Imperial College London

Professor Bill Rutherford FRS

Faculty of Natural SciencesDepartment of Life Sciences

Chair in Biochemistry of Solar Energy



+44 (0)20 7594 5329a.rutherford Website




702Sir Ernst Chain BuildingSouth Kensington Campus






BibTex format

author = {Brinkert, K and Le, formal F and Li, X and Durrant, J and Rutherford, AW and Fantuzzi, A},
doi = {10.1016/j.bbabio.2016.03.004},
journal = {Biochimica et Biophysica Acta-Bioenergetics},
pages = {1497--1505},
title = {Photocurrents from photosystem II in a metal oxide hybrid system: electron transfer pathways},
url = {},
volume = {1857},
year = {2016}

RIS format (EndNote, RefMan)

AB - We have investigated the nature of the photocurrent generated by Photosystem II (PSII), the water oxidising enzyme, isolated from Thermosynechococcus elongatus, when immobilized on nanostructured titanium dioxide on an indium tin oxide electrode (TiO2/ITO). We investigated the properties of the photocurrent from PSII when immobilized as a monolayer versus multilayers, in the presence and absence of an inhibitor that binds to the site of the exchangeable quinone (QB) and in the presence and absence exogenous mobile electron carriers (mediators). The findings indicate that electron transfer occurs from the first quinone (QA) directly to the electrode surface but that the electron transfer through the nanostructured metal oxide is the rate-limiting step. Redox mediators enhance the photocurrent by taking electrons from the nanostructured semiconductor surface to the ITO electrode surface not from PSII. This is demonstrated by photocurrent enhancement using a mediator incapable of accepting electrons from PSII. This model for electron transfer also explains anomalies reported in the literature using similar and related systems. The slow rate of the electron transfer step in the TiO2 is due to the energy level of electron injection into the semiconducting material being below the conduction band. This limits the usefulness of the present hybrid electrode. Strategies to overcome this kinetic limitation are discussed.
AU - Brinkert,K
AU - Le,formal F
AU - Li,X
AU - Durrant,J
AU - Rutherford,AW
AU - Fantuzzi,A
DO - 10.1016/j.bbabio.2016.03.004
EP - 1505
PY - 2016///
SN - 0005-2728
SP - 1497
TI - Photocurrents from photosystem II in a metal oxide hybrid system: electron transfer pathways
T2 - Biochimica et Biophysica Acta-Bioenergetics
UR -
UR -
VL - 1857
ER -