367 results found
Agudo A, Cayssials V, Bonet C, et al., 2018, Inflammatory potential of the diet and risk of gastric cancer in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study, AMERICAN JOURNAL OF CLINICAL NUTRITION, Vol: 107, Pages: 607-616, ISSN: 0002-9165
Brown JP, Wooldrage K, Wright S, et al., 2018, High test positivity and low positive predictive value for colorectal cancer of continued faecal occult blood test screening after negative colonoscopy, JOURNAL OF MEDICAL SCREENING, Vol: 25, Pages: 70-75, ISSN: 0969-1413
Cross AJ, Gunter MJ, 2018, Coffee and colorectal cancer: grounds for prevention?, Gastroenterology, Vol: 154, Pages: 790-792, ISSN: 0016-5085
Coffee is one of the most widely and frequently consumed beverages worldwide. Although it is often linked with caffeine, coffee is a complex mixture of >1000 bioactive compounds, many of which have antioxidant capacity including polyphenols, diterpenes, melanoidins, and various minerals.1,2 Coffee has been shown to have anti-inflammatory and insulin-sensitizing properties and is associated with lower levels of inflammatory cytokines3–5 and C-peptide (Figure 1A).1,6 Owing to these broad potential mechanisms and wide-ranging bioactive compounds, coffee drinking has been investigated in relation to a variety of health disorders, with beneficial effects consistently reported for the metabolic syndrome and diabetes, liver and digestive disorders, cardiovascular disease, and overall mortality.7 In 2017, 3 large-scale cohort studies from the United States and Europe reported that coffee drinkers had significantly lower risk of premature death from a variety of causes.8–10 Owing to its effects on gut motility and the gut microbiome (Figure 1A), there has been particular emphasis on the relationship between coffee and digestive tract disorders, and there is accumulating evidence to support a specific link between coffee and colorectal cancer. Indeed, a 2011 meta-analysis of 15 prospective studies revealed that coffee consumption was inversely associated with risk of developing colorectal cancer.11
Jacobs ET, Gupta S, Baron JA, et al., 2018, Family history of colorectal cancer in first-degree relatives and metachronous colorectal adenoma., Am J Gastroenterol, Vol: 113, Pages: 899-905
OBJECTIVES: Little is known about the relationship between having a first-degree relative (FDR) with colorectal cancer (CRC) and risk for metachronous colorectal adenoma (CRA) following polypectomy. METHODS: We pooled data from seven prospective studies of 7697 patients with previously resected CRAs to quantify the relationship between having a FDR with CRC and risk for metachronous adenoma. RESULTS: Compared with having no family history of CRC, a positive family history in any FDR was significantly associated with increased odds of developing any metachronous CRA (OR = 1.14; 95% CI = 1.01-1.29). Higher odds of CRA were observed among individuals with an affected mother (OR = 1.27; 95% CI = 1.05-1.53) or sibling (OR = 1.34; 95% CI = 1.11-1.62) as compared with those without, whereas no association was shown for individuals with an affected father. Odds of having a metachronous CRA increased with number of affected FDRs, with ORs (95% CIs) of 1.07 (0.93-1.23) for one relative and 1.39 (1.02-1.91) for two or more. Younger age of diagnosis of a sibling was associated with higher odds of metachronous CRA, with ORs (95% CIs) of 1.66 (1.08-2.56) for diagnosis at <54 years; 1.34 (0.89-2.03) for 55-64 years; and 1.10 (0.70-1.72) for >65 years (p-trend = 0.008). Although limited by sample size, results for advanced metachronous CRA were similar to those for any metachronous CRA. CONCLUSIONS: A family history of CRC is related to a modestly increased odds of metachronous CRA. Future research should explore whether having a FDR with CRC, particularly at a young age, should have a role in risk stratification for surveillance colonoscopy.
Meidtner K, Podmore C, Kroger J, et al., 2018, Interaction of Dietary and Genetic Factors Influencing Body Iron Status and Risk of Type 2 Diabetes Within the EPIC-InterAct Study, DIABETES CARE, Vol: 41, Pages: 277-285, ISSN: 0149-5992
Morris JS, Bradbury KE, Cross AJ, et al., 2018, Physical activity, sedentary behaviour and colorectal cancer risk in the UK Biobank, BRITISH JOURNAL OF CANCER, