Imperial College London

Prof Alexander Bismarck

Faculty of EngineeringDepartment of Chemical Engineering

Professor of Advanced Materials
 
 
 
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Contact

 

+44 (0)20 7594 5578a.bismarck Website

 
 
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Assistant

 

Mrs Sarah Payne +44 (0)20 7594 5567

 
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Location

 

526ACE ExtensionSouth Kensington Campus

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Summary

 

Publications

Publication Type
Year
to

318 results found

Anthony DB, Bacarreza Nogales OR, Shaffer MSP, Bismarck A, Robinson P, Pimenta Set al., Crack arrest in finger jointed thermoplastic interleaved CFRC, 21st International Conference on Composite Materials

Pre-cut unidirectional carbon fibre prepreg (M21/194/34%/T800S) composites were tested in tension with a 20 mm overlapped finger joint architectures. In between the overlapping finger jointed region the effect of introducing polyethersulfone (PES) interleaves is investigated. Samples with the addition of a thick PES interleave arrested the initial crack which formed at the pre-cut site. The strain-to-failure of the thick PES interleaved samples was over 3.2%, an increase of 85% compared to the baseline samples, and catastrophic failure was delayed in the majority of instances.

CONFERENCE PAPER

Blaker JJ, Anthony DB, Tang G, Shamsuddin S, Abdolvand A, Shaffer M, Bismarck Aet al., Carbon fibres with modulated properties and shape along the fibre length, 20th International Conference on Composite Materials, Publisher: ICCM

This paper presents a detailed experimental examination of the influence of the thickness of flatenergy directors (ED) on the ultrasonic welding (USW) process for carbon fibre/polyetherimidecomposites. Three thicknesses of flat ED were compared: 0.06 mm, 0.25 mm and 0.50 mm. Power anddisplacement data for 0.06 mm-thick EDs did not clearly show the stages of the process and thelocation of the optimum for best weld quality. Consequently, an investigation of samples welded atdifferent stages in the welding process had to be performed. For 0.06 mm-thick EDs, the optimum wasdetermined to occur at the beginning of the downward displacement of the sonotrode in the vibrationphase. The output parameters at the optimum conditions for all thicknesses were compared. Averagelap shear strength was found to be lowest for 0.06 mm-thick EDs. Based on the analysis of the fracturesurfaces, resin flakes and voids were observed when using the thinnest energy directors, indicatingthermal degradation. These observations suggest that thin energy directors are not as efficient asthicker EDs (i.e. 0.25 mm) to achieve preferential heat generation at the weld line, leading to lessconsistent weld quality.

CONFERENCE PAPER

De Luca, Anthony DB, Greenhalgh ES, Bismarck A, Shaffer Met al., Continuous production of carbon nanotube-grafted quartz fibres: Effect of carbon nanotube length on fibre/matrix adhesion, 21st International Conference on Composite Materials

Here, the continuous production of carbon nanotube-grafted-quartz-fibres was performed in an open chemical vapour deposition reactor with continuous in line catalyst deposition. Highly graphitic carbon nanotubes (CNTs) with controllable lengths ranging from 0.1 μm to 20 μm were grown on the quartz fibre surface by adjusting the reduction and growth times, with shorter fibres growing homogeneously and longer CNTs growing in a splayed “Mohawk” manner. The effect of CNTs length (and thus microstructure) upon the mechanical properties of CNT-grafted-quartz-fibre/epoxy composites was investigated through single fibre pull-out test. The presence of a uniform coverage of sub-micron long CNTs led to an increase in interfacial shear strength of 11% and 29% when compared to sized and de-sized quartz fibres, respectively.

CONFERENCE PAPER

Anthony DB, Qian H, Clancy AJ, Greenhalgh ES, Bismarck A, Shaffer MSPet al., 2017, Applying a potential difference to minimise damage to carbon fibres during carbon nanotube grafting by chemical vapour deposition, NANOTECHNOLOGY, Vol: 28, ISSN: 0957-4484

JOURNAL ARTICLE

Fortea-Verdejo M, Bumbaris E, Burgstaller C, Bismarck A, Lee K-Yet al., 2017, Plant fibre-reinforced polymers: where do we stand in terms of tensile properties?, INTERNATIONAL MATERIALS REVIEWS, Vol: 62, Pages: 441-464, ISSN: 0950-6608

