39 results found
Ueda M, Kadiric A, Spikes H, 2019, On the crystallinity and durability of ZDDP tribofilm, Tribology Letters, Vol: 67, Pages: 1-13, ISSN: 1023-8883
The current trend for using lower-viscosity lubricants with the aim of improving fuel economy of mechanical systems means that machine components are required to operate for longer periods in thin oil film, mixed lubrication conditions, where the risk of surface damage is increased. Consequently, the performance and durability of the tribofilms formed by antiwear additives, and in particular zinc dialkyldithiophosphate (ZDDP), the main antiwear oil additive used in engine oils, has become an increasingly important issue. In this paper, it is confirmed that ZDDP tribofilms are initially relatively easily removed by rubbing but that they become more durable during prolonged rubbing. FIB-TEM analyses at different stages of tribofilm formation show that during the early stages of rubbing only the tribofilm close to the steel substrate is nanocrystalline, while the outer region is amorphous and easily removed. However, after prolonged rubbing all regions of the tribofilm become nanocrystalline and able to withstand rubbing in base oil without being removed. XPS analysis shows that after extended rubbing the outermost polyphosphate structures change from longer-chain structures such as metaphosphate and polyphosphate to shorter-chain structures including orthophosphate. This depolymerization of ZDDP tribofilm from long- to short-chain phosphate and consequent nanocrystallization are driven by heat and shear stress. EDX analysis shows that this conversion is promoted by diffusion of Fe cation into the bulk of the tribofilm. The finding that ZDDP tribofilms evolve during rubbing from a weaker amorphous structure to a more durable nanocrystalline one has important implications in terms of the behaviour of ZDDPs at low concentrations, on non-metallic surfaces and at very high contact pressures, as well as for the development of ZDDP tribofilm, friction and wear models.
Kanazawa Y, De Laurentis N, Kadiric A, 2019, Studies of friction in grease lubricated rolling bearings using ball-on-disc and full bearing tests, Tribology Transactions, Vol: 63, Pages: 77-89, ISSN: 1040-2004
This article evaluates the frictional performance of different bearing grease formulations in full rolling bearings and a ball-on-disc rig and subsequently assesses whether the ball-on-disc test results can be used to predict the grease performance in actual bearings. A selection of custom-made greases with systematically varied formulations as well as their base oils were tested. Bearing torque was measured in two different cylindrical roller thrust bearings and a thrust ball bearing. The same lubricants were tested with ball-on-disc tribometers, a mini traction machine (MTM) to measure friction and an optical elastohydrodynamic (EHD) rig to measure film thickness. Both lithium complex and diurea greases were observed to produce lower friction than their base oils within the low speed, low nominal lambda ratio region, whereas the greases and oils had the same friction at high nominal lambda ratio values. These relative trends were the same in full bearing and single-contact MTM tests. The reduction in friction was seen to be related to the level of film thickness enhancement provided by greases at lower speeds, which leads to an increase in the effective lambda ratio and hence reduced friction. By extracting the sliding torque component from the overall measured bearing torque, a plot of the friction coefficient against the effective lambda ratio was produced encompassing all bearing and single-contact tests and all lubricants and test conditions. This plot was seen to follow a general shape of a master Stribeck curve, indicating that the numerical values of the friction coefficient from ball-on-disc and full bearing tests overlap and can be related to each other using this approach over the range of conditions employed here. Thus, single-contact ball-on-disc tests can provide a fast and economical way of establishing the frictional performance of bearing greases in full bearings in terms of both relative performance rankings and quantitative values of bearing fric
Gouda K, Rycerz P, Kadiric A, et al., 2019, Assessing the effectiveness of data-driven time-domain condition indicators in predicting the progression of surface distress under rolling contact, Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part J: Journal of Engineering Tribology, Vol: 233, Pages: 1523-1540, ISSN: 1350-6501
Condition monitoring of machine health via analysis of vibration, acoustic and other signals offers an important tool for reducing the machine downtime and maintenance costs. The key aspect in this process is the ability to relate features derived from the recorded sensor signals to the physical condition of the monitored asset in real time. This paper uses simple machine learning techniques to examine the ability of specific time-domain features obtained from vibration signals to predict the progression of surface distress in lubricated, rolling-sliding contacts, such as those found in rolling bearings and gears. Controlled experiments were performed on a triple-disc rolling contact fatigue rig using seeded-fault roller specimens where micropitting damage was generated and its progression directly observed over