Imperial College London

Prof Alexander Bismarck

Faculty of EngineeringDepartment of Chemical Engineering

Professor of Advanced Materials
 
 
 
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Contact

 

+44 (0)20 7594 5578a.bismarck Website

 
 
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Assistant

 

Mrs Sarah Payne +44 (0)20 7594 5567

 
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Location

 

526ACE ExtensionSouth Kensington Campus

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Summary

 

Publications

Publication Type
Year
to

348 results found

Anthony DB, Sui X, Kellersztein I, De Luca HG, White ER, Daniel Wagner H, Greenhalgh ES, Bismarck A, Shaffer MSPet al., 2018, Continuous carbon nanotube synthesis on charged carbon fibers, Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, ISSN: 1359-835X

JOURNAL ARTICLE

Buldum G, Bismarck A, Mantalaris A, 2018, Recombinant biosynthesis of bacterial cellulose in genetically modified Escherichia coli, BIOPROCESS AND BIOSYSTEMS ENGINEERING, Vol: 41, Pages: 265-279, ISSN: 1615-7591

JOURNAL ARTICLE

De Luca F, Clancy A, Rubio Carrero N, Anthony DB, De Luca H, Shaffer M, Bismarck Aet al., 2018, Increasing carbon fiber composite strength with a nanostructured“brick-and-mortar” interphase, Materials Horizons, Vol: 5, Pages: 668-674, ISSN: 2051-6355

Conventional fiber-reinforced composites suffer from the formation of critical clusters of correlated fiber breaks, leading to sudden composite failure in tension. To mitigate this problem, an optimized “brick-and-mortar” nanostructured interphase was developed, in order to absorb energy at fiber breaks and alleviate local stress concentrations whilst maintaining effective load transfer. The coating was designed to exploit crack bifurcation and platelet interlocking mechanisms known in natural nacre. However, the architecture was scaled down by an order of magnitude to allow a highly ordered conformal coating to be deposited around conventional structural carbon fibers, whilst retaining the characteristic phase proportions and aspect ratios of the natural system. Drawing on this bioinspiration, a Layer-by-Layer assembly method was used to coat multiple fibers simultaneously, providing an efficient and potentially scalable route for production. Single fiber pull out and fragmentation tests showed improved interfacial characteristics for energy absorption and plasticity. Impregnated fiber tow model composites demonstrated increases in absolute tensile strength (+15%) and strain-to-failure (+30%), as compared to composites containing conventionally sized fibers.

JOURNAL ARTICLE

De Luca F, Sernicola G, Shaffer MSP, Bismarck Aet al., 2018, "Brick-and-Mortar" Nanostructured Interphase for Glass-Fiber-Reinforced Polymer Composites, ACS APPLIED MATERIALS & INTERFACES, Vol: 10, Pages: 7352-7361, ISSN: 1944-8244

JOURNAL ARTICLE

Hagberg J, Maples HA, Alvim KSP, Xu J, Johannisson W, Bismarck A, Zenkert D, Lindbergh Get al., 2018, Lithium iron phosphate coated carbon fiber electrodes for structural lithium ion batteries, Composites Science and Technology, Vol: 162, Pages: 235-243, ISSN: 0266-3538

© 2018 A structural lithium ion battery is a material that can carry load and simultaneously be used to store electrical energy. We describe a path to manufacture structural positive electrodes via electrophoretic deposition (EPD) of LiFePO4(LFP), carbon black and polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) onto carbon fibers. The carbon fibers act as load-bearers as well as current collectors. The quality of the coating was studied using scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The active electrode material (LFP particles), conductive additive (carbon black) and binder (PVDF) were found to be well dispersed on the surface of the carbon fibers. Electrochemical characterization revealed a specific capacity of around 60–110 mAh g−1with good rate performance and high coulombic efficiency. The cell was stable during cycling, with a capacity retention of around 0.5 after 1000 cycles, which indicates that the coating remained well adhered to the fibers. To investigate the adhesion of the coating, the carbon fibers were made into composite laminae in epoxy resin, and then tested using 3-point bending and double cantilever beam (DCB) tests. The former showed a small difference between coated and uncoated carbon fibers, suggesting good adhesion. The latter showed a critical strain energy release rate of ∼200–600 J m−2for coated carbon fibers and ∼500 J m−2for uncoated fibers, which also indicates good adhesion. This study shows that EPD can be used to produce viable structural positive electrodes.

