1189 results found
Rohanova D, Horkavcova D, Paidere L, et al., 2016, Interaction of HEPES buffer with glass-ceramic scaffold: Can HEPES replace TRIS in SBF?, Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part B: Applied Biomaterials, Vol: 106, Pages: 143-152, ISSN: 1552-4973
An international standard (ISO: 23317:2014) exists for the in vitro testing of inorganic biomaterials in simulated body fluid (SBF). This standard uses TRIS buffer to maintain neutral pH in SBF, but in our previous paper, we showed that the interaction of a tested glass-ceramic material with TRIS can produce false-positive results. In this study, we evaluated whether the HEPES buffer, which also belongs to the group of Good´s buffers, would be more suitable for SBF. We compared its suitability in two media: SBF with HEPES and demineralized water with HEPES. The tested scaffold (45S5 bioactive glass-based) was exposed to the media under a static-dynamic arrangement (solutions were replaced on a daily basis) for 15 days. Leachate samples were collected daily for the analysis of Ca2+ ions and Si (AAS), (PO4)3- ions (UV-VIS), and to measure pH. The glass-ceramic scaffold was analyzed by SEM/EDS, XRD, and WD-XRF before and after 0.3, 1, 3, 7, 11, and 15 days of exposure. Our results confirmed the rapid selective dissolution of the glass-ceramic crystalline phase (Combeite) containing Ca2+ ions due to the presence of HEPES, hydroxyapatite supersaturation being reached within 24 h in both solutions. These new results suggest that, like TRIS, HEPES buffer is not suitable for the in vitro testing of highly reactive inorganic biomaterials (glass, glass-ceramics). The ISO standard for such tests requires revision, but HEPES is not a viable alternative to TRIS buffer.
Gonzalo-Juan I, Detsch R, Mathur S, et al., 2016, Synthesis and In Vitro Activity Assessment of Novel Silicon Oxycarbide-Based Bioactive Glasses, Materials, Vol: 9, ISSN: 1996-1944
Novel bioactive glasses based on a Ca- and Mg-modified silicon oxycarbide (SiCaMgOC) were prepared from a polymeric single-source precursor, and their in vitro activity towards hydroxyapatite mineralization was investigated upon incubating the samples in simulated body fluid (SBF) at 37 °C. The as-prepared materials exhibit an outstanding resistance against devitrification processes and maintain their amorphous nature even after exposure to 1300 °C. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis of the SiCaMgOC samples after the SBF test showed characteristic reflections of apatite after only three days, indicating a promising bioactivity. The release kinetics of the Ca2+ and Mg2+ and the adsorption of H+ after immersion of SiCaMgOC in simulated body fluid for different soaking times were analyzed via optical emission spectroscopy. The results show that the mechanism of formation of apatite on the surface of the SiCaMgOC powders is similar to that observed for standard (silicate) bioactive glasses. A preliminary cytotoxicity investigation of the SiOC-based bioactive glasses was performed in the presence of mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEF) as well as human embryonic kidney cells (HEK-293). Due to their excellent high-temperature crystallization resistance in addition to bioactivity, the Ca- and Mg-modified SiOC glasses presented here might have high potential in applications related to bone repair and regeneration.
Douglas TEL, Krawczyk G, Pamula E, et al., 2016, Generation of composites for bone tissue-engineering applications consisting of gellan gum hydrogels mineralized with calcium and magnesium phosphate phases by enzymatic means, JOURNAL OF TISSUE ENGINEERING AND REGENERATIVE MEDICINE, Vol: 10, Pages: 938-954, ISSN: 1932-6254
Zehnder T, Freund T, Demir M, et al., 2016, Fabrication of Cell-Loaded Two-Phase 3D Constructs for Tissue Engineering, Materials, Vol: 9, ISSN: 1996-1944
Hydrogel optimisation for biofabrication considering shape stability/mechanical properties and cell response is challenging. One approach to tackle this issue is to combine different additive manufacturing techniques, e.g., hot-melt extruded thermoplastics together with bioplotted cell loaded hydrogels in a sequential plotting process. This method enables the fabrication of 3D constructs mechanically supported by the thermoplastic structure and biologically functionalised by the hydrogel phase. In this study, polycaprolactone (PCL) and polyethylene glycol (PEG) blend (PCL-PEG) together with alginate dialdehyde gelatine hydrogel (ADA-GEL) loaded with stromal cell line (ST2) were investigated. PCL-PEG blends were evaluated concerning plotting properties to fabricate 3D scaffolds, namely miscibility, wetting behaviour and in terms of cell response. Scaffolds were characterised considering pore size, porosity, strut width, degradation behaviour and mechanical stability. Blends showed improved hydrophilicity and cell response with PEG blending increasing the degradation and decreasing the mechanical properties of the scaffolds. Hybrid constructs with PCL-PEG blend and ADA-GEL were fabricated. Cell viability, distribution, morphology and interaction of cells with the support structure were analysed. Increased degradation of the thermoplastic support structure and proliferation of the cells not only in the hydrogel, but also on the thermoplastic phase, indicates the potential of this novel material combination for biofabricating 3D tissue engineering scaffolds.