millions of contact cycles. Vibration signals were recorded throughout the experiments. Features known as condition indicators were then extracted from the recorded time-domain signals and their evolution related to the observed physical state of the associated specimens using simple machine learning techniques. Five time-domain condition indicators were examined, peak-to-peak, root-mean-square, kurtosis, crest factor and skewness, three of which were found not to be redundant. First, a classification model using KNN nearest neighbor was built with the three informative condition indicators as training data. The cross-validation results indicated that this classifier was able to predict the presence of micropitting damage with a relatively high precision and a low rate of false positives. Secondly, a k-means clustering analysis was performed to measure the significance of each condition indicator by leveraging patterns. The peak-to-peak condition indicator was found to be a good predictor for progression of micropitting damage. In addition, this indicator was able to distinguish between micropitting and pitting failure modes with a high success rate. Finally
Ueda M, Spikes H, Kadiric A, 2019, In-situ observations of the effect of the ZDDP tribofilm growth on micropitting, Tribology International, Vol: 138, Pages: 342-352, ISSN: 0301-679X
The ongoing trend for using ever lower viscosities of lubricating oils, with the aim of improving the efficiency of mechanical systems, means that machine components are required to operate for longer periods under thin film, mixed lubrication conditions where the risk of surface damage is increased. For this reason, the role of zinc dialkyldithiophosphate (ZDDP) antiwear lubricant additive has become increasingly important in order to provide adequate surface protection. It is known that due to its exceptional effectiveness in reducing surface wear, ZDDP may promote micropitting by preventing adequate running-in of the contacting surfaces. However, the relationship between ZDDP tribofilm growth rate and the evolution of micropitting has not been directly demonstrated. To address this, we report the development of a novel technique using MTM-SLIM to obtain micropitting and observe ZDDP tribofilm growth in parallel throughout a test. This is then applied to investigate the effect of ZDDP concentration and type on micropitting.It is found that oils with higher ZDDP concentrations produce more micropitting but less surface wear and that, at a given concentration, a mixed primary-secondary ZDDP results in more severe micropitting than a primary ZDDP. Too rapid formation of a thick antiwear tribofilm early in the test serves to prevent adequate running-in of sliding parts, which subsequently leads to higher asperity stresses and more asperity stress cycles and consequently more micropitting. Therefore, any adverse effects of ZDDP on micropitting and surface fatigue in general are mechanical in nature and can be accounted for through ZDDP's influence on running-in and resulting asperity stress history. The observed correlation between antiwear film formation rate and micropitting should help in the design of oil formulations that extend component lifetime by controlling both wear and micropitting damage.
Rycerz P, Kadiric A, 2019, The influence of slide–roll ratio on the extent of micropitting damage in rolling–sliding contacts pertinent to gear applications, Tribology Letters, Vol: 67, ISSN: 1023-8883
Micropitting is a type of surface damage that occurs in rolling–sliding contacts operating under thin oil film, mixed lubrication conditions, such as those formed between meshing gear teeth. Like the more widely studied pitting damage, micropitting is caused by the general mechanism of rolling contact fatigue but, in contrast to pitting, it manifests itself through the formation of micropits on the local, roughness asperity level. Despite the fact that micropitting is increasingly becoming a major mode of gear failure, the relevant mechanisms are poorly understood and there are currently no established design criteria to assess the risk of micropitting occurrence in gears or other applications. This paper provides new understanding of the tribological mechanisms that drive the occurrence of micropitting damage and serves to inform the ongoing discussions on suitable design criteria in relation to the influence of contact slide–roll ratio (SRR) on micropitting. A triple-disc rolling contact fatigue rig is used to experimentally study the influence of the magnitude and direction of SRR on the progression of micropitting damage in samples made of case-carburised gear steel. The test conditions are closely controlled to isolate the influence of the variable of interest. In particular, any variation in bulk heating at different SRRs is eliminated so that tests are conducted at the same film thickness for all SRRs. The results show that increasing the magnitude of SRR increases the level of micropitting damage and that negative SRRs (i.e. the component where damage is being accumulated is slower) produce more micropitting than the equivalent positive SRRs. Measurements of elastohydrodynamic film thickness show that in the absence of bulk heating, increasing SRR does not cause a reduction in EHL film thickness and therefore this cannot be the reason for the increased micropitting at higher SRRs. Instead, we show that the main mechanism by which increase in SRR