JOURNAL ARTICLE

Javaid A, Ho KKC, Bismarck A, Steinke JHG, Shaffer MSP, Greenhalgh ESet al., 2018, Improving the multifunctional behaviour of structural supercapacitors by incorporating chemically activated carbon fibres and mesoporous silica particles as reinforcement, Journal of Composite Materials, ISSN: 0021-9983

© 2018, The Author(s) 2018. Novel structural supercapacitors have been fabricated which can simultaneously carry mechanical loads as well as store electrochemical energy. Structural supercapacitors are fabricated by impregnating activated carbon fibre mat electrodes and glass fibre mat separator with crosslinked polymer electrolytes using the resin infusion under flexible tooling method. Mesoporous silica particles are also used as reinforcements to further improve the electrochemical and mechanical performance of structural supercapacitors. The fabricated structural supercapacitors have been characterised through chronoamperometry method and impedance spectroscopy to evaluate the electrochemical performance and in-plane shear properties to evaluate the mechanical performance. A multifunctional structural supercapacitor, exhibiting simultaneously a power density of 34 W kg−1, an energy density of 0.12 Wh kg−1and a shear modulus of 1.75 GPa, has been fabricated.

JOURNAL ARTICLE

Mautner A, Mayer F, Hervy M, Lee K-Y, Bismarck Aet al., 2018, Better together: synergy in nanocellulose blends, PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS OF THE ROYAL SOCIETY A-MATHEMATICAL PHYSICAL AND ENGINEERING SCIENCES, Vol: 376, ISSN: 1364-503X

JOURNAL ARTICLE

Stubenrauch C, Menner A, Bismarck A, Drenckhan Wet al., 2018, Emulsion and Foam Templating-Promising Routes to Tailor-Made Porous Polymers., Angew Chem Int Ed Engl

Emulsions, foams, and foamed emulsions have been used successfully as templates for the synthesis of macroporous polymers. Based on this knowledge this Minireview presents strategies to use, optimise, and upscale these templating methods to synthesise tailor-made porous polymers. The uniqueness of such polymers lies in the ability to tailor their structures and, therefore, their properties. However, systematic studies on structure-property relations are lacking mainly because the templating scientific community is "split into two": the polydisperse and monodisperse camps. Thus, it is time to build a bridge between the camps, that is, to synthesise porous polymers with very different structures from the same precursors to determine the relationship between the structure and the properties.

JOURNAL ARTICLE

Woodward RT, Markoulidis F, De Luca F, Anthony DB, Malko D, McDonald TO, Shaffer MSP, Bismarck Aet al., 2018, Carbon foams from emulsion-templated reduced graphene oxide polymer composites: electrodes for supercapacitor devices, JOURNAL OF MATERIALS CHEMISTRY A, Vol: 6, Pages: 1840-1849, ISSN: 2050-7488

JOURNAL ARTICLE

Anthony DB, Qian H, Clancy AJ, Greenhalgh ES, Bismarck A, Shaffer MSPet al., 2017, Applying a potential difference to minimise damage to carbon fibres during carbon nanotube grafting by chemical vapour deposition, NANOTECHNOLOGY, Vol: 28, ISSN: 0957-4484

JOURNAL ARTICLE

Fortea-Verdejo M, Bumbaris E, Burgstaller C, Bismarck A, Lee K-Yet al., 2017, Plant fibre-reinforced polymers: where do we stand in terms of tensile properties?, INTERNATIONAL MATERIALS REVIEWS, Vol: 62, Pages: 441-464, ISSN: 0950-6608

JOURNAL ARTICLE

Greenhalgh RD, Ambler WS, Quinn SJ, Medeiros ES, Anderson M, Gore B, Menner A, Bismarck A, Li X, Tirelli N, Blaker JJet al., 2017, Hybrid sol-gel inorganic/gelatin porous fibres via solution blow spinning, JOURNAL OF MATERIALS SCIENCE, Vol: 52, Pages: 9066-9081, ISSN: 0022-2461

JOURNAL ARTICLE

Jiang Q, Barkan H, Menner A, Bismarck Aet al., 2017, Micropatterned, macroporous polymer springs for capacitive energy harvesters, POLYMER, Vol: 126, Pages: 419-424, ISSN: 0032-3861

JOURNAL ARTICLE

Jiang Q, Menner A, Bismarck A, 2017, One-pot synthesis of supported hydrogel membranes via emulsion templating, REACTIVE & FUNCTIONAL POLYMERS, Vol: 114, Pages: 104-109, ISSN: 1381-5148

