153 results found
McDowall W, Francis L, Staffell I, et al., 2014, The role of fuel cells and hydrogen in providing affordable, secure and low carbon heat, London, UK
Pfenninger S, Hawkes A, Keirstead J, 2014, Energy systems modeling for twenty-first century energy challenges, RENEWABLE & SUSTAINABLE ENERGY REVIEWS, Vol: 33, Pages: 74-86, ISSN: 1364-0321
Dodds PE, Ekins P, Hawkes A, et al., 2014, The role of hydrogen and fuel cells in providing affordable, secure low-carbon heat, Pages: 1403-1410
© (2014) by the Committee of WHEC2014. The debate on low carbon heat in Europe has become focused on a narrow range of technological options, largely neglecting hydrogen and fuel cell technologies. Yet commercial ventures installing fuel cell CHP and establishing pilot programmes for injecting hydrogen into natural gas grids have already emerged. Furthermore, recent research suggests that the potential for hydrogen and fuel cells may have been overlooked, suggesting a gap between the scientific evidence base and policy direction. Thus there is a clear need-also recognised by government-for a clear assessment of the evidence on the potential for hydrogen and fuel cells in meeting the goals of European heat policy: The provision of secure, affordable, low-carbon heat. The UK H2FC Hub, which represents the UK hydrogen and fuel cell research community, is launching a White Paper in May 2014 to set out the potential for hydrogen and fuel cells to contribute to affordable, secure, low-carbon heating in the future. This paper will provide an authoritative, accessible, detailed account that is specifically targeted at policymakers and other stakeholders. It will bring together the evidence on the technical, economic, market, system and policy issues surrounding hydrogen and fuel cell heat.
Munuera L, Bradford J, Kelly N, et al., 2013, The role of energy efficiency in decarbonising heat via electrification, ECEEE Summer Study
Hawkes AD, 2013, Comparative Review Of Policy Support Mechanisms For Microgeneration, The 3rd International Conference on Microgeneration
Kelly N, Hawkes AD, 2013, Load Management Of Heat Pumps Using Phase Change Heat Storage, The 3rd International Conference on Microgeneration
Munuera L, Kelly N, Hawkes AD, 2013, System Impacts Of A Large-Scale Rollout Of Heat Pumps In The Uk: Diversity And Peak Loads, The 3rd International Conference on Microgeneration
Munuera L, Bradford J, Kelly N, et al., The role of energy efficiency in decarbonising heat via electrification, ECEEE
Zhang D, Samsatli NJ, Hawkes AD, et al., 2012, Fair electricity transfer price and unit capacity selection for microgrids, Energy Economics, Vol: In Press, ISSN: 0140-9883
Microgrids are defined as an area of electricity distribution network that can operate autonomously from the rest of the network. In order to achieve the best economic outcomes, the participants in a microgrid can benefit from cooperation in microgrid design and operation. In this paper, a mathematical programming formulation is presented for fair, optimised cost distribution amongst participants in a general microgrid. The proposed formulation is based on the Game-theory Nash bargaining solution approach for finding optimal multi-partner cost levels subject to given upper bounds on the equivalent annual costs. The microgrid planning problem concerning the fair electricity transfer price and unit capacity selection is first formulated as a mixed integer non-linear programming model. Then, a separable programming approach is applied to reform the resulting mixed integer non-linear programming model to a mixed integer linear programming form. The model is applied to a case study with a microgrid involving five participants.
Hawkes AD, Staffell I, Bergman N, et al., 2010, A Change of Scale? Prospects for Distributed Energy Resources, Energy 2050, Editors: Skea, Ekins, Winskel, London, UK, Publisher: Earthscan
Heat pumps are a promising technology for heating (and cooling) domestic buildings that provide exceptionally high efficiencies compared with fossil fuel combustion. There are in the region of a billion heat pumps in use world-wide, but despite their maturity they are a relatively new technology to many regions. This article gives an overview of the state-of-the-art technologies and the practical issues faced when installing and operating them. It focuses on the performance obtained in real-world operation, surveying the published efficiency figures for hundreds of air source and ground source heat pumps (ASHP and GSHP), and presenting a method to relate these to results from recent UK and German field trials. It also covers commercial aspects of the technologies, the typical savings in primary energy usage, carbon dioxide emissions abatement that can be realised, and wider implications of their uptake.