Peng B, Spikes H, Kadiric A, 2019, The development and application of a scuffing test based on contra-rotation, Tribology Letters, Vol: 67, ISSN: 1023-8883
Scuffing is a surface failure mode that occurs in sliding–rolling contacts subjected to high loads and high sliding speeds, such as those in gears and cam-followers. Owing to its sudden onset, rapid progression and dependence on both fluid and boundary lubricant films, scuffing is difficult to study in a repeatable manner. This paper describes further development of a recently proposed scuffing test method based on contra-rotation, its extension to higher loads using a new experimental set-up and its application to study the onset of scuffing with a selection of model and fully-formulated oils. The method employs two surfaces moving in opposite directions under rolling–sliding conditions, with a fixed load and step-wise increasing sliding speed. By decoupling the entrainment and sliding speeds, the method allows the effects of lubricant formulation on scuffing performance to be isolated from the influence of viscosity. The approach achieves high sliding speeds in parallel with low entrainment speeds, while minimising the undesirable effects of surface wear and frictional heating. The proposed test is relatively fast and economical, with total test time of about 30 min including specimen cleaning and set-up. Results show that the newly implemented modifications have improved the repeatability of the test method, so that the number of repeat tests required for reliable oil ranking results is minimal. Tests with model and fully-formulated oils show that the onset of scuffing is characterised by a sharp and unrecoverable increase in friction and accompanied by the destruction of any boundary films. All tests show that the relationship load × speedn = constant holds at scuffing, with the exact value of the exponent n being dependent on the oil formulation. Additivised oils were shown to have enhanced scuffing resistance, which arises from their ability to postpone the uncontrollable rise in friction to higher sliding speeds. Finally, the critical maximu
Manieri F, Stadler K, Morales-Espejel GE, et al., 2019, The origins of white etching cracks and their significance to rolling bearing failures, International Journal of Fatigue, Vol: 120, Pages: 107-133, ISSN: 0142-1123
Presence of white etching cracks has been widely associated with early failures of rolling bearings in a number of applications, with wind turbine gearbox bearings being the most frequently cited and practically significant example. Despite the recent research efforts, there is yet no universal agreement on the mechanisms of formation of these cracks and little direct evidence of their significance to bearing reliability. In an attempt to address this, this paper proposes a new theory on the origins and significance of white etching cracks. The paper provides systematic experimental evidence in support of this theory through rolling contact fatigue tests performed with AISI 52100 bearing steel specimens on a triple-disc machine over a wide range of contact conditions. The test results show that white etching cracks can be formed with base oils as well as commercially formulated transmission and engine oils. WECs were generated under slide-roll-ratios ranging from 0.05 to 0.3, under positive and negative sliding, different contact pressures and specific film thicknesses ranging from 0.1 to 0.7. No white etching areas were ever observed without the associate crack being present, and it was also shown that white etching areas themselves can be produced in a pure rubbing contact of bearing steels under both lubricated and unlubricated conditions. These results provide direct evidence that the steel transformations that exhibit themselves as white etching areas are formed through rubbing of the existing crack faces, and that the chemical composition of the lubricant and the magnitude and direction of sliding are not the primary driver of WEC formation, in contrast to literature. Instead, the results presented here show that WECs are formed through the action of a specific stress history in time via the following mechanism: (i) Short-lived high contact stresses, which can be caused by a number of factors, act in the initial stages of the component life to initiate early f
Morales-Espejel GE, Rycerz P, Kadiric A, 2018, Prediction of micropitting damage in gear teeth contacts considering the concurrent effects of surface fatigue and mild wear, Wear, Vol: 398-399, Pages: 99-115, ISSN: 0043-1648
