91 results found
Balcombe P, Anderson K, Speirs J, et al., 2017, The Natural Gas Supply Chain: The Importance of Methane and Carbon Dioxide Emissions, ACS SUSTAINABLE CHEMISTRY & ENGINEERING, Vol: 5, Pages: 3-20, ISSN: 2168-0485
Balcombe P, Brandon NP, Hawkes AD, 2017, Characterising the distribution of methane and carbon dioxide emissions from the natural gas supply chain, Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN: 0959-6526
Methane and CO2 emissions from the natural gas supply chain have been shown to vary widely butthere is little understanding about the distribution of emissions across supply chain routes,processes, regions and operational practises. This study defines the distribution of total methaneand CO2 emissions from the natural gas supply chain, identifying the contribution from each stageand quantifying the effect of key parameters on emissions. The study uses recent high-resolutionemissions measurements with estimates of parameter distributions to build a probabilistic emissionsmodel for a variety of technological supply chain scenarios. The distribution of emissions resemblesa log-log-logistic distribution for most supply chain scenarios, indicating an extremely heavy tailedskew: median estimates which represent typical facilities are modest at 18 – 24 g CO2 eq./ MJ HHV,but mean estimates which account for the heavy tail are 22 – 107 g CO2 eq./ MJ HHV. To place thesevalues into context, emissions associated with natural gas combustion (e.g. for heat) areapproximately 55 g CO2/ MJ HHV. Thus, some supply chain scenarios are major contributors to totalgreenhouse gas emissions from natural gas. For methane-only emissions, median estimates are 0.8 –2.2% of total methane production, with mean emissions of 1.6 - 5.5%. The heavy tail distribution isthe signature of the disproportionately large emitting equipment known as super-emitters, whichappear at all stages of the supply chain. The study analyses the impact of different technologicaloptions and identifies a set of best technological option (BTO) scenarios. This suggests thatemissions-minimising technology can reduce supply chain emissions significantly, with this studyestimating median emissions of 0.9% of production. However, even with the emissions-minimisingtechnologies, evidence suggests that the influence of the super-emitters remains. Therefore,emissions-minimising technology is only part of the soluti
Bosch J, Staffell I, Hawkes AD, 2017, Temporally-explicit and spatially-resolved global onshore wind energy potentials, ENERGY, Vol: 131, Pages: 207-217, ISSN: 0360-5442
Chavez-Rodriguez MF, Dias L, Simoes S, et al., 2017, Modelling the natural gas dynamics in the Southern Cone of Latin America, APPLIED ENERGY, Vol: 201, Pages: 219-239, ISSN: 0306-2619
Few S, Gambhir A, Napp T, et al., 2017, The Impact of Shale Gas on the Cost and Feasibility of Meeting Climate TargetsA Global Energy System Model Analysis and an Exploration of Uncertainties, ENERGIES, Vol: 10, ISSN: 1996-1073
Gambhir A, Drouet L, McCollum D, et al., 2017, Assessing the Feasibility of Global Long-Term Mitigation Scenarios, ENERGIES, Vol: 10, ISSN: 1996-1073
Gambhir A, Napp T, Hawkes A, et al., 2017, The Contribution of Non-CO2 Greenhouse Gas Mitigation to Achieving Long-Term Temperature Goals, ENERGIES, Vol: 10, ISSN: 1996-1073
Jalil-Vega F, Hawkes AD, 2017, Spatially resolved model for studying decarbonisation pathways for heat supply and infrastructure trade-offs, Applied Energy, ISSN: 0306-2619
© 2017 The Author(s). Heat decarbonisation is one of the main challenges of energy system decarbonisation. However, existing energy planning models struggle to compare heat decarbonisation approaches because they rarely capture trade-offs between heat supply, end-use technologies and network infrastructure at sufficient spatial resolution. A new optimisation model is presented that addresses this by including trade-offs between gas, electricity, and heat infrastructure, together with related supply and end-use technologies, with high spatial granularity. The model is applied in case studies for the UK. For the case modelled it is shown that electrification of heat is most cost-effective via district level heat pumps that supply heat networks, instead of individual building heat pumps. This is because the cost of reinforcing the electricity grid for installing individual heat pumps does not sufficiently offset heat infrastructure costs. This demonstrates the importance of considering infrastructure trade-offs. When modelling the utilisation of a decarbonised gas, the penetration of heat networks and location of district level heat supply technologies was shown to be dependent on linear heat density and on zone topology. This shows the importance of spatial aspects. Scenario-specific linear heat density thresholds for heat network penetration were identified. For the base case, penetration of high temperature heat networks was over 50% and 60% by 2050 for linear heat densities over 1500 and 2500. kWh/m. For the case when medium heat temperature networks were additionally available, a mix of both networks was observed. Medium temperature heat network penetration was over 20%, 30%, and 40% for linear heat densities of over 1500, 2500, and 3000. kWh/m, while high temperature heat network penetration was over 20% and 30% for linear heat densities of under 2000 and 1500. kWh/m respectively.