JOURNAL ARTICLE

Greenhalgh RD, Ambler WS, Quinn SJ, Medeiros ES, Anderson M, Gore B, Menner A, Bismarck A, Li X, Tirelli N, Blaker JJet al., 2017, Hybrid sol-gel inorganic/gelatin porous fibres via solution blow spinning, JOURNAL OF MATERIALS SCIENCE, Vol: 52, Pages: 9066-9081, ISSN: 0022-2461

JOURNAL ARTICLE

Jiang Q, Barkan H, Menner A, Bismarck Aet al., 2017, Micropatterned, macroporous polymer springs for capacitive energy harvesters, POLYMER, Vol: 126, Pages: 419-424, ISSN: 0032-3861

JOURNAL ARTICLE

Jiang Q, Menner A, Bismarck A, 2017, One-pot synthesis of supported hydrogel membranes via emulsion templating, Reactive and Functional Polymers, Vol: 114, Pages: 104-109, ISSN: 1381-5148

© 2017 Elsevier B.V. Supported hydrogel membranes were produced by one-pot synthesis by polymerisation of suitable emulsion templates. High internal phase emulsions (HIPEs) with styrene (St), divinylbenzene (DVB) and ethylhexyl acrylate (EHA) in the continuous phase and methacrylic acid (MAA) in the internal phase were polymerised to prepare poly(MAA) hydrogel grafted poly(St-co-DVB-co-EHA) poly(merised)HIPEs. By changing the concentration of the crosslinker, N,N′-methylenebisacrylamide, in the internal phase of the emulsion template the crosslinking density of the grafted poly(MAA) was tuned. The presence of the hydrogel was indicated by a change in pore morphology, e.g. coverage of the pore throats and the wrinkled pore wall surface, and the increase in the density of the composite polyHIPEs as compared to control polyHIPEs. Moreover, the increase in foam density and reduction of porosity were related to the crosslinking degree of the hydrogel. The water uptake of the composite polyHIPEs exceeded the pore volume of the polyHIPE scaffold supporting the grafted hydrogel. The permeability and rejection of aqueous solutions of polyethylene glycol (PEG) by the hydrogel grafted polyHIPE membranes were strongly pH dependent, the permeability decreased and the rejection of PEG increased with increasing pH due to the increased swelling of the hydrogel. A 91% rejection of 50 kDa PEG for polyHIPE supported hydrogel membranes has been identified, which qualifies such membranes for ultrafiltration applications.

JOURNAL ARTICLE

Jiang Q, Menner A, Bismarck A, 2017, One-pot synthesis of supported hydrogel membranes via emulsion templating, REACTIVE & FUNCTIONAL POLYMERS, Vol: 114, Pages: 104-109, ISSN: 1381-5148

JOURNAL ARTICLE

Kontturi KS, Biegaj K, Mautner A, Woodward RT, Wilson BP, Johansson L-S, Lee K-Y, Heng JYY, Bismarck A, Kontturi Eet al., 2017, Noncovalent Surface Modification of Cellulose Nanopapers by Adsorption of Polymers from Aprotic Solvents, LANGMUIR, Vol: 33, Pages: 5707-5712, ISSN: 0743-7463

JOURNAL ARTICLE

Lorenz M, Sattler S, Reza M, Bismarck A, Kontturi Eet al., 2017, Cellulose nanocrystals by acid vapour: towards more effortless isolation of cellulose nanocrystals, FARADAY DISCUSSIONS, Vol: 202, Pages: 315-330, ISSN: 1359-6640

JOURNAL ARTICLE

Mautner A, Lucenius J, Osterberg M, Bismarck Aet al., 2017, Multi-layer nanopaper based composites, CELLULOSE, Vol: 24, Pages: 1759-1773, ISSN: 0969-0239

JOURNAL ARTICLE

Robinson P, Bismarck A, Zhang B, Maples HAet al., 2017, Deployable, shape memory carbon fibre composites without shape memory constituents, COMPOSITES SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY, Vol: 145, Pages: 96-104, ISSN: 0266-3538

JOURNAL ARTICLE

Woodward RT, Jobbe-Duval A, Marchesini S, Anthony DB, Petit C, Bismarck Aet al., 2017, Hypercrosslinked polyHIPEs as precursors to designable, hierarchically porous carbon foams, POLYMER, Vol: 115, Pages: 146-153, ISSN: 0032-3861