JOURNAL ARTICLE

Kontturi E, Niinivaara E, Arshath S, Bismarck Aet al., 2017, Hydrolysis assisted by hydrogen chloride vapor on different cellulose polymorphs, 253rd National Meeting of the American-Chemical-Society (ACS) on Advanced Materials, Technologies, Systems, and Processes, Publisher: AMER CHEMICAL SOC, ISSN: 0065-7727

CONFERENCE PAPER

Kontturi K, Biegaj K, Mautner A, Woodward R, Wilson B, Lee K-Y, Heng J, Bismarck A, Kontturi Eet al., 2017, Exclusive surface modification of cellulose nanopapers by adsorption of polymers from non-aqueous solvents, 253rd National Meeting of the American-Chemical-Society (ACS) on Advanced Materials, Technologies, Systems, and Processes, Publisher: AMER CHEMICAL SOC, ISSN: 0065-7727

CONFERENCE PAPER

Kontturi KS, Biegaj K, Mautner A, Woodward RT, Wilson BP, Johansson L-S, Lee K-Y, Heng JYY, Bismarck A, Kontturi Eet al., 2017, Noncovalent Surface Modification of Cellulose Nanopapers by Adsorption of Polymers from Aprotic Solvents, LANGMUIR, Vol: 33, Pages: 5707-5712, ISSN: 0743-7463

JOURNAL ARTICLE

Lorenz M, Sattler S, Reza M, Bismarck A, Kontturi Eet al., 2017, Cellulose nanocrystals by acid vapour: towards more effortless isolation of cellulose nanocrystals, FARADAY DISCUSSIONS, Vol: 202, Pages: 315-330, ISSN: 1359-6640

JOURNAL ARTICLE

Mautner A, Lucenius J, Osterberg M, Bismarck Aet al., 2017, Multi-layer nanopaper based composites, CELLULOSE, Vol: 24, Pages: 1759-1773, ISSN: 0969-0239

JOURNAL ARTICLE

Mautner A, Yousefi N, Nawawi WMFW, Bismarck Aet al., 2017, Chitin-Glucan nanopapers from fungi in membrane and water treatment operations, 253rd National Meeting of the American-Chemical-Society (ACS) on Advanced Materials, Technologies, Systems, and Processes, Publisher: AMER CHEMICAL SOC, ISSN: 0065-7727

CONFERENCE PAPER

Robinson P, Bismarck A, Zhang B, Maples HAet al., 2017, Deployable, shape memory carbon fibre composites without shape memory constituents, COMPOSITES SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY, Vol: 145, Pages: 96-104, ISSN: 0266-3538

JOURNAL ARTICLE

Woodward RT, Jobbe-Duval A, Marchesini S, Anthony DB, Petit C, Bismarck Aet al., 2017, Hypercrosslinked polyHIPEs as precursors to designable, hierarchically porous carbon foams, POLYMER, Vol: 115, Pages: 146-153, ISSN: 0032-3861

JOURNAL ARTICLE

Anthony DB, Grail G, Bismarck A, Shaffer MSP, Robinson P, Pimenta Set al., 2016, Exploring the tensile response in small carbon fibre composite bundles

© 2016, European Conference on Composite Materials, ECCM. All rights reserved.Small composite bundles, AS4 carbon fibre epoxy, with a restricted number of reinforcing fibres, ca. 20, showed a progressive failure when tested in tension. In-situ acoustic emission observations under tensile load reveal that numerous fibres fail before ultimate failure of the small composite bundle, suggesting that isolated and individual fibre failures occur without compromising the integrity of the neighboring fibres or the small composite bundle's overall mechanical performance. The average strength of the carbon fibres in small composite bundles was 9.6% higher than in standard lab-scale composite specimens using the same fibre type.

CONFERENCE PAPER

Anthony DB, Grail G, Bismarck A, Shaffer MSP, Robinson P, Pimenta Set al., 2016, Exploring the tensile response in small carbon fibre composite bundles

© 2016, European Conference on Composite Materials, ECCM. All rights reserved. Small composite bundles, AS4 carbon fibre epoxy, with a restricted number of reinforcing fibres, ca. 20, showed a progressive failure when tested in tension. In-situ acoustic emission observations under tensile load reveal that numerous fibres fail before ultimate failure of the small composite bundle, suggesting that isolated and individual fibre failures occur without compromising the integrity of the neighboring fibres or the small composite bundle's overall mechanical performance. The average strength of the carbon fibres in small composite bundles was 9.6% higher than in standard lab-scale composite specimens using the same fibre type.