© 2017 The Authors The present paper studies the occurrence of micropitting damage in gear teeth contacts. An existing general micropitting model, which accounts for mixed lubrication conditions, stress history, and fatigue damage accumulation, is adapted here to deal with transient contact conditions that exist during meshing of gear teeth. The model considers the concurrent effects of surface fatigue and mild wear on the evolution of tooth surface roughness and therefore captures the complexities of damage accumulation on tooth flanks in a more realistic manner than hitherto possible. Applicability of the model to gear contact conditions is first confirmed by comparing its predictions to relevant experiments carried out on a triple-disc contact fatigue rig. Application of the model to a pair of meshing spur gears shows that under low specific oil film thickness conditions, the continuous competition between surface fatigue and mild wear determines the overall level as well as the distribution of micropitting damage along the tooth flanks. The outcome of this competition in terms of the final damage level is dependent on contact sliding speed, pressure and specific film thickness. In general, with no surface wear, micropitting damage increases with decreasing film thickness as may be expected, but when some wear is present micropitting damage may reduce as film thickness is lowered to the point where wear takes over and removes the asperity peaks and hence reduces asperity interactions. Similarly, when wear is negligible, increased sliding can increase the level of micropitting by increasing the number of asperity stress cycles, but when wear is present, an increase in sliding may lead to a reduction in micropitting due to faster removal of asperity peaks. The results suggest that an ideal situation in terms of surface damage prevention is that in which some mild wear at the start of gear pair operation adequately wears-in the tooth surfaces, thus reducing sub
Kadiric A, Rycerz P, 2017, Influence of Contact Conditions on the Onset of Micropitting in Rolling-Sliding Contacts Pertinent to Gear Applications
De Laurentis N, Cann P, Lugt P, et al., 2017, The Influence of Base Oil Properties on the Friction Behaviour of Lithium Greases in Rolling/Sliding Concentrated Contacts, Tribology Letters, Vol: 65, ISSN: 1023-8883
This study investigates the influence of base oil type and viscosity on the frictional behaviour of lithium-thickened bearing greases. A series of model lithium greases were manufactured by systematically varying viscosity and type of base oil, so that the influence of a single base oil property could be studied in isolation. In addition, selected greases were blended with oleic acid, with the purpose of evaluating its effectiveness in further reducing grease friction. Friction coefficient and film thickness were measured in laboratory ball-on-disc tribometers over a range of speeds and temperatures. For a specific oil type, the influence of base oil viscosity on friction was found to be closely related to its effect on film thickness: greases formulated with PAO oils covering a wide range of viscosities gave very similar friction at the same nominal film thickness. For a given base oil viscosity, base oil type was found to have a strong influence on grease friction under all test conditions. PAO-based greases generally produced lower friction than mineral- and ester-based greases. Addition of oleic acid to the test greases did not significantly affect friction within the range of test conditions employed in this study. The results provide new insight into the frictional behaviour of greases, which may be used to help inform new low-friction grease formulations for rolling bearing applications.
Guegan J, Kadiric A, Gabelli A, et al., 2017, Reply to the 'Comment on "The Relationship Between Friction and Film Thickness in EHD Point Contacts in the Presence of Longitudinal Roughness'' by Guegan, Kadiric, Gabelli, & Spikes' by Scott Bair, Tribology Letters, Vol: 65, ISSN: 1023-8883
Kanazawa Y, Sayles RS, Kadiric A, 2017, Film formation and friction in grease lubricated rolling-sliding non-conformal contacts, Tribology International, Vol: 109, Pages: 505-518, ISSN: 1879-2464
This study investigates the film formation and friction in grease lubricated, rolling-sliding, non-conformal contacts over a range of entrainment speeds, surface roughnesses and contact temperatures. The effects of grease composition are assessed by employing custom made, additive free, lithium and diurea thickened greases, whose composition is systematically varied so that the effects of the thickener and the base oil can be isolated. All film thickness and friction measurements were conducted under fully-flooded conditions. It was found that at low speeds all tested greases are able to form thicker films than the corresponding base oils. The thickness and behaviour of these films is determined by the thickener type and is independent of the base oil viscosity and the test temperature. At higher speeds, the film thickness is governed by the base oil properties alone and can be predicted by the EHD theory. At low speeds, films with diurea greases grow with time under constant speed and residual films persist under load after contact motion ceases. The real lambda ratio, based on measured grease film thickness, was shown to correlate well with contact friction. The transition from the thickener dominated behaviour to that dominated by the base oil occurs at a relatively constant film thickness, regardless of the base oil viscosity and test temperatures, rather than at a given entrainment speed. Based on the presented evidence, it is here proposed that the mechanism of formation of grease films at low speeds, is analogous to that reported to operate in EHL contacts lubricated with colloidal dispersions, namely the mechanical entrapment and deposition of thickener fibres, and that, rather than the widely quoted ‘transition speed’, it is the ratio of the thickener fibre size to prevailing film thickness that determines the range of conditions under which the film enhancement due to the action of thickener is present.