Napp T, Bernie D, Thomas R, et al., 2017, Exploring the Feasibility of Low-Carbon Scenarios Using Historical Energy Transitions Analysis, ENERGIES, Vol: 10, ISSN: 1996-1073
Schmidt O, Hawkes A, Gambhir A, et al., 2017, The future cost of electrical energy storage based on experience rates, NATURE ENERGY, Vol: 2, ISSN: 2058-7546
Sechi S, Giarola S, Lanzini A, et al., 2017, Techno-economic assessment of the effects of biogas rate fluctuations on industrial applications of solid-oxide fuel cells, ESCAPE-27, Publisher: Elsevier, ISSN: 1570-7946
Wastewater treatment is an energy and greenhouse gas intensive process. An important opportunity to reduce both of these quantities is via the use of biogas in co-generation systems. Solid-oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) are the generator types studied in this work.The feasibility of the retrofitting of a wastewater treatment facility fitted with a SOFC combined heat and power energy provision system is assessed including effects of uncertainties in biogas availability on cost and energy performance. A two-stage stochastic optimization framework is proposed to provide feedback on the energy co-generation system design.Results quantify standard deviations in the biogas rate beyond which the SOFC capacity factor might drop below 80 % and change the optimal size of the modules to install.Keywords: solid-oxide fuel cells, stochastic optimization, wastewater treatment, biogas.
Speirs JF, balcombe P, johnson E, et al., 2017, A Greener Gas Grid: What Are the Options?
Vijay A, Fouquet N, Staffell I, et al., 2017, The value of electricity and reserve services in low carbon electricity systems, APPLIED ENERGY, Vol: 201, Pages: 111-123, ISSN: 0306-2619
Giarola S, Crow DJG, Hawkes A, 2016, A framework for modelling investment decisions in gas infrastructures, 26th European Symposium on Computer Aided Process Engineering (ESCAPE), Publisher: ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV, Pages: 259-264, ISSN: 1570-7946
Balcombe P, Anderson K, Speirs J, et al., 2015, Methane and CO2 emissions from the natural gas supply chain: an evidence assessment, Publisher: Sustainable Gas Institute
Dodds PE, Staffell L, Hawkes AD, et al., 2015, Hydrogen and fuel cell technologies for heating: A review, INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF HYDROGEN ENERGY, Vol: 40, Pages: 2065-2083, ISSN: 0360-3199
Green RJ, staffell I, Hamilton IG, 2015, The residential energy sector, Domestic Microgeneration Renewable and Distributed Energy Technologies, Policies and Economics, Editors: Staffell, Brandon, Hawkes, Brett, Publisher: Routledge, Pages: 18-48, ISBN: 9781317448853
1 Overview Whilst the primary use of microgeneration is to service the energy demands of a building or a community, microgeneration technologies could also play a role in wider energy networks such as communal heating schemes or (more ...
Hawkes A, Hanna R, 2015, Market and policy influences, Domestic Microgeneration Renewable and Distributed Energy Technologies, Policies and Economics, Publisher: Routledge, ISBN: 9781317448853
Renewable and Distributed Energy Technologies, Policies and Economics Iain Staffell, Daniel J.L. Brett, Nigel P. Brandon, Adam D. Hawkes.                        ...
Xie C, Hawkes AD, 2015, Estimation of inter-fuel substitution possibilities in China's transport industry using ridge regression, ENERGY, Vol: 88, Pages: 260-267, ISSN: 0360-5442
Gross R, Speirs J, Hawkes AD, et al., 2014, Could retaining old coal lead to a policy own goal?
Gross R, Speirs JF, hawkes, et al., 2014, Could retaining old coal lead to a policy own goal? Modelling the potential or coal fired power stations to undermine carbon targets in 2030
Hawkes AD, 2014, Long-run marginal CO2 emissions factors in national electricity systems, APPLIED ENERGY, Vol: 125, Pages: 197-205, ISSN: 0306-2619
Hawkes AD, 2014, The taxonomy of energy systems modelling, Energy Systems Conference
Kelly NJ, Tuohy PG, Hawkes AD, 2014, Performance assessment of tariff-based air source heat pump load shifting in a UK detached dwelling featuring phase change-enhanced buffering, APPLIED THERMAL ENGINEERING, Vol: 71, Pages: 809-820, ISSN: 1359-4311
McDowall W, Francis L, Staffell I, et al., 2014, The role of fuel cells and hydrogen in providing affordable, secure and low carbon heat, London, UK
Pfenninger S, Hawkes A, Keirstead J, 2014, Energy systems modeling for twenty-first century energy challenges, RENEWABLE & SUSTAINABLE ENERGY REVIEWS, Vol: 33, Pages: 74-86, ISSN: 1364-0321
Philbin SP, Jones D, Brandon NP, et al., 2014, Exploring Research Institutes: Structures, Functioning and Typology, Portland International Conference on Management of Engineering & Technology (PICMET), Publisher: IEEE, Pages: 2569-2582, ISSN: 2159-5100
Pinheiro L, Napp T, Hawkes AD, 2014, Can Brazil fulfil long term reduction targets? An evaluation of consequences of delayed action on its energy sector, 9th Conference on Sustainable Development of Energy, Water and Environmental Systems
Hawkes AD, 2013, Comparative Review Of Policy Support Mechanisms For Microgeneration, The 3rd International Conference on Microgeneration
Kelly N, Hawkes AD, 2013, Load Management Of Heat Pumps Using Phase Change Heat Storage, The 3rd International Conference on Microgeneration
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