JOURNAL ARTICLE

Anthony DB, Grail G, Bismarck A, Shaffer MSP, Robinson P, Pimenta Set al., 2016, Exploring the tensile response in small carbon fibre composite bundles

© 2016, European Conference on Composite Materials, ECCM. All rights reserved.Small composite bundles, AS4 carbon fibre epoxy, with a restricted number of reinforcing fibres, ca. 20, showed a progressive failure when tested in tension. In-situ acoustic emission observations under tensile load reveal that numerous fibres fail before ultimate failure of the small composite bundle, suggesting that isolated and individual fibre failures occur without compromising the integrity of the neighboring fibres or the small composite bundle's overall mechanical performance. The average strength of the carbon fibres in small composite bundles was 9.6% higher than in standard lab-scale composite specimens using the same fibre type.

CONFERENCE PAPER

Anthony DB, Grail G, Bismarck A, Shaffer MSP, Robinson P, Pimenta Set al., 2016, Exploring the tensile response in small carbon fibre composite bundles

© 2016, European Conference on Composite Materials, ECCM. All rights reserved. Small composite bundles, AS4 carbon fibre epoxy, with a restricted number of reinforcing fibres, ca. 20, showed a progressive failure when tested in tension. In-situ acoustic emission observations under tensile load reveal that numerous fibres fail before ultimate failure of the small composite bundle, suggesting that isolated and individual fibre failures occur without compromising the integrity of the neighboring fibres or the small composite bundle's overall mechanical performance. The average strength of the carbon fibres in small composite bundles was 9.6% higher than in standard lab-scale composite specimens using the same fibre type.

CONFERENCE PAPER

Barbara I, Birot M, Bismarck A, Deleuze Het al., 2016, Preparation of divinyl esters by transvinylation between vinyl acetate and dicarboxylic acids, ARKIVOC, Pages: 23-35, ISSN: 1551-7004

JOURNAL ARTICLE

Bismarck A, Blaker JJ, Anthony DB, Qian H, Maples HA, Robinson P, Shaffer MSP, Greenhalgh ESet al., 2016, Development of novel composites through fibre and interface/interphase modification, 37th Riso International Symposium on Materials Science - Understanding Performance of Composite Materials - Mechanisms Controlling Properties, Publisher: IOP PUBLISHING LTD, ISSN: 1757-8981

CONFERENCE PAPER

Bismarck A, Maples HA, Tridech C, Zhang B, Robinson Pet al., 2016, Controllable stiffness composites: An overview

© 2016, European Conference on Composite Materials, ECCM. All rights reserved.Composites with controllable stiffness have a number of potential applications including their use as skin materials in morphing aerostructures. Much work has focused on the development of such materials, which are required to withstand aerodynamic loads but also deform on demand at relatively low actuation forces. We provide an overview of the work carried out at Imperial College London on the development of high performance controllable stiffness composites. Two composite designs were explored, 1) composites containing thermoplastic interphases and 2) composites containing thermoplastic interleaf layers. Large reductions in stiffness of up to 99% were achieved when the composites were heated above the glass transition temperatures of the polymer interphase or interleaf layer. At these temperatures the composites could be deformed significantly and would retain their shape when cooled to room temperature. The process was completely reversible as the composites would return to their original configuration when reheated without an applied load. Self-deploying structures have also been manufactured from the controllable stiffness materials using the shape memory effect of the composites.

CONFERENCE PAPER

Bismarck A, Maples HA, Tridech C, Zhang B, Robinson Pet al., 2016, Controllable stiffness composites: An overview

© 2016, European Conference on Composite Materials, ECCM. All rights reserved. Composites with controllable stiffness have a number of potential applications including their use as skin materials in morphing aerostructures. Much work has focused on the development of such materials, which are required to withstand aerodynamic loads but also deform on demand at relatively low actuation forces. We provide an overview of the work carried out at Imperial College London on the development of high performance controllable stiffness composites. Two composite designs were explored, 1) composites containing thermoplastic interphases and 2) composites containing thermoplastic interleaf layers. Large reductions in stiffness of up to 99% were achieved when the composites were heated above the glass transition temperatures of the polymer interphase or interleaf layer. At these temperatures the composites could be deformed significantly and would retain their shape when cooled to room temperature. The process was completely reversible as the composites would return to their original configuration when reheated without an applied load. Self-deploying structures have also been manufactured from the controllable stiffness materials using the shape memory effect of the composites.