Francis A, Detsch R, Boccaccini AR, 2016, Fabrication and cytotoxicity assessment of novel polysiloxane/bioactive glass films for biomedical applications, CERAMICS INTERNATIONAL, Vol: 42, Pages: 15442-15448, ISSN: 0272-8842
Fereshteh Z, Fathi M, Bagri A, et al., 2016, Preparation and characterization of aligned porous PCL/zein scaffolds as drug delivery systems via improved unidirectional freeze-drying method, MATERIALS SCIENCE & ENGINEERING C-MATERIALS FOR BIOLOGICAL APPLICATIONS, Vol: 68, Pages: 613-622, ISSN: 0928-4931
Feng S, Li J, Jiang X, et al., 2016, Influences of mesoporous magnesium silicate on the hydrophilicity, degradability, mineralization and primary cell response to a wheat protein based biocomposite, JOURNAL OF MATERIALS CHEMISTRY B, Vol: 4, Pages: 6428-6436, ISSN: 2050-750X
Cattalini JP, Roether J, Hoppe A, et al., 2016, Nanocomposite scaffolds with tunable mechanical and degradation capabilities: co-delivery of bioactive agents for bone tissue engineering, BIOMEDICAL MATERIALS, Vol: 11, ISSN: 1748-6041
Rath SN, Nooeaid P, Arkudas A, et al., 2016, Adipose- and bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells display different osteogenic differentiation patterns in 3D bioactive glass-based scaffolds, JOURNAL OF TISSUE ENGINEERING AND REGENERATIVE MEDICINE, Vol: 10, Pages: E497-E509, ISSN: 1932-6254
Bagdadi AV, Safari M, Dubey P, et al., 2016, Poly(3-hydroxyoctanoate), a promising new material for cardiac tissue engineering., Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine, Vol: 12, Pages: e495-e512, ISSN: 1932-6254
Cardiac tissue engineering (CTE) is currently a prime focus of research due to an enormous clinical need. In this work, a novel functional material, Poly(3-hydroxyoctanoate), P(3HO), a medium chain length polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA), produced using bacterial fermentation, was studied as a new potential material for CTE. Engineered constructs with improved mechanical properties, crucial for supporting the organ during new tissue regeneration, and enhanced surface topography, to allow efficient cell adhesion and proliferation, were fabricated. Our results showed that the mechanical properties of the final patches were close to that of cardiac muscle. Biocompatibility of the P(3HO) neat patches, assessed using Neonatal ventricular rat myocytes (NVRM), showed that the polymer was as good as collagen in terms of cell viability, proliferation and adhesion. Enhanced cell adhesion and proliferation properties were observed when porous and fibrous structures were incorporated to the patches. Also, no deleterious effect was observed on the adults cardiomyocytes' contraction when cardiomyocytes were seeded on the P(3HO) patches. Hence, P(3HO) based multifunctional cardiac patches are promising constructs for efficient CTE. This work will provide a positive impact on the development of P(3HO) and other PHAs as a novel new family of biodegradable functional materials with huge potential in a range of different biomedical applications, particularly CTE, leading to further interest and exploitation of these materials.
