Imperial College London

DrAdamHawkes

Faculty of EngineeringDepartment of Chemical Engineering

Senior Lecturer in Energy Systems
 
 
 
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Contact

 

+44 (0)20 7594 9300a.hawkes

 
 
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Assistant

 

Ms Quasirat Hasnat +44 (0)20 7594 7250

 
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Location

 

C502Roderic Hill BuildingSouth Kensington Campus

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Summary

 

Publications

Publication Type
Year
to

129 results found

Allison J, Bell K, Clarke J, Cowie A, Elsayed A, Flett G, Oluleye G, Hawkes A, Hawker G, Kelly N, de Castro MMM, Sharpe T, Shea A, Strachan P, Tuohy Pet al., 2018, Assessing domestic heat storage requirements for energy flexibility over varying timescales, Applied Thermal Engineering, Vol: 136, Pages: 602-616, ISSN: 1359-4311

© 2018 The Authors This paper explores the feasibility of storing heat in an encapsulated store to support thermal load shifting over three timescales: diurnal, weekly and seasonal. A building simulation tool was used to calculate the space heating and hot water demands for four common UK housing types and a range of operating conditions. A custom sizing methodology calculated the capacities of storage required to fully meet the heat demands over the three timescales. Corresponding storage volumes were calculated for a range of heat storage materials deemed suitable for storing heat within a dwelling, either in a tank or as an integral part of the building fabric: hot water, concrete, high-temperature magnetite blocks, and a phase change material. The results indicate that with low temperature heat storage, domestic load shifting is feasible over a few days. Beyond this timescale, the very large storage volumes required make integration in dwellings problematic. Supporting load shifting over 1–2 weeks is feasible with high temperature storage. Retention of heat over periods longer than this is challenging, even with significant levels of insulation. Seasonal storage of heat in an encapsulated store appeared impractical in all cases modelled due to the volume of material required.

JOURNAL ARTICLE

Baker J, Papadopoulou L, Sheate W, 2018, United Kingdom, Biodiversity Offsets: European Perspectives on No Net Loss of Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services, Pages: 211-239, ISBN: 9783319725819

© Springer International Publishing AG 2018. Before the mid-2000s biodiversity offsetting was not part of the environmental policy discourse in the United Kingdom (UK). Since that time, of the UK’s four national administrations, England has been the most pro-active with regard to biodiversity offsetting. As a result this chapter focuses on the policy and practice of England with a short section summarising relevant developments in Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland.

BOOK CHAPTER

Balcombe P, Brandon NP, Hawkes AD, 2018, Characterising the distribution of methane and carbon dioxide emissions from the natural gas supply chain, JOURNAL OF CLEANER PRODUCTION, Vol: 172, Pages: 2019-2032, ISSN: 0959-6526

JOURNAL ARTICLE

Balcombe P, Speirs J, Johnson E, Martin J, Brandon N, Hawkes Aet al., 2018, The carbon credentials of hydrogen gas networks and supply chains, RENEWABLE & SUSTAINABLE ENERGY REVIEWS, Vol: 91, Pages: 1077-1088, ISSN: 1364-0321

JOURNAL ARTICLE

Bosch J, Staffell I, Hawkes AD, 2018, Temporally explicit and spatially resolved global offshore wind energy potentials, Pages: 766-781, ISSN: 0360-5442

© 2018 The Authors Several influential energy systems models (ESMs) indicate that renewable energy must supply a large share of the world's electricity to limit global temperature increases to 1.5 °C. To better represent the costs and other implications of such a transition, it is important that ESMs can realistically characterise the technical and economic potential of renewable energy resources. This paper presents a Geospatial Information System methodology for estimating the global offshore wind energy potential, i.e. the terawatt hour per year (TWh/yr) production potential of wind farms, assuming capacity could be built across the viable offshore area of each country. A bottom-up approach characterises the capacity factors of offshore wind farms by estimating the available wind power from high resolution global wind speed data sets. Temporal phenomena are retained by binning hourly wind speeds into 32 time slices per year considering the wind resource across several decades. For 157 countries with a viable offshore wind potential, electricity generation potential is produced in tranches according to the distance to grid connection, water depth and average annual capacity factor. These data can be used as inputs to ESMs and to assess the economically viable offshore wind energy potential, on a global or per-country basis.