Hajishafiee A, Kadiric A, Ioannides E, et al., 2016, A coupled finite-volume CFD solver for two-dimensional elasto-hydrodynamic lubrication problems with particular application to rolling element bearings, Tribology International, Vol: 109, Pages: 258-273, ISSN: 1879-2464
This paper describes a new computational fluid dynamics methodology for modelling elastohydrodynamic contacts. A finite-volume technique is implemented in the ‘OpenFOAM’ package to solve the Navier-Stokes equations and resolve all gradients in a lubricated rolling-sliding contact. The method fully accounts for fluid-solid interactions and is stable over a wide range of contact conditions, including pressures representative of practical rolling bearing and gear applications. The elastic deformation of the solid, fluid cavitation and compressibility, as well as thermal effects are accounted for. Results are presented for rolling-sliding line contacts of an elastic cylinder on a rigid flat to validate the model predictions, illustrate its capabilities, and identify some example conditions under which the traditional Reynolds-based predictions deviate from the full CFD solution.
Rycerz P, Olver A, Kadiric A, 2016, Propagation of surface initiated rolling contact fatigue cracks in bearing Steel, International Journal of Fatigue, Vol: 97, Pages: 29-38, ISSN: 1879-3452
Surface initiated rolling contact fatigue, leading to a surface failure known as pitting, is a life limiting failure mode in many modern machine elements, particularly rolling element bearings. Most research on rolling contact fatigue considers total life to pitting. Instead, this work studies the growth of rolling contact fatigue cracks before they develop into surface pits in an attempt to better understand crack propagation mechanisms. A triple-contact disc machine was used to perform pitting experiments on bearing steel samples under closely controlled contact conditions in mixed lubrication regime. Crack growth across the specimen surface is monitored and crack propagation rates extracted. The morphology of the generated cracks is observed by preparing sections of cracked specimens at the end of the test. It was found that crack initiation occurred very early in total life, which was attributed to high asperity stresses due to mixed lubrication regime. Total life to pitting was dominated by crack propagation. Results provide direct evidence of two distinct stages of crack growth in rolling contact fatigue: stage 1, within which cracks grow at a slow and relatively steady rate, consumed most of the total life; and stage 2, reached at a critical crack length, within which the propagation rate rapidly increases. Contact pressure and crack size were shown to be the main parameters controlling the propagation rate. Results show that crack propagation under rolling contact fatigue follows similar trends to those known to occur in classical fatigue. A log-log plot of measured crack growth rates against the product of maximum contact pressure and the square root of crack length, a parameter describing the applied stress intensity, produces a straight line for stage 2 propagation. This provides the first evidence that growth of hereby-identified stage 2 rolling contact fatigue cracks can be described by a Paris-type power law, where the rate of crack growth across the s
Jelita Rydel J, Pagkalis K, Kadiric A, et al., 2016, The correlation between ZDDP tribofilm morphology and the microstructure of steel, Tribology International, Vol: 113, Pages: 13-25, ISSN: 0301-679X
The microstructure of most hard steels used in tribological applications is inhomogeneous at a micro-scale. This results in local variations in chemical composition and mechanical properties. On a similar scale, tribofilms formed by ZDDP and other anti-wear additives are commonly observed to exhibit a patch-like morphology. ZDDP tribofilms formed under controlled contact conditions on four different steel grades were carefully studied with a new AFM technique to analyse the relationship between the steel microstructure and the tribofilm morphology. Tribofilms were found to be thinner on residual carbides than on the martensitic matrix in all grades containing residual carbides. In most cases, the difference in tribofilm thickness is larger than the carbide protrusion.