Tansaz S, Durmann AK, Detsch R, et al., 2016, Hydrogel films and microcapsules based on soy protein isolate combined with alginate, Journal of Applied Polymer Science, ISSN: 0021-8995
Alginate hydrogels are combined with soy protein isolate (SPI), a plant derived protein with low immunogenicity, appropriate biodegradability and low cost, to produce biocompatible films, and microcapsules. The cell-material interaction is assessed through the use of mouse embryotic fibroblast cells (MEF cells) on films, and the results illustrate that the alginate/SPI hydrogel films support cell attachment, spreading, and proliferation. Cell biology results combined with degradation studies suggest that such hydrogels are promising biomaterials for soft tissue regeneration or as wound dressing materials.
Zheng K, Taccardi N, Maria Beltran A, et al., 2016, Timing of calcium nitrate addition affects morphology, dispersity and composition of bioactive glass nanoparticles, RSC ADVANCES, Vol: 6, Pages: 95101-95111, ISSN: 2046-2069
Diba M, An J, Schmidt S, et al., 2016, Exploiting Bisphosphonate-Bioactive-Glass Interactions for the Development of Self-Healing and Bioactive Composite Hydrogels., Macromolecular Rapid Communications, ISSN: 1521-3927
Hydrogels are widely recognized as promising candidates for various biomedical applications, such as tissue engineering. Recently, extensive research efforts have been devoted to the improvement of the biological and mechanical performance of hydrogel systems by incorporation of functional groups and/or inorganic particles in their composition. Bisphosphonates are a class of drugs, commonly used for treatment of osteoporosis, which exhibit a strong binding affinity for hydroxyapatite. In this study, the binding affinity of a bisphosphonate-functionalized polymer, hyaluronan, toward a bioactive glass (i.e., 45S5 Bioglass) is evaluated using force-distance measurements with atomic force microscopy. The strong interaction between bisphosphonate and bioactive glass is then exploited to develop organic-inorganic composite hydrogels and the viscoelastic and self-healing ability of these materials are investigated. Finally, the stability and mineralization behavior of these hydrogels are evaluated in simulated body fluid. Following this approach, injectable, bioactive and self-healing organic-inorganic composite hydrogels are produced, which mineralize abundantly and rapidly in simulated body fluid. These properties render these composite gels suitable for applications in bone-tissue engineering.
Seuss S, Heinloth M, Boccaccini AR, 2016, Development of bioactive composite coatings based on combination of PEEK, bioactive glass and Ag nanoparticles with antibacterial properties, SURFACE & COATINGS TECHNOLOGY, Vol: 301, Pages: 100-105, ISSN: 0257-8972
Zhou J, Yang Y, Alonso Frank M, et al., 2016, Accelerated Degradation Behavior and Cytocompatibility of Pure Iron Treated with Sandblasting, ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces, Vol: 8, Pages: 26482-26492, ISSN: 1944-8244
Fe-based materials are of interest for use in biodegradable implants. However, their corrosion rate in the biological environment may be too slow for the targeted applications. In this work, sandblasting is applied as a successful surface treatment for increasing the degradation rate of pure iron in simulated body fluid. Two sandblasting surfaces with different roughness present various surface morphologies but similar degradation products. Electrochemistry tests revealed that sandblasted samples have a higher corrosion rate compared to that of bare iron, and even more noteworthy, the degradation rate of sandblasted samples remains significantly higher during long-term immersion tests. On the basis of our experimental results, the most plausible reasons behind the fast degradation rate are the special properties of sandblasted surfaces, including the change of surface composition (for the early stage), high roughness (occluded surface sites), and high density of dislocations. Furthermore, the cytocompatibility was studied on sandblasting surfaces using human osteoblast-like cells (MG-63) by indirect and direct contact methods. Results revealed that sandblasting treatment brings no adverse effect to the growth of MG-63 cells. This work demonstrates the significant potential of sandblasting for controlling the degradation behavior of iron-based materials for biomedical applications.
