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  • Journal article
    Schott W, Aurino E, Penny ME, Behrman JRet al., 2017,

    Adolescent mothers’ anthropometrics and grandmothers’ schooling predict infant anthropometrics in Ethiopia, India, Peru, Vietnam

    , Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, Vol: 1416, Pages: 86-106, ISSN: 1749-6632

    We investigated intergenerational associations of adolescent mothers’ and grandmothers’ anthropometrics and schooling with adolescent mothers’ offspring's anthropometrics in Ethiopia, India, Peru, and Vietnam. We examined birthweight (n = 283), birthweight Z‐score (BWZ), conditional growth in weight‐for‐age Z‐score (cWAZ, residuals from a regression of WAZ at last survey round on BWZ, sex, and age), and height‐for‐age Z‐score (HAZ) of children born to older cohort adolescent girls in the Young Lives study. Our key independent variables were adolescent mothers’ body size: HAZ and body‐mass‐index‐for‐age Z‐score (BMIZ) at age 8, conditional HAZ (cHAZ, residuals from a regression of HAZ at the end of a growth period on prior HAZ, age, and sex), conditional BMIZ growth (cBMIZ, calculated analogously), and grandmaternal BMIZ, HAZ, and schooling. We adjusted for child, maternal, and household characteristics. Adolescent mothers’ cHAZ (ages 8–15) predicted birthweight (urn:x-wiley:00778923:media:nyas13455:nyas13455-math-0001 = 130 g, 95% confidence interval (CI) 31–228), BWZ (urn:x-wiley:00778923:media:nyas13455:nyas13455-math-0002 = 0.31, CI 0.09–0.53), and cWAZ (urn:x-wiley:00778923:media:nyas13455:nyas13455-math-0003 = 0.28, CI 0.04–0.51). Adolescent mothers’ BMIZ at age 8 predicted birthweight (urn:x-wiley:00778923:media:nyas13455:nyas13455-math-0004 = 79 g, CI 16–43) and BWZ (urn:x-wiley:00778923:media:nyas13455:nyas13455-math-0005 = 0.22, CI 0.08–0.36). Adolescent mothers’ cBMIZ (ages 12–15) predicted child cWAZ and HAZ. Grandmothers’ schooling predicted grandchild birthweight (urn:x-wiley:00778923:media:nyas13455:nyas13455-math-0006 = 22 g, CI 1–44) and BWZ (urn:x-wiley:00778923:media:nyas13455:nyas13455-math-0007 = 0.05, CI 0.01–0.10).

  • Journal article
    Fernandes M, Folson G, Aurino E, Gelli Aet al., 2017,

    A free lunch or a walk back home? The school food environment and dietary behaviours among children and adolescents in Ghana

    , Food Security, Vol: 9, Pages: 1073-1090, ISSN: 1876-4517

    Food environments can play important roles in shaping nutrition and health outcomes. One such environment that has potential to affect youth is the school food environment. In contrast to higher-income countries, however, there is a critical evidence gap on the role of school food environments on children and adolescents in low- and middle-income countries. This mixed-methods study contributes to filling this gap by investigating the role of school food environments on dietary behaviours of children and adolescents in Ghana. It draws on data from household and school questionnaires as well as focus group discussions collected as part of the baseline for an impact evaluation of the Ghana School Feeding Programme (GSFP). Multi-level regression models were fitted with random intercepts at the individual, household and community levels. Excerpts from the focus group discussions provided a deeper understanding of quantitative findings. Children and adolescents who received free school meals provided by the GSFP or who lived further away from school were less likely to go home for lunch. More than half of sampled schools reported offering foods for sale by independent vendors, the most common being meals followed by confectionery, fruit and sugar-sweetened beverages. Predictors of bringing money to school to buy food included non-receipt of free school meals, adolescence, greater commuting distance from home, household asset score, and urban location. Policy efforts focusing on the school food environment may contribute to healthy dietary behaviours for children and adolescents with positive impacts over the lifecourse.

  • Journal article
    Aurino E, Schott W, Penny ME, Behrman JRet al., 2017,

    Birthweight and prepubertal body size predict menarcheal age in India, Peru and Vietnam

    , Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, Vol: 1416, Pages: 107-116, ISSN: 1749-6632

    Evidence on the associations of birthweight and prepubertal nutritional status with menarcheal age for low- and middle-income countries is limited. We investigated these relations using the Young Lives younger cohort for 2001 Indian, Peruvian and Vietnamese girls born 2001-2002. Girls were followed at approximately ages 1, 5, 8 and 12 years. Weibull survival models estimated hazards of earlier menarche based on birthweight z-scores (BWZ), and age 8-years BMI-for-age z-scores (BMIZ) and height-for-age z-scores (HAZ). Estimates controlled for potential individual-, mother- and household-level confounders, and for changes in anthropometry between 1 and 8 years. In adjusted models, BWZ predicted later age at menarche (Hazard Ratio, HR=0.90, 95%CI: 0.83 - 0.97). Conversely, HAZ (HR=1.66 95%CI 1.5 - 1.83) and BMIZ at 8 years (HR=1.28, 95% CI: 1.18 - 1.38) predicted earlier menarche. Changes in HAZ and BMIZ between 1 and 8 years were not associated with earlier menarche. Associations were consistent across countries, though with variation in estimated magnitudes. Maternal height and age were associated with later menarche. This evidence points to consistently robust and opposite associations of birthweight versus prepubertal attained height and BMI with menarcheal age in three diverse settings in terms of nutrition, ethnicity and socio-economic status.