CONFERENCE PAPER

Barbara I, Birot M, Bismarck A, Deleuze Het al., 2016, Preparation of divinyl esters by transvinylation between vinyl acetate and dicarboxylic acids, ARKIVOC, Pages: 23-35, ISSN: 1551-7004

JOURNAL ARTICLE

Bismarck A, Blaker JJ, Anthony DB, Qian H, Maples HA, Robinson P, Shaffer MSP, Greenhalgh ESet al., 2016, Development of novel composites through fibre and interface/interphase modification, 37th Riso International Symposium on Materials Science - Understanding Performance of Composite Materials - Mechanisms Controlling Properties, Publisher: IOP PUBLISHING LTD, ISSN: 1757-8981

CONFERENCE PAPER

Bismarck A, Maples HA, Tridech C, Zhang B, Robinson Pet al., 2016, Controllable stiffness composites: An overview

© 2016, European Conference on Composite Materials, ECCM. All rights reserved.Composites with controllable stiffness have a number of potential applications including their use as skin materials in morphing aerostructures. Much work has focused on the development of such materials, which are required to withstand aerodynamic loads but also deform on demand at relatively low actuation forces. We provide an overview of the work carried out at Imperial College London on the development of high performance controllable stiffness composites. Two composite designs were explored, 1) composites containing thermoplastic interphases and 2) composites containing thermoplastic interleaf layers. Large reductions in stiffness of up to 99% were achieved when the composites were heated above the glass transition temperatures of the polymer interphase or interleaf layer. At these temperatures the composites could be deformed significantly and would retain their shape when cooled to room temperature. The process was completely reversible as the composites would return to their original configuration when reheated without an applied load. Self-deploying structures have also been manufactured from the controllable stiffness materials using the shape memory effect of the composites.

CONFERENCE PAPER

Bismarck A, Maples HA, Tridech C, Zhang B, Robinson Pet al., 2016, Controllable stiffness composites: An overview

© 2016, European Conference on Composite Materials, ECCM. All rights reserved. Composites with controllable stiffness have a number of potential applications including their use as skin materials in morphing aerostructures. Much work has focused on the development of such materials, which are required to withstand aerodynamic loads but also deform on demand at relatively low actuation forces. We provide an overview of the work carried out at Imperial College London on the development of high performance controllable stiffness composites. Two composite designs were explored, 1) composites containing thermoplastic interphases and 2) composites containing thermoplastic interleaf layers. Large reductions in stiffness of up to 99% were achieved when the composites were heated above the glass transition temperatures of the polymer interphase or interleaf layer. At these temperatures the composites could be deformed significantly and would retain their shape when cooled to room temperature. The process was completely reversible as the composites would return to their original configuration when reheated without an applied load. Self-deploying structures have also been manufactured from the controllable stiffness materials using the shape memory effect of the composites.

CONFERENCE PAPER

Blaker JJ, Anthony DB, Tang G, Shamsuddin S-R, Kalinka G, Weinrich M, Abdolvand A, Shaffer MSP, Bismarck Aet al., 2016, Property and Shape Modulation of Carbon Fibers Using Lasers, ACS APPLIED MATERIALS & INTERFACES, Vol: 8, Pages: 16351-16358, ISSN: 1944-8244

JOURNAL ARTICLE

De Luca F, Bismarck A, Shaffer MSP, 2016, Anisotropic nanostructure inspired by nature for energy abosrbing composite interfaces

© 2016, European Conference on Composite Materials, ECCM. All rights reserved.The "brick-and-mortar" structure of natural nacre is well known for its combination of high stiffness, strength and toughness thanks to well organised hard inclusions, experiencing pull-out within a soft organic matrix rather than fracture upon loading. Mimicking the structure of nacre while maintaining the same phase proportions and aspect ratio, but at a smaller length scale, opens up the possibility to create composite materials with high performance and large energy absorption properties through interface deformation. Therefore, Layered Double Hydroxide (LDH) nanoplatelets and poly(sodium 4-styrene sulfonate) (PSS) polylelectrolyte were assembled together with a high degree of alignment using Layer-by-Layer (LbL) assembly, resulting in a dense and well organized nanostructure similar to that of nacre. The mechanical properties of the nacre-nanomimetics were comparable to those of natural nacre while the plastic deformation was found amplified. The amplification of the proportion of plastic deformation can be explained by an increase in the volume of platelet interfaces per unit volume at the nanometer length scale. The known toughening mechanisms of nacre, such as platelet sliding and interlocking as well as crack deflection, were also found to occur in the reduced length scale embodiment.

CONFERENCE PAPER

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