CONFERENCE PAPER

Blaker JJ, Anthony DB, Tang G, Shamsuddin S-R, Kalinka G, Weinrich M, Abdolvand A, Shaffer MSP, Bismarck Aet al., 2016, Property and Shape Modulation of Carbon Fibers Using Lasers, ACS APPLIED MATERIALS & INTERFACES, Vol: 8, Pages: 16351-16358, ISSN: 1944-8244

JOURNAL ARTICLE

De Luca F, Bismarck A, Shaffer MSP, 2016, Anisotropic nanostructure inspired by nature for energy abosrbing composite interfaces

© 2016, European Conference on Composite Materials, ECCM. All rights reserved.The "brick-and-mortar" structure of natural nacre is well known for its combination of high stiffness, strength and toughness thanks to well organised hard inclusions, experiencing pull-out within a soft organic matrix rather than fracture upon loading. Mimicking the structure of nacre while maintaining the same phase proportions and aspect ratio, but at a smaller length scale, opens up the possibility to create composite materials with high performance and large energy absorption properties through interface deformation. Therefore, Layered Double Hydroxide (LDH) nanoplatelets and poly(sodium 4-styrene sulfonate) (PSS) polylelectrolyte were assembled together with a high degree of alignment using Layer-by-Layer (LbL) assembly, resulting in a dense and well organized nanostructure similar to that of nacre. The mechanical properties of the nacre-nanomimetics were comparable to those of natural nacre while the plastic deformation was found amplified. The amplification of the proportion of plastic deformation can be explained by an increase in the volume of platelet interfaces per unit volume at the nanometer length scale. The known toughening mechanisms of nacre, such as platelet sliding and interlocking as well as crack deflection, were also found to occur in the reduced length scale embodiment.

CONFERENCE PAPER

De Luca F, Bismarck A, Shaffer MSP, 2016, Anisotropic nanostructure inspired by nature for energy abosrbing composite interfaces

© 2016, European Conference on Composite Materials, ECCM. All rights reserved. The "brick-and-mortar" structure of natural nacre is well known for its combination of high stiffness, strength and toughness thanks to well organised hard inclusions, experiencing pull-out within a soft organic matrix rather than fracture upon loading. Mimicking the structure of nacre while maintaining the same phase proportions and aspect ratio, but at a smaller length scale, opens up the possibility to create composite materials with high performance and large energy absorption properties through interface deformation. Therefore, Layered Double Hydroxide (LDH) nanoplatelets and poly(sodium 4-styrene sulfonate) (PSS) polylelectrolyte were assembled together with a high degree of alignment using Layer-by-Layer (LbL) assembly, resulting in a dense and well organized nanostructure similar to that of nacre. The mechanical properties of the nacre-nanomimetics were comparable to those of natural nacre while the plastic deformation was found amplified. The amplification of the proportion of plastic deformation can be explained by an increase in the volume of platelet interfaces per unit volume at the nanometer length scale. The known toughening mechanisms of nacre, such as platelet sliding and interlocking as well as crack deflection, were also found to occur in the reduced length scale embodiment.

CONFERENCE PAPER

De Luca H, Anthony DB, Qian H, Greenhalgh ES, Bismarck A, Shaffer MSPet al., 2016, Non-damaging and scalable carbon nanotube synthesis on carbon fibres

© 2016, European Conference on Composite Materials, ECCM. All rights reserved.The growth of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) on carbon fibres (CFs) to produce a hierarchical fibre with two differing reinforcement length scales, in this instance nanometre and micrometre respectively, is considered a route to improve current state-of-the-art fibre reinforced composites [1]. The scalable production of carbon nanotube-grafted-carbon fibres (CNT-g-CFs) has been limited due to high temperatures, the use of flammable gases and the requirement of inert conditions for CNT synthesis, whist (ideally) maintaining underlying original substrate mechanical properties. Here, the continuous production of CNT-g-CF is demonstrated in an open chemical vapour deposition (CVD) reactor, crucially, whilst retaining the tensile properties of the carbon fibres. As synthesised CNTs have a diameter of sub 20 nm and length ca. 120 nm, which are predicted to provide ideal fibre reinforcement in composites by retaining optimal composite fibre volume fraction (60%), whilst improving interfacial bonding of the matrix and reinforcement [1, 2]. Mild processing techniques enable this modified CVD process to be fully compatible with industrial practices, and have the potential to generate large volumes of hierarchical CNT-g-CF material.