CONFERENCE PAPER

Budinis S, Krevor S, Dowell NM, Brandon N, Hawkes Aet al., 2018, An assessment of CCS costs, barriers and potential, Energy Strategy Reviews, Vol: 22, Pages: 61-81, ISSN: 2211-467X

© 2018 Elsevier Ltd Global decarbonisation scenarios include Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) as a key technology to reduce carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from the power and industrial sectors. However, few large scale CCS plants are operating worldwide. This mismatch between expectations and reality is caused by a series of barriers which are preventing this technology from being adopted more widely. The goal of this paper is to identify and review the barriers to CCS development, with a focus on recent cost estimates, and to assess the potential of CCS to enable access to fossil fuels without causing dangerous levels of climate change. The result of the review shows that no CCS barriers are exclusively technical, with CCS cost being the most significant hurdle in the short to medium term. In the long term, CCS is found to be very cost effective when compared with other mitigation options. Cost estimates exhibit a high range, which depends on process type, separation technology, CO2transport technique and storage site. CCS potential has been quantified by comparing the amount of fossil fuels that could be used globally with and without CCS. In modelled energy system transition pathways that limit global warming to less than 2 °C, scenarios without CCS result in 26% of fossil fuel reserves being consumed by 2050, against 37% being consumed when CCS is available. However, by 2100, the scenarios without CCS have only consumed slightly more fossil fuel reserves (33%), whereas scenarios with CCS available end up consuming 65% of reserves. It was also shown that the residual emissions from CCS facilities is the key factor limiting long term uptake, rather than cost. Overall, the results show that worldwide CCS adoption will be critical if fossil fuel reserves are to continue to be substantively accessed whilst still meeting climate targets.

JOURNAL ARTICLE

Crow DJG, Giarola S, Hawkes AD, 2018, A dynamic model of global natural gas supply, APPLIED ENERGY, Vol: 218, Pages: 452-469, ISSN: 0306-2619

JOURNAL ARTICLE

Giarola S, Forte O, Lanzini A, Gandiglio M, Santarelli M, Hawkes Aet al., 2018, Techno-economic assessment of biogas-fed solid oxide fuel cell combined heat and power system at industrial scale, APPLIED ENERGY, Vol: 211, Pages: 689-704, ISSN: 0306-2619

JOURNAL ARTICLE

Jalil-Vega F, Hawkes AD, 2018, Spatially resolved model for studying decarbonisation pathways for heat supply and infrastructure trade-offs, APPLIED ENERGY, Vol: 210, Pages: 1051-1072, ISSN: 0306-2619

JOURNAL ARTICLE

Jalil-Vega F, Hawkes AD, 2018, The effect of spatial resolution on outcomes from energy systems modelling of heat decarbonisation, Energy, Vol: 155, Pages: 339-350, ISSN: 0360-5442

© 2018 The Authors Spatial resolution is often cited as a crucial determinant of results from energy systems models. However, there is no study that comprehensively analyses the effect of spatial resolution. This paper addresses this gap by applying the Heat Infrastructure and Technology heat decarbonisation optimisation model in six UK Local Authorities representing a range of rural/urban areas, at three levels of spatial resolution, in order to systematically compare results. Results show the importance of spatial resolution for optimal allocation of heat supply technologies and infrastructure across different urban/rural areas. Firstly, for the studied cases, differences of up to 30% in heat network uptake were observed when comparing results between different resolutions for a given area. Secondly, for areas that generally exhibit the high and low extremes of linear heat density, results are less dependent on spatial resolution. Also, spatial resolution effects are more significant when there is higher variability of linear heat density throughout zones. Finally, results show that it is important to use finer resolutions when using optimisation models to inform detailed network planning and expansion. Higher spatial resolutions provide more detailed information on zones that act as anchors that can seed network growth and on location of network supply technologies.