Medeiros ELG, Braz AL, Porto IJ, et al., 2016, Porous Bioactive Nanofibers via Cryogenic Solution Blow Spinning and Their Formation into 3D Macroporous Scaffolds, ACS BIOMATERIALS SCIENCE & ENGINEERING, Vol: 2, Pages: 1442-1449, ISSN: 2373-9878
Detsch R, Blob S, Zehnder T, et al., 2016, Evaluation of cell inkjet printing technique for biofabrication, BioNanoMaterials, Vol: 17, Pages: 185-191, ISSN: 2193-0651
© 2016 Walter de Gruyter GmbH, Berlin/Boston. The main goal in biofabrication approach is to build living tissue substitutes on demand. In order to create functional tissue structures, additive manufacturing (AM) technologies are being increasingly considered. They allow generating functional structures created out of CAD models within a short period of time and with a very high precision. Different techniques are already established to build three-dimensional (3D) complex cell-loaded structures. One of these robotic additive fabrication techniques is the ink jet technology which is highly promising for biofabrication. This technique allows to process very small amounts of liquids or low-viscous polymer solutions e.g. to set biomolecules and cells in a suitable structure. The aim of this study is to evaluate a piezo inkjet printing device which is integrated in a commercial modular instrument platform together with a bioplotting system for biofabrication. The inkjet device is able to print single ink droplets of different volumes by controlling the applied voltage and the number of drops released to the spot. In this work different selective sets of parameters influencing the droplet formation and the spot size have been investigated. It has been proven that inkjet printing process in combination with fibrin hydrogel and bone marrow stromal cells is cytocompatible. In summary, the applied piezo inkjet printing is shown to be completely programmable, accurate and the resolution of the device allowed printing of various patterns with biomaterials and vital cells.
Clavijo S, Membrives F, Quiroga G, et al., 2016, Electrophoretic deposition of chitosan/Bioglass (R) and chitosan/Bioglass (R)/TiO2 composite coatings for bioimplants, CERAMICS INTERNATIONAL, Vol: 42, Pages: 14206-14213, ISSN: 0272-8842
Torres Y, Romero C, Chen Q, et al., 2016, Electrophoretic deposition of PEEK/45S5 bioactive glass coating on porous titanium substrate: Influence of processing conditions and porosity parameters, Powder Metallurgy of Titanium II, Publisher: Trans Tech Publications Ltd., Pages: 343-350, ISSN: 1013-9826
Commercially pure titanium (cp Ti) is typically accepted as one of the best in vitro and in vivo bone replacement biomaterial, due to its excellent balance between biomechanical and biofunctional properties. In that context, the aim of this work is to prove the hypothesis of a simultaneous solution to certain specific limitations of cpTi, which can often compromise the reliability of implants: (i) stress-shielding phenomenon, and (ii) a deficient biointerface with bone, which reduces the osseointegration. Porous samples of cp Ti, grade IV, were obtained by spaceholder technique (50 vol.% NH4HCO3, 800 MPa, at 1250 °C during 2h, under high vacuum), to produce a good balance between Younǵs Modulus and yield strength. Different types of porous samples were manufactured by considering different size particles ranges of NH4HCO3: 100-200μm, 250-355μm and 355-500μm. Afterwards, they were coated with a PEEK/45S5 bioactive glass composite by electrophoretic deposition, to be finally sintered at 350°C for 1h. The coatings homogeneity, infiltration efficiency, adhesion and cracking, were studied in order to establish correlations with processing conditions (time of deposition, applied voltage, composition, concentration and stability of the colloidal suspension). Detailed structural characterization of the coatings was performed (SEM and XRD), besides the contact angle and contact profilometry testing. Additional mechanical and chemical insights were achieved by evaluating both the tribomechanical (instrumented microindentation and micro-scratch testing) and electrochemical behaviors (potentiodynamic polarization and in vitro corrosion tests in SBF). All these results allowed us to determine the optimal balance of properties for a porous substrate (space holder of 250-355μm) with a coating obtained for 65 V, 2 min, 6 mm (distance between electrodes), 10 g/L bioactive glass and 20 g/l PEEK. The high adhesion estimated between the bioactive/biopolymer coatings
Chen Q, Li W, Yao Q, et al., 2016, Multilayered drug delivery coatings composed of daidzein-loaded PHBV microspheres embedded in a biodegradable polymer matrix by electrophoretic deposition, Journal of Materials Chemistry B, Vol: 4, Pages: 5035-5045, ISSN: 2050-7518
The development of drug delivery coating systems for local and long-term drug release is gaining increasing interest especially to functionalize bioinert implants with osseointegration and antibacterial properties. In this study, a biodegradable drug delivery coating platform consisting of drug-loaded PHBV microspheres embedded in an alginate-PVA matrix was fabricated by a one-step electrophoretic deposition (EPD) process. Layer by layer (LbL) deposition was exploited to generate chitosan-alginate multilayers on the EPD-produced coating to enlarge the diffusional barrier around the microspheres for controlled drug release. Daidzein, selected as a model drug due to its anti-osteoporosis properties, was pre-encapsulated in PHBV microspheres. The parameters for microsphere fabrication were optimized by an orthogonal design approach. The loading efficiency of daidzein in both the microspheres and in the deposited coatings was adjusted by varying the processing parameters during microsphere fabrication and the EPD process. The degradation of the deposited multilayers was investigated in PBS for up to 14 days. The degradation rate, surface roughness and wettability, as well as adhesion strength of the coatings during degradation were evaluated by applying a range of techniques. A controlled and sustained daidzein release was detected from both free microspheres and microsphere-containing coatings. Finally cytotoxicity and stimulatory effects of daidzein or daidzein-loaded coatings, on both MC3T3-E1 and RAW264.7 cell lines, were studied to validate the potential of the developed coatings for orthopedic applications.