CONFERENCE PAPER

De Luca H, Anthony DB, Qian H, Greenhalgh ES, Bismarck A, Shaffer MSPet al., 2016, Non-damaging and scalable carbon nanotube synthesis on carbon fibres

© 2016, European Conference on Composite Materials, ECCM. All rights reserved. The growth of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) on carbon fibres (CFs) to produce a hierarchical fibre with two differing reinforcement length scales, in this instance nanometre and micrometre respectively, is considered a route to improve current state-of-the-art fibre reinforced composites [1]. The scalable production of carbon nanotube-grafted-carbon fibres (CNT-g-CFs) has been limited due to high temperatures, the use of flammable gases and the requirement of inert conditions for CNT synthesis, whist (ideally) maintaining underlying original substrate mechanical properties. Here, the continuous production of CNT-g-CF is demonstrated in an open chemical vapour deposition (CVD) reactor, crucially, whilst retaining the tensile properties of the carbon fibres. As synthesised CNTs have a diameter of sub 20 nm and length ca. 120 nm, which are predicted to provide ideal fibre reinforcement in composites by retaining optimal composite fibre volume fraction (60%), whilst improving interfacial bonding of the matrix and reinforcement [1, 2] . Mild processing techniques enable this modified CVD process to be fully compatible with industrial practices, and have the potential to generate large volumes of hierarchical CNT-g-CF material.

CONFERENCE PAPER

Diao H, Robinson P, Wisnom MR, Bismarck Aet al., 2016, Unidirectional carbon fibre reinforced polyamide-12 composites with enhanced strain to tensile failure by introducing fibre waviness, COMPOSITES PART A-APPLIED SCIENCE AND MANUFACTURING, Vol: 87, Pages: 186-193, ISSN: 1359-835X

JOURNAL ARTICLE

Ferguson A, Khan U, Walsh M, Lee K-Y, Bismarck A, Shaffer MSP, Coleman JN, Bergin SDet al., 2016, Understanding the Dispersion and Assembly of Bacterial Cellulose in Organic Solvents, BIOMACROMOLECULES, Vol: 17, Pages: 1845-1853, ISSN: 1525-7797

JOURNAL ARTICLE

Fortea-Verdejo M, Lee K-Y, Zimmermann T, Bismarck Aet al., 2016, Upgrading flax nonwovens: Nanocellulose as binder to produce rigid and robust flax fibre preforms, COMPOSITES PART A-APPLIED SCIENCE AND MANUFACTURING, Vol: 83, Pages: 63-71, ISSN: 1359-835X

JOURNAL ARTICLE

Fortea-Verdejo M, Lee KY, Bismarck A, 2016, Bacterial cellulose as reinforcement for natural fibre thermoset composites

© 2016, European Conference on Composite Materials, ECCM. All rights reserved.It has been previously shown that the introduction of nanocellulose as binder for natural fibre thermoplastic and thermoset composites can enhance the mechanical properties of natural fibre composites. We aim to investigate the effect that bacterial cellulose (BC) has as binder, when introduced in different thermoset-flax fibre composites. Two matrices were investigated, epoxy and phenolic resins. To introduce the bacterial cellulose into the composites, a preform using BC as binder for loose flax fibres was manufactured. The preform was then infused with the thermosetting resins and cured. The resins penetrated the preforms during infusion, however, no significant improvement of the tensile properties could be seen when introducing BC for neither of the resins.

CONFERENCE PAPER

Fortea-Verdejo M, Lee KY, Bismarck A, 2016, Bacterial cellulose as reinforcement for natural fibre thermoset composites

© 2016, European Conference on Composite Materials, ECCM. All rights reserved. It has been previously shown that the introduction of nanocellulose as binder for natural fibre thermoplastic and thermoset composites can enhance the mechanical properties of natural fibre composites. We aim to investigate the effect that bacterial cellulose (BC) has as binder, when introduced in different thermoset-flax fibre composites. Two matrices were investigated, epoxy and phenolic resins. To introduce the bacterial cellulose into the composites, a preform using BC as binder for loose flax fibres was manufactured. The preform was then infused with the thermosetting resins and cured. The resins penetrated the preforms during infusion, however, no significant improvement of the tensile properties could be seen when introducing BC for neither of the resins.

CONFERENCE PAPER

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