liver function). RESULTS: 11.2% (1.22 million) of CYP in England were eligible for primary care assessment and for community lifestyle modification. 2.6% (n=283 500) CYP were estimated to be likely to attend primary care. 5.1% (n=556 000) were eligible for secondary care referral. Among those aged 13-18 years, 8.2% (n=309 000) were eligible for antiobesity drug therapy and 2.4% (90 500) of English CYP were eligible for bariatric surgery. CYP from the most deprived quintile were 1.5-fold to 3-fold more likely to be eligible for obesity management. CONCLUSIONS: There is a mismatch between population burden and available data on service use for obesity in CYP in England, particularly among deprived young people. There is a need for consistent evidence-based commissioning of services across the childhood obesity pathway based on population burden.

  • Book chapter
    Drake L, Fernades M, Aurino E, Kiamba J, Giyose B, Burbano C, Alderman H, Mai L, Mitchell A, Gelli Aet al., 2017,

    School feeding programs in middle childhood and adolescence

    , Child and Adolescent Health and Development, Editors: Bundy, de Silva, Horton, Jamison, Patton, Publisher: International Bank for Reconstruction and Development / The World Bank, Pages: 147-164, ISBN: 978-1-4648-0423-6

    Almost every country in the world has a national school feeding program to provide daily snacks or meals to school-attending children and adolescents. The interven-tions reach an estimated 368 million children and ado-lescents globally. The total investment in the intervention is projected to be as much as US$75 billion annually (WFP 2013), largely from government budgets. School feeding may contribute to multiple objectives, including social safety nets, education, nutrition, health, and local agriculture. Its contribution to education objectives is well recognized and documented, while its role as a social safety net was underscored following the food and fuel crises of 2007 and 2008 (Bundy and others 2009). In terms of health and nutrition, school feeding contributes to the continuum of development by build-ing on investments made earlier in the life course, including maternal and infant health interventions and early child development interventions (see chapter 7 in this volume, Alderman and others 2017). School feeding may also help leverage global efforts to enhance the inclusiveness of education for out-of-school children, adolescent girls, and disabled persons, as called for in the Sustainable Development Goals (see chapter 17 in this volume, Graham and others 2017). Although the Disease Control Priorities series focuses on low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), evidence from high-income countries (HICs) is included because of the near universality of school feeding and the insights that inclusion can provide as economies develop.For example, the design of school feeding in countries under-going the nutrition transition1may provide some lessons on how to shift from providing access to sufficient calo-ries to promoting healthful diets and dietary behaviors for children and adolescents (WFP 2013).Agricultural development has increasingly

  • Journal article
    White B, Hsia Y, Kinra S, Saxena S, Christie D, Viner RM, Wong ICKet al., 2017,

    Survey of anti-obesity drug prescribing for obese children and young people in UK primary care.

    , BMJ Paediatrics Open, Vol: 1, ISSN: 2399-9772

    Objectives Antiobesity drug (AOD) prescribing in childrenand young people (CYP) in primary care is rising with highrates of discontinuation. Little is known about prescribingin this group in terms of patient demographics andcomorbidities, reasons for initiation and discontinuation, oradherence to national guidelines.Design Questionnaire survey to general practitioners(GPs) identified using a nationally representative primarycare database covering 6% of UK population.Setting UK-wide primary care.Participants Patients were eligible if prescribed anAOD aged ≤18 years between 2010 and 2012. A total of151 patients from 108 unique practices were identifiedvia national prescribing database, with responses for 119patients (79%) from 84 practices; 94 of 119 (79%) wereeligible for inclusion.Primary and secondary outcomes Survey of GPprescribing habits of AODs to CYP. We audited orlistatusage against the National Institute for Health and CareExcellence (NICE) guidance.Results 47% were prescribed metformin, 59% orlistatand 5% both drugs. Orlistat was largely prescribed by GPsindependently (49/55 prescriptions, 89%) and metforminby GPs on specialist recommendation (12/44, 27%).Orlistat was largely prescribed in those over 16 yearsof age without physical comorbidities. Metformin wasinitiated for treatment of polycystic ovarian syndrome(70%), insulin resistance (25%) and impaired glucosecontrol (9%). Median supply of metformin was 10.5months (IQR 4–18.5 months) and 2.0 months (1.0–4.0) fororlistat (p≤0.001). Drug terminations were largely due tofamilies not requesting repeat prescriptions. NICE guidanceadherence was low; 17% of orlistat prescriptions wereinitiated by specialists, and 56% had evidence of obesityrelatedcomorbidity. GPs reported lower confidence inprescribing AOD to CYP compared with adults (10-pointLikert score median 3 vs 8, p<0.001).Conclusions Prescribing of AOD in primary care ischallenging with low adherence to NICE guidance. Furtherwork is

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