Liverani L, Piegat A, Niemczyk A, et al., 2016, Electrospun fibers of poly(butylene succinate-co-dilinoleic succinate) and its blend with poly(glycerol sebacate) for soft tissue engineering applications, EUROPEAN POLYMER JOURNAL, Vol: 81, Pages: 295-306, ISSN: 0014-3057
Leite Á, Sarker B, Zehnder T, et al., 2016, Bioplotting of a bioactive alginate dialdehyde-gelatin composite hydrogel containing bioactive glass nanoparticles., Biofabrication, Vol: 8, ISSN: 1758-5090
Alginate dialdehyde-gelatin (ADA-GEL) constructs incorporating bioactive glass nanoparticles (BGNPs) were produced by biofabrication to obtain a grid-like highly-hydrated composite. The material could induce the deposition of an apatite layer upon immersion in a biological-like environment to sustain cell attachment and proliferation. Composites were formulated with different concentrations of BGNPs synthetized from a sol-gel route, namely 0.1% and 0.5% (w/v). Strontium doped BGNPs were also used. EDS analysis suggested that the BGNPs loading promoted the growth of bone-like apatite layer on the surface when the constructs were immersed in a simulated body fluid. Moreover, the composite constructs could incorporate with high efficiency ibuprofen as a drug model. Furthermore, the biofabrication process allowed the successful incorporation of MG-63 cells into the composite material. Cells were distributed homogeneously within the hydrogel composite, and no differences were found in cell viability between ADA-GEL and the composite constructs, proving that the addition of BGNPs did not influence cell fate. Overall, the composite material showed potential for future applications in bone tissue engineering.
Bourtsalas AT, Detsch R, Boccaccini AR, et al., 2016, Initial studies on the cytotoxicity of ceramics prepared from dry discharge incinerator bottom ash dust, Ceramics International, Vol: 42, Pages: 17924-17927, ISSN: 1873-3956
The dust generated from a dry discharge ash handling system at a waste to energy (WtE) facility has been processed and sintered to produce ceramic samples. Preliminary cell culture studies have been completed to assess the potential cytotoxicity of the IBA ceramics prepared from dry discharge dust. The tests have used mouse embryonic fibroblast (MEF) cells. Results indicate inhibition of cell adhesion by the IBA ceramic surface. However the samples were covered by cells and these expressed similar behaviour in the context of morphology and vitality to control cells on glass samples. The work demonstrates that fine IBA dust from dry discharge systems can be formed into ceramics and that biocompatibility testing has an important role in defining potential suitability for use of these types of waste-derived ceramics.