JOURNAL ARTICLE

Jalil-Vega FA, Hawkes AD, 2018, Spatially Resolved Optimization for Studying the Role of Hydrogen for Heat Decarbonization Pathways, ACS SUSTAINABLE CHEMISTRY & ENGINEERING, Vol: 6, Pages: 5835-5842, ISSN: 2168-0485

JOURNAL ARTICLE

Luh S, Budinis S, Schmidt TJ, Hawkes Aet al., 2018, Decarbonisation of the Industrial Sector by means of Fuel Switching, Electrification and CCS, Editors: Friedl, Klemes, Radl, Varbanov, Wallek, Publisher: ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV, Pages: 1311-1316

BOOK CHAPTER

Oluleye G, Allison J, Hawker G, Kelly N, Hawkes ADet al., 2018, A two-step optimization model for quantifying the flexibility potential of power-to-heat systems in dwellings, Applied Energy, Vol: 228, Pages: 215-228, ISSN: 0306-2619

© 2018 The Authors Coupling the electricity and heat sectors is receiving interest as a potential source of flexibility to help absorb surplus renewable electricity. The flexibility afforded by power-to-heat systems in dwellings has yet to be quantified in terms of time, energy and costs, and especially in cases where homeowners are heterogeneous prosumers. Flexibility quantification whilst accounting for prosumer heterogeneity is non-trivial. Therefore in this work a novel two-step optimization framework is proposed to quantify the potential of prosumers to absorb surplus renewable electricity through the integration of air source heat pumps and thermal energy storage. The first step is formulated as a multi-period mixed integer linear programming problem to determine the optimal energy system, and the quantity of surplus electricity absorbed. The second step is formulated as a linear programming problem to determine the price a prosumer will accept for absorbing surplus electricity, and thus the number of active prosumers in the market. A case study of 445 prosumers is presented to illustrate the approach. Results show that the number of active prosumers is affected by the quantity of absorbed electricity, frequency of requests, the price offered by aggregators and how prosumers determine the acceptable value of flexibility provided. This study is a step towards reducing the need for renewable curtailment and increasing pricing transparency in relation to demand-side response.

JOURNAL ARTICLE

Oluleye G, Allison J, Kelly N, Hawkes Aet al., 2018, A Multi-period Mixed Integer Linear Program for Assessing the Benefits of Power to Heat Storage in a Dwelling Energy System, Computer Aided Chemical Engineering, Pages: 1451-1456, ISBN: 9780444642356

© 2018 Elsevier B.V. In this paper a novel multi-period MILP model is developed, and applied to show how: (1) integrating thermal energy storage with ASHP (i.e. power to heat storage) reduces the ASHP peak and total electricity demand by 78.2 % and 8.4 % respectively, and (2) proper sizing of the ASHP reduced its total electricity demand by 35%. The accuracy of the model is improved by using fewer time slices to capture technology and energy demand characteristics. Storage size and operation are determined based on the energy demand and economic price signals.

BOOK CHAPTER

Oluleye G, Allison J, Kelly N, Hawkes ADet al., 2018, An Optimisation Study on Integrating and Incentivising Thermal Energy Storage (TES) in a Dwelling Energy System, Publisher: MDPI, ISSN: 1996-1073

CONFERENCE PAPER

Sachs J, Hidayat S, Giarola S, Hawkes Aet al., 2018, The role of CCS and biomass-based processes in the refinery sector for different carbon scenarios, Computer Aided Chemical Engineering, Pages: 1365-1370, ISBN: 9780444642356

© 2018 Elsevier B.V. This paper studies technological pathways in the refinery sector, such as fuel switching, carbon capture and storage (CCS), energy efficiency as well as retrofit decisions (i.e. upgrading, scaling-up, and equipment modernisation) with the aim of decarbonisation. A global refinery outlook is presented for a 2.5 °C and 2 °C climate target scenario from 2010 through to 2050. The results highlight that a full portfolio of technologies (non-conventional processes, gas-/coal- based, with/without CCS, and biomass- based process) is necessary. Among the conventional refineries, only the most efficient ones or those investing in CCS to increase competitiveness and reducing emissions, can stay in the market.