Guegan J, Kadiric A, Gabelli A, et al., 2016, The relationship between friction and film thickness in EHD point contacts in the presence of longitudinal roughness, Tribology Letters, Vol: 64, ISSN: 1573-2711
This study investigates friction and film thickness in elastohydrodynamic contacts of machined, rough surfaces, where roughness is dominated by longitudinal ridges parallel to the rolling/sliding direction. A ball-on-disc tribometer was used to simultaneously measure friction and film thickness in rough contacts as well as with nominally smooth specimens for comparison. The studied rough surfaces were selected so that the influence of the root-mean-square roughness and roughness wavelength can be assessed. Friction and film measurements were taken over a range of slide–roll ratios and speeds and with two lubricating oils with different viscosities, hence covering a wide range of specific film thicknesses. The measurements with the nominally smooth specimens show that friction is strongly influenced by thermal effects at high SRRs and that the transition from mixed/boundary to full EHD lubrication occurs at lambda ratios greater than three. At low speeds, the rough specimens are found to generate higher friction than the smooth ones for all the roughness structures considered, and this is shown to be related to the thinner minimum film thickness. Comparison of friction in rough and smooth contacts shows that the total friction in rough contacts can be divided into two components: one that is equivalent to friction in smooth contacts under the same conditions and is dependent on the slide–roll ratio, and the other that is due to the presence of roughness and is independent of the slide–roll ratio under the conditions tested. Further analysis of the minimum film thickness on tops of roughness ridges indicates that even after the full lift-off, an effect of the roughness on friction persists and is most likely related to the local shear stress in the micro-EHD contacts on the top of roughness ridges. At even higher speeds, the difference in friction between the rough and smooth specimens vanishes.
De Laurentis N, Kadiric A, Lugt P, et al., 2016, The influence of bearing grease composition on friction in rolling/sliding concentrated contacts, Tribology International, Vol: 94, Pages: 624-632, ISSN: 0301-679X
This paper presents new results examining the relationship between bearing grease composition and rolling-sliding friction in lubricated contacts. Friction coefficient and lubricating film thickness of a series of commercially available bearing greases and their bled oils were measured in laboratory tribometers. Test greases were selected to cover a wide spectrum of thickener and base oil types, and base oil viscosities. The trends in measured friction coefficients were analysed in relation to grease composition in an attempt to establish the relative influence of individual grease components on friction. Two distinct operating regions with markedly different friction behaviour are identified for each grease. At relatively high speeds the greases behave approximately as their bled/base oils, while in the low speed region the frictional response is very dependent on their thickener type and properties of the lubricating film. Low viscosity, synthetic base oil seems to offer efficiency advantages in the high speed region regardless of thickener used, while the choice of thickener type is significant under low speed conditions.
Kadiric A, Rycerz P, 2016, Influence of contact conditions on the onset of micropitting in rolling-sliding contacts pertinent to gear applications, AGMA 2016 - Fall Technical Meeting
Copyright © 2016 American Gear Manufacturers Association. Micropitting is a type of rolling contact fatigue surface damage that occurs in concentrated, rolling-sliding contacts, such as those between gear teeth. In contrast to macropitting, where the damage initiates and progresses on the macro contact level, micropitting damage initiates on the surface asperity level. Despite the fact that it is one of the major modes of gear failure, there are currently no universally accepted design guidelines for prevention of micropitting. This paper attempts to provide further understanding on the tribological conditions that may lead to the onset of micropitting in lubricated, concentrated contacts representative of those occurring between gear teeth. In particular, an attempt is made to establish the effect of slide-roll ratio on the extent of microptting. Experimental results obtained on a triple-disc microptting rig under conditions designed to isolate the effects of slide-roll ratio and specific film thickness are presented. In parallel, the potential effect of sliding on film thickness is studied experimentally using a well-proven optical interferometry technique. The results show that increasing the slide-roll ratio increases the extent of micropitting but that the mechanisms responsible for this are not related to any potential effects of the slide-roll ratio on prevalent film thickness as suggested elsewhere, but rather to the increased number of asperity stress cycles at higher slide-roll ratios.
