Imperial College London

Professor Bill Rutherford FRS

Faculty of Natural SciencesDepartment of Life Sciences

Chair in Biochemistry of Solar Energy



+44 (0)20 7594 5329a.rutherford Website




702Sir Ernst Chain BuildingSouth Kensington Campus






BibTex format

author = {Nuernberg, DJ and Morton, J and Santabarbara, S and Telfer, A and Joliot, P and Antonaru, LA and Ruban, AV and Cardona, T and Krausz, E and Boussac, A and Fantuzzi, A and Rutherford, AW},
doi = {10.1126/science.aar8313},
journal = {Science},
pages = {1210--1213},
title = {Photochemistry beyond the red limit in chlorophyll f-containing photosystems},
url = {},
volume = {360},
year = {2018}

RIS format (EndNote, RefMan)

AB - Photosystems I and II convert solar energy into the chemical energy that powers life. Chlorophyll a photochemistry, using red light (680 to 700 nm), is near universal and is considered to define the energy “red limit” of oxygenic photosynthesis. We present biophysical studies on the photosystems from a cyanobacterium grown in far-red light (750 nm). The few long-wavelength chlorophylls present are well resolved from each other and from the majority pigment, chlorophyll a. Charge separation in photosystem I and II uses chlorophyll f at 745 nm and chlorophyll f (or d) at 727 nm, respectively. Each photosystem has a few even longer-wavelength chlorophylls f that collect light and pass excitation energy uphill to the photochemically active pigments. These photosystems function beyond the red limit using far-red pigments in only a few key positions.
AU - Nuernberg,DJ
AU - Morton,J
AU - Santabarbara,S
AU - Telfer,A
AU - Joliot,P
AU - Antonaru,LA
AU - Ruban,AV
AU - Cardona,T
AU - Krausz,E
AU - Boussac,A
AU - Fantuzzi,A
AU - Rutherford,AW
DO - 10.1126/science.aar8313
EP - 1213
PY - 2018///
SN - 0036-8075
SP - 1210
TI - Photochemistry beyond the red limit in chlorophyll f-containing photosystems
T2 - Science
UR -
UR -
UR -
VL - 360
ER -