BOOK CHAPTER

Sechi S, Giarola S, Lanzini A, Gandiglio M, Oluleye G, Santarelli M, Hawkes Aet al., 2018, An optimization method to estimate the SOFC market in waste water treatment, Computer Aided Chemical Engineering, Pages: 415-420, ISBN: 9780444642356

© 2018 Elsevier B.V. Wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) are one of the most energy intensive public utilities. The valorization of the biogas produced from the sludge in combined heat and power (CHP) systems allows important energy and emissions reduction, particularly if highly efficient engines, like solid-oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) are used. This paper proposes a two-stage stochastic optimization approach to assess the market potential for SOFCs in WWTPs in Europe. Despite the biogas availability is a challenge to guarantee continuity of operation, the results show that the WWTP is a promising market to pave the way for SOFC cost reduction and further technological learning.

BOOK CHAPTER

Speirs J, Balcombe P, Johnson E, Martin J, Brandon N, Hawkes Aet al., 2018, A greener gas grid: What are the options, ENERGY POLICY, Vol: 118, Pages: 291-297, ISSN: 0301-4215

JOURNAL ARTICLE

Vijay A, Hawkes A, 2018, Impact of dynamic aspects on economics of fuel cell based micro co-generation in low carbon futures, Energy, Vol: 155, Pages: 874-886, ISSN: 0360-5442

JOURNAL ARTICLE

de Castro REN, Alves RMB, Hawkes A, Nascimento CAOet al., 2018, Open Sugarcane Process Simulation Platform, Computer Aided Chemical Engineering, Pages: 1819-1824

© 2018 Elsevier B.V. Software tools for process simulation and optimization have increasingly been used in industry to design and operate complex, highly interconnected plants. This allows the design of industrial plants to be profitable and to meet quality, safety, environmental and other standards. The aim of this work is to create a platform to simulate industrial sugarcane first generation process. Brazilian sugarcane industry is a well known process with many parameters available from industrial and literature data. The current first generation process seems to have reached the state of art and not great improvements seams to emerge nowadays. However engineering research has dedicated great efforts recently to improve efficiency through the use of industrial and agricultural residues. Most of these studies are related to the use of lignocellulosic material and vinasse. In this context an easy and simple platform has been developed to provide reliable outputs that could provide data for the studies of viability, social and environmental impacts when an additional process are interconnected to the first generation plant. The model has been validated using industrial data in order to attain the most realistic outputs.

BOOK CHAPTER

Balcombe P, Anderson K, Speirs J, Brandon N, Hawkes Aet al., 2017, The Natural Gas Supply Chain: The Importance of Methane and Carbon Dioxide Emissions, ACS SUSTAINABLE CHEMISTRY & ENGINEERING, Vol: 5, Pages: 3-20, ISSN: 2168-0485

JOURNAL ARTICLE

Bosch J, Staffell I, Hawkes AD, 2017, Temporally-explicit and spatially-resolved global onshore wind energy potentials, ENERGY, Vol: 131, Pages: 207-217, ISSN: 0360-5442

JOURNAL ARTICLE

Budinis S, Giarola S, Sachs J, Hawkes ADet al., 2017, Modelling the impacts of investors' decision making on decarbonisation pathways in industry, 10th Annual Meeting of the IAMC, Publisher: IAMC

The Paris Climate agreement calls for dramatic changes in the energy system. This will be challenging for demand sectors like industry, which is notoriously energy intensive. Although increased efficiency has proven to be suitable options to reduce energy and environmental impacts, stringent regulations on carbon will require this sector to undergo an unprecedented innovation effort, which will go well beyond cost efficiency measures to include the deployment of novel technologies and, most likely, of carbon capture and storage (CCS).This manuscript focuses on the uptake of novel technologies in the industrial sector and the barriers which might prevent or slow down the pace of innovation. Some of these barriers are technological as they depend on the availability and the technology readiness level of a specific technology. Others are instead related to the attitude that investors show towards innovative and the inherent level of risk. Among the many innovation options in the industrial sector, the focus here is on the uptake of the carbon capture and storage technologies.The industrial sector is modelled including the top-energy intensive industries, such as those manufacturing pulp and paper, iron and steel, chemicals and petrochemicals, the non-ferrous metals as well as non-metallic minerals. The simulations are carried out using a novel energy systems model, MUSE, the Modular energy systems Simulation Environment.