Ding Y, Li W, Mueller T, et al., 2016, Electrospun Polyhydroxybutyrate/Poly(epsilon-caprolactone)/58S Sol-Gel Bioactive Glass Hybrid Scaffolds with Highly Improved Osteogenic Potential for Bone Tissue Engineering, ACS APPLIED MATERIALS & INTERFACES, Vol: 8, Pages: 17098-17108, ISSN: 1944-8244
Westhauser F, Weis C, Prokscha M, et al., 2016, Three-dimensional polymer coated 45S5-type bioactive glass scaffolds seeded with human mesenchymal stem cells show bone formation in vivo, JOURNAL OF MATERIALS SCIENCE-MATERIALS IN MEDICINE, Vol: 27, ISSN: 0957-4530
Ivanovska J, Zehnder T, Lennert P, et al., 2016, Biofabrication of 3D Alginate-Based Hydrogel for Cancer Research: Comparison of Cell Spreading, Viability, and Adhesion Characteristics of Colorectal HCT116 Tumor Cells, TISSUE ENGINEERING PART C-METHODS, Vol: 22, Pages: 708-715, ISSN: 1937-3384
Souza MT, Peitl O, Zanotto ED, et al., 2016, Novel Double-Layered Conduit Containing Highly Bioactive Glass Fibers for Potential Nerve Guide Application, International Journal of Applied Glass Science, Vol: 7, Pages: 183-194, ISSN: 2041-1286
Peripheral nerve injuries are frequent conditions that currently have very few treatment alternatives. This study aimed to incorporate aligned bioactive glass microfibers (that belong to the SiO2-Na2O-K2O-MgO-CaO-P2O5 system) in nanofibrous poly ε-caprolactone (PCL) membranes to develop a new biocomposite that is potentially able to facilitate nerve growth and increase the polymer matrix's biological and mechanical properties. For the manufacture of this novel tubular nerve guide, electrospinning of PCL was performed on the surface of bioactive glass fibers, resulting in a two-layer microcomposite. The mechanical strength, bioactivity, wettability, degradation, and permeability of this new material were characterized. The preliminary results indicate that the incorporation of the bioactive glass fibers into PCL led to the development of a highly bioactive biocomposite with significantly improved mechanical properties and wettability compared with the PCL matrix alone.
Vishnu Priya M, Sivshanmugam A, Boccaccini AR, et al., 2016, Injectable osteogenic and angiogenic nanocomposite hydrogels for irregular bone defects., Biomedical Materials, Vol: 11, ISSN: 1748-605X
Injectable hydrogels with their 3D structure and good moldability serve as excellent scaffolding material for regenerating irregular non load-bearing bone defects. Most of the bone defects do not heal completely due to the lack of vasculature required for the transport of nutrients and oxygen to the regenerating tissues. To enhance vasculature, we developed an injectable hydrogel system made of chitin and poly (butylene succinate) (PBSu) loaded with 250 ± 20 nm sized fibrin nanoparticles (FNPs) and magnesium-doped bioglass (MBG). FNPs were expected to enhance vascularisation and MBG was expected to help induce early osteogenesis. Composite hydrogels were analysed using Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, and rheology. Hydrogels with MBG showed a slightly rougher morphology upon SEM analysis. Composites containing 5% MBG and 2% FNPs showed good rheological properties, injectability, temperature stability, biomineralization and protein adsorption. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and rabbit-adipose derived mesenchymal stem cells (rASCs) were used for cyto-compatibility studies. Composite gels with 2% FNPs and 2% MBG (composite 1) were considered to be non-toxic to both the cells and were taken for further in vitro studies. Aortic ring assay was carried out to study the angiogenic potential of the hydrogels. The aorta placed with composite hydrogels showed enhanced sprouting of blood vessels. rASCs too showed good spreading on the composite hydrogels. Hydrogels containing MBG showed early initiation of differentiation and higher expression of alkaline phosphatase and osteocalcin confirming the osteoinductive property of MBG. These studies indicate that this composite hydrogel can be used for regenerating irregular bone defects.
Song J, Chen Q, Zhang Y, et al., 2016, Electrophoretic Deposition of Chitosan Coatings Modified with Gelatin Nanospheres To Tune the Release of Antibiotics, ACS APPLIED MATERIALS & INTERFACES, Vol: 8, Pages: 13785-13792, ISSN: 1944-8244
Zheng K, Lu M, Liu Y, et al., 2016, Monodispersed lysozyme-functionalized bioactive glass nanoparticles with antibacterial and anticancer activities, BIOMEDICAL MATERIALS, Vol: 11, ISSN: 1748-6041
This data is extracted from the Web of Science and reproduced under a licence from Thomson Reuters. You may not copy or re-distribute this data in whole or in part without the written consent of the Science business of Thomson Reuters.