Ang SMC, Brett DJL, Staffell I, et al., 2012, Design of fuel-cell micro-cogeneration systems through modeling and optimization, WIREs Energy and Environment, Vol: 1, Pages: 181-193
Hawkes AD, 2011, Marginal Emissions Rates in Energy System Change, 4th International Conference on Carbon Accounting
Hawkes AD, Munuera L, Strbac G, 2011, Low Carbon Residential Heating, London, UK, Publisher: Grantham Institute for Climate Change, Grantham Institute Briefing Paper No. 6
Hawkes AD, 2011, Pathways to 2050 – Key results: MARKAL Model Review and Scenarios for DECC’s 4th Carbon Budget Evidence Base, London, UK, Publisher: AEA Group, ED56609
Hawkes AD, Narkeviciute R, Morris S, et al., 2011, Pathways to 2050 - Detailed analyses: MARKAL Model Review and Scenarios for DECC’s 4th Carbon Budget Evidence Base, London, UK, Publisher: AEA Group, ED56609
Hawkes AD, 2011, Marginal Emissions Rates For Electricity Consumption In The UK, Microgen II - 2nd International Conference on Microgeneration and Related Technologies
Hawkes AD, Brett DJL, Brandon NP, 2011, Role of fuel cell based micro-cogeneration in low carbon heating, PROCEEDINGS OF THE INSTITUTION OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERS PART A-JOURNAL OF POWER AND ENERGY, Vol: 225, Pages: 198-207, ISSN: 0957-6509
Hawkes AD, 2011, Techno-economic assessment of small and micro combined heat and power (CHP) systems, Pages: 17-41
This chapter introduces the economics of small-scale CHP systems. Beginning with a review of how decentralised energy resources can achieve economic value, it then discusses the sometimes ill-defined concept of techno-economics, and the variety of modelling techniques that underpin it. An optimisation method that pinpoints the key characteristics of commercially successful CHP is presented and applied to the case of micro-CHP in the UK, demonstrating that the heat-to-power ratio prime mover is the key driver of economic and environmental performance. Finally, the emerging tension between CHP and heat pumps is discussed in relation to future stringent emissions reduction targets. © 2011 Woodhead Publishing Limited All rights reserved.
Brett DJL, Brandon NP, Hawkes AD, et al., 2011, Fuel cell systems for small and micro combined heat and power (CHP) applications, Small and micro combined heat and power (CHP) systems, Editors: Beith, Cambridge, UK, Publisher: Woodhead Publishing Limited, Pages: 233-261
Hodges R, Hawkes AD, 2010, Analysing the Opportunities for Abatement in Major Emitting Industrial Sectors, London, UK, Publisher: AEA Group
Hawkes AD, 2010, Estimating Marginal CO2 Emissions Rates for National Electricity Systems, Energy Policy, Vol: 38, Pages: 5977-5987
The carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions reduction afforded by a demand-side intervention in the electricity system is typically assessed by means of an assumed grid emissions rate, which measures the CO2 intensity of electricity not used as a result of the intervention. This emissions rate is called the “marginal emissions factor” (MEF). Accurate estimation of MEFs is crucial for performance assessment because their application leads to decisions regarding the relative merits of CO2 reduction strategies. This article contributes to formulating the principles by which MEFs are estimated, highlighting the strengths and weaknesses in existing approaches, and presenting an alternative based on the observed behaviour of power stations. The case of Great Britain is considered, demonstrating an MEF of 0.69kgCO2/kWh for 2002 to 2009, with error bars at +/-10%. This value could reduce to 0.6kgCO2/kWh over the next decade under planned changes to the underlying generation mix, and could further reduce to approximately 0.51kgCO2/kWh before 2025 if all power stations commissioned pre-1970 are replaced by their modern counterparts. Given that these rates are higher than commonly-applied system-average or assumed “long term marginal” emissions rates, it is concluded that maintenance of an improved understanding of MEFs is valuable to better inform policy decisions.
Hawkes AD, 2010, Optimal Selection of Generators for a Microgrid Under Uncertainty, IEEE PES General Meeting
Hawkes AD, 2010, Techno-Economic Assessment of Small and Micro-CHP Systems, Small- and micro-combined heat and power systems, Editors: Beith, Publisher: Woodhead
This chapter provides an introduction to the economic benefits that small scale and micro-CHP systems can provide, and goes on to illustrate a specific techno-economic modelling method for analysis of CHP systems. Beginning with a brief review of how, why, and where CHP and decentralised energy systems can provide economic value, it then discusses the sometimes ill-defined concept of techno-economics, and the variety of modelling techniques that underpin it. An optimisation method designed to examine the technical and site characteristics that can lead to commercially successful CHP is then presented, followed by its application to study the case of residential micro-CHP in the United Kingdom. The results of this analysis demonstrate that the heat-to-power ratio of the micro-CHP prime mover is the key technical characteristic that determines economic and environmental performance, in addition to site specific attributes such as onsite electricity demand and the presence of significant thermal demand. Going forward, the emerging tension between CHP and heat pumps for space and water heating applications is touched on in the context of long term stringent emissions reduction targets.
Strbac G, Gan CK, Aunedi M, et al., 2010, Benefits of Advanced Smart Metering for Demand Response based Control of Distribution Networks, London, UK, Publisher: Energy Networks Association (ENA) and Centre for Sustainable Energy and Distributed Generation (SEDG)
Sudtharalingam S, Hawkes AD, Green TC, Energy Policies for Domestic Micro Combined Heat and Power in the UK: A Comparison, 8th Young Energy Engineers &. Economists Seminar (YEEES)
Hawkes AD, Brett DL, Brandon NP, 2009, Fuel Cell Micro-CHP Techno-Economics: Part 1 - Model Concept and Formulation, International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, Vol: In Press
Hawkes AD, Brett DL, Brandon NP, 2009, Fuel Cell Micro-CHP Techno-Economics: Part 2 – Model Application to Consider the Economic and Environmental Impact of Stack Degradation, International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, Vol: In Press
Hawkes AD, Leach MA, 2009, Modelling High Level System Design and Unit Commitment for a Microgrid, Applied Energy, Vol: 86, Pages: 1253-1265
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