  • Journal article
    Perea D, Guiu J, Hudry B, Konstantinidou C, Milona A, Hadjieconomou D, Carroll T, Hoyer N, Natarajan D, Kallijärvi J, Walker JA, Soba P, Thapar N, Burns AJ, Jensen KB, Miguel-Aliaga Iet al., 2017,

    Ret receptor tyrosine kinase sustains proliferation and tissue maturation in intestinal epithelia.

    , EMBO Journal, Vol: 36, Pages: 3029-3045, ISSN: 0261-4189

    Expression of the Ret receptor tyrosine kinase is a defining feature of enteric neurons. Its importance is underscored by the effects of its mutation in Hirschsprung disease, leading to absence of gut innervation and severe gastrointestinal symptoms. We report a new and physiologically significant site of Ret expression in the intestine: the intestinal epithelium. Experiments in Drosophila indicate that Ret is expressed both by enteric neurons and adult intestinal epithelial progenitors, which require Ret to sustain their proliferation. Mechanistically, Ret is engaged in a positive feedback loop with Wnt/Wingless signalling, modulated by Src and Fak kinases. We find that Ret is also expressed by the developing intestinal epithelium of mice, where its expression is maintained into the adult stage in a subset of enteroendocrine/enterochromaffin cells. Mouse organoid experiments point to an intrinsic role for Ret in promoting epithelial maturation and regulating Wnt signalling. Our findings reveal evolutionary conservation of the positive Ret/Wnt signalling feedback in both developmental and homoeostatic contexts. They also suggest an epithelial contribution to Ret loss-of-function disorders such as Hirschsprung disease.

  • Journal article
    Miguel-Aliaga I, 2017,

    Irene Miguel-Aliaga

    , Current Biology, Vol: 27, Pages: R286-R287, ISSN: 1879-0445
  • Journal article
    Finnamore H, Silva BM, Hickson BM, Whelan K, Shovlin CLet al., 2017,

    7-day weighed food diaries suggest patients with hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia may spontaneously modify their diet to avoid nosebleed precipitants


    Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT) poses substantial burdens due to nosebleeds and iron deficiency resulting from recurrent hemorrhagic iron losses. Recent studies by our group found surprising links between HHT nosebleeds and certain food groups. In this letter, we report 7-day weighed food diary assessments of an unselected group of 25 UK patients with HHT whose nosebleeds ranged from mild to severe (median epistaxis severity score 4.66, range 0.89– 9.11). The diaries provide evidence that food items most commonly reported to provoke nosebleeds were ingested by fewer HHT patients, compared to food items less commonly reported to provoke nosebleeds (chi-squared p <0.001).

  • Book chapter
    Baxter WL, childs PRN, 2017,

    Designing Circular Possessions

    , The Routledge Handbook of Sustainable Product Design, Editors: Chapman

    The notion of possession is one of the most fundamental concepts that guide everyday behaviour. Paradoxically, it is often poorly understood. This is particularly true in a circular context where consumer interactions with possessions are being altered and in some cases redefined. Thus, an understanding of possession serves as a useful, if not necessary, prerequisite to designing circular products, services and systems. This chapter explores the idea of possession: what it is, how an object becomes one and why it is important for the circular economy. Possession is understood through a human-centred lens that considers the consumer’s state of mind towards and relationship with an object. A state of possessiveness can be attained for material or immaterial objects and for objects that may or may not legally belong to the person. The discussion is presented within a design framework that discusses the motives and routes that lead to the state of possession. This framework is substantiated by looking at affordance principles and paths associated with possession. Each section includes a theoretical discussion as well as practical examples and insights that can be incorporated into the product design process itself. This chapter aids in understanding interactions relevant to the circular economy such as the maintenance and care that comes with object attachment and adoption of access-based consumption models. Understanding and designing for these desired interactions should be the first priority of designers followed by an establishment of laws, regulations and policies to support them.

  • Journal article
    Sassi F, 2017,


    , ADDICTION, Vol: 112, Pages: 569-570, ISSN: 0965-2140
  • Journal article
    Miraldo M, Galizzi MM, 2017,

    Are You What You Eat? Healthy Behaviour and Risk Preferences


    We elicit and estimate risk preferences for a pool of young adults in the UK, and explore their links with healthy eating and risky health behaviours. We construct the Healthy Eating Index (HEI) as an overall indicator of nutritional quality, and we use it to complement the body mass index BMI. While for females we find no significant association between the BMI and risk preferences, males with high BMI appear more risk-seeking. However, this association disappears when controlling for the quality of the diet. For males, the HEI is significantly associated with risk preferences. Males smoking status is not associated with risk preferences.

  • Journal article
    Picchioni F, Aurino E, Aleksandrowicz L, 2017,

    Roads to interdisciplinarity – working at the nexus among food systems, nutrition and health

    , Food Security, Vol: 9, Pages: 181-189, ISSN: 1876-4525

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