Kadiric A, Lockwood FE, Kolekar A, et al., 2015, The Efficiency of a Simple Spur Gearbox — Thermally Coupled Lubrication Model
Guegan J, Kadiric A, Spikes HA, 2015, A Study of the Lubrication of EHL Point Contact in the Presence of Longitudinal Roughness, Tribology Letters, Vol: 59, ISSN: 1023-8883
This work investigates the effect on elastohydrodynamic lubrication of roughness ridges oriented along the rolling–sliding direction, such as may be present on rolling bearing raceways. The roughness of the three specimens tested is characterised by the RMS of surface heights and a dominant wavelength. Optical interferometry and a ball-on-disc set-up were employed to map the oil film thickness. The paper first describes a novel procedure to carry out optical interferometry measurements on rough surfaces. Film thickness maps from the central part of the contact were obtained for a range of speeds in pure rolling and rolling–sliding conditions. The evolution of the film distribution with increasing speed along with the in-contact RMS and the real area of contact was calculated. The film maps show that the lift-off speed increases when roughness is introduced compared with smooth surfaces, while the average film thickness remains very close to the smooth case. The general horseshoe film shape that becomes visible at higher speeds is discussed. Using an inverse solution approach based on measured in-contact roughness, the pressure distribution is estimated in a rough, lubricated contact and its evolution with speed is explained. The findings provide important insights into the transition from boundary, through mixed, to full EHL lubrication for longitudinal roughness.
Nyqvist J, Kadiric A, Ioannides S, et al., 2015, Semi-analytical model for rough multilayered contacts, Tribology International, Vol: 87, Pages: 98-112, ISSN: 1879-2464
This paper presents a new model for analysis of non-conformal rough surface contacts where one or both of the contacting bodies are coated with a multilayered coating. The model considers elastic contact of arbitrary geometry with real measured roughnesses and both normal and tangential surface loads. It predicts contact pressure distribution, surface deformations and full subsurface stress field. As such, the model offers an optimisation tool for analysis and development of multilayered coatings. Influence coefficients approach is utilised to obtain contact pressures and subsurface stresses while the contact solver is based on a standard conjugate gradient method. To improve model efficiency, a semi-analytical approach is devised, where the influence coefficients for displacements and stresses are expressed explicitly by solving the fundamental equations in the frequency domain. Fast Fourier Transforms in conjunction with discrete convolution are then utilised to provide the solution in spatial domain. Selected results are presented to first validate the model and then illustrate the potential improvements that can be achieved in the design of multilayered coatings through application of the model.
Myant CW, fowell M, spikes H, et al., 2014, A Study of Lubricant Film Thickness in Compliant Contacts of Elastomeric Seal Materials Using a Laser Induced Fluorescence Technique, Tribology International, Vol: 80, Pages: 76-89, ISSN: 1879-2464
A laser induced fluorescence technique was used to investigate the build-up of lubricant films in compliant contacts operating in the isoviscous elasto-hydrodynamic regime (I-EHL). The described technique utilises an optimised optical set-up with a relatively high signal-to-noise ratio and was shown to be able to produce film thickness maps of the complete contact area and measure a very wide span of thicknesses, from 50 nm to 100 μm. Maps of film thickness were obtained over a range of entrainment speeds and loads for three different contact configurations and two elastomer materials, polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and a fluorocarbon rubber (FKM) which is typically used in rotary seal applications. In a model contact of a nominally smooth PDMS ball sliding on a glass flat, a crescent shaped area of reduced film thickness was observed towards the contact exit. In contrast to typical elasto-hydrodynamic contacts, no side-lobes of reduced film thickness were recorded, while the central film region exhibited a converging wedge shape. The elliptical contact of an FKM O-ring rolling on a flat glass showed a central region of flat film while areas of minimum film thickness were located near the contact edges either side of the centre. The highly conformal contact of relatively rough FKM O-ring sliding against a concave glass lens, a geometry more representative of that found in elastomeric seals, showed discrete regions of reduced film, corresponding to surface roughness asperities. With rising entrainment speed, some lift-off was observed, with surface roughness asperities appearing to be increasingly compressed. Measured films thicknesses were compared to existing theoretical predictions for I-EHL contacts and the level of agreement was found to be highly dependent on contact geometry and applied conditions.