CONFERENCE PAPER

Budinis S, Mac Dowell N, Krevor S, Dixon T, Kemper J, Hawkes Aet al., 2017, Can carbon capture and storage unlock `unburnable carbon'?, 13th International Conference on Greenhouse Gas Control Technologies (GHGT), Publisher: Elsevier Science BV, Pages: 7504-7515, ISSN: 1876-6102

The concept of ‘unburnable carbon’ emerged in 2011, and stems from the observation that if all known fossil fuel reserves are extracted and converted to CO2(unabated), it would exceed the carbon budget and have a very significant effect on the climate. Therefore, if global warming is to be limited to the COP21 target, some of the known fossil fuel reserves should remain unburnt. Several recent reports have highlighted the scale of the challenge, drawing on scenarios of climate change mitigation and their implications for the projected consumption of fossil fuels. Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) is a critical and available mitigation opportunity and its contributionto timely and cost-effective decarbonisation of the energy system is widely recognised. However, while some studies have considered the role of CCS in enabling access to more fossil fuels, no detailed analysis on this issue has been undertaken. This paper presents a critical review focusing on the technologies that can be applied to enable access to, or ‘unlock’, fossil fuel reserves in a way that will meet climate targets and mitigate climate change. It also quantifies the impact of CCS in unlocking unburnable carbon in the first and in the second half of the century.

CONFERENCE PAPER

Chavez-Rodriguez MF, Dias L, Simoes S, Seixas J, Hawkes A, Szklo A, Lucena AFPet al., 2017, Modelling the natural gas dynamics in the Southern Cone of Latin America, APPLIED ENERGY, Vol: 201, Pages: 219-239, ISSN: 0306-2619

JOURNAL ARTICLE

Clark R, Budinis S, Hawkes A, McMartin Det al., 2017, Analysis of power production and emission reduction through the use of biogas and carbon capture and storage, Editors: Espuna, Graells, Puigjaner, Publisher: ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV, Pages: 2635-2640

BOOK CHAPTER

Few S, Gambhir A, Napp T, Hawkes A, Mangeon S, Bernie D, Lowe Jet al., 2017, The Impact of Shale Gas on the Cost and Feasibility of Meeting Climate TargetsA Global Energy System Model Analysis and an Exploration of Uncertainties, ENERGIES, Vol: 10, ISSN: 1996-1073

JOURNAL ARTICLE

Gambhir A, Drouet L, McCollum D, Napp T, Bernie D, Hawkes A, Fricko O, Havlik P, Riahi K, Bosetti V, Lowe Jet al., 2017, Assessing the Feasibility of Global Long-Term Mitigation Scenarios, ENERGIES, Vol: 10, ISSN: 1996-1073

JOURNAL ARTICLE

Gambhir A, Napp T, Hawkes A, Hoeglund-Isaksson L, Winiwarter W, Purohit P, Wagner F, Bernie D, Lowe Jet al., 2017, The Contribution of Non-CO2 Greenhouse Gas Mitigation to Achieving Long-Term Temperature Goals, ENERGIES, Vol: 10, ISSN: 1996-1073

JOURNAL ARTICLE

Giarola S, Budinis S, Sachs J, Hawkes ADet al., 2017, Long-term decarbonisation scenarios in the industrial sector, International Energy Workshop

Decarbonisation targets will drive every sector in the energy system to rapidly adopt innovativetechnologies to achieve the dramatic emissions reductions required. Among all, sectors like in-dustry, which currently exhibit a very high energy intensity, are likely to undergo major changes.This manuscript focuses on the appraisal of the effects of a CO2tax in the investment and operationdecisions in industry. Within the larger modelling framework typical of an integrated assessmentmodel, the sector is modelled including the top-energy intensive industries, such as those man-ufacturing pulp and paper, iron and steel, chemicals and petrochemicals, the non-ferrous metalsas well as non-metallic minerals. The simulations are carried out using a novel energy systemsmodel, MUSE, the Modular Universal energy systems Simulation Environment model.

CONFERENCE PAPER

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