Fowell M, Ioannides S, Kadiric A, 2014, An Experimental Investigation into the Onset of Smearing Damage in Nonconformal Contacts with Application to Roller Bearings, Tribology Transactions, Vol: 57, Pages: 472-488, ISSN: 1547-397X
The onset of smearing damage was studied under controlled conditions in a custom test rig that simulates the passage of a rolling element through loaded and unloaded zones of a rolling bearing. The setup includes a spherical roller that is intermittently loaded between two bearing raceways driven at a prescribed speed. The roller is free to accelerate during the loading phase. Contact load, roller speed and acceleration, and electrical contact resistance are recorded during the test. Contact shear stress, friction coefficient, frictional power intensity, and elastohydrodynamic film thickness are calculated from the recorded kinematics data. Results suggest that the first onset of smearing occurs early in the loading phase where the roller is near stationary and the frictional power intensity is high. The raceway speed at the onset of damage decreases with increasing load and increasing lubricant supply temperature. The maximum frictional power intensity is found to be relatively constant at all contact conditions that led to smearing. An existing thermomechanical contact model is used to estimate the contact temperature distribution under smearing conditions and the potential for elastohydrodynamic lubrication (EHL) film thickness reduction due to forward heat conduction.
Christodoulias AI, Olver AV, Kadiric A, et al., 2014, The efficiency of a simple spur gearbox - A thermally coupled lubrication model, Pages: 81-98
Copyright © 2014, American Gear Manufacturers Association. A thermally coupled efficiency model for a simple dip-lubricated gearbox is presented. The model includes elastohydrodynamic (EHL) friction losses in gear teeth contacts as well as bearing, seal and churning losses. An iterative numerical scheme is used to fully account for the effects of contact temperature, pressure and shear rates on EHL friction. The model is used to predict gearbox efficiency with selected transmission oils whose properties were first obtained experimentally through rolling-sliding tribometer tests under representative contact conditions. Although the gearbox was designed using standard methods against a fixed rating, the model was used to study efficiency over a much wider range of conditions. Results are presented to illustrate the relative contribution of different sources of energy loss and the effect of lubricant properties on the overall gearbox efficiency under varying operating conditions.
Balcombe R, Fowell MT, Kadiric A, et al., 2013, Modeling the propagation of Rolling Contact Fatigue (RCF) cracks in the presence of lubricant, Pages: 3577-3579
Hajishafiee A, Dini D, Kadiric A, et al., 2013, A fully-coupled finite volume solver for elasto-hydrodynamic lubrication problems with particular application to rolling element bearings, Pages: 1105-1108
Nyqvist JT, Kadiric A, Sayles RS, et al., 2013, Three-dimensional analysis of multilayered rough surface contacts, Pages: 181-183
Fowell MT, Kadiric A, Morales-Espejel G, et al., 2013, Smearing damage in rolling element bearings, Pages: 1135-1137
Guégan J, Kadiric A, Reddyhoff T, et al., 2013, Friction and lubrication of textured surfaces in elasto-hydrodynamic contacts, Pages: 1659-1661
Imai Y, Sayles RS, Kadiric A, 2013, A study of the tribological benefits offered by various surface features and roughness conditions within grease-lubricated interfaces, Society of Tribologists and Lubrication Engineers Annual Meeting and Exhibition 2013, Pages: 134-140
The use of lubricant in machine elements requires a fundamental understanding of the lubrication mechanisms, particularly in components such as bearings and sliding parts. Various kinds of greases which have different concentration of thickener agent are studied as to whether there is an effect on the plastic deformation of surface roughness. On smooth surfaces, the fluid load support of all greases was the same or lower than the base oil because the entrapped base oil was not allowed to escape from the inside of the pre-indent. On rough surfaces, the fluid load support of all greases was higher than the base oil because the base oil was allowed to escape easily from pre-indent through the valleys of surface roughness, thus the base oil is not compressed enough and cannot support the load. On much rougher surfaces, the fluid load support of all greases decreased and there was no difference. Benefits are optimized by linking together the surface finish and the grease formulation. This is an abstract of paper presented at the 2013 STLE Annual Meeting and Exhibition (Detroit, MI 5/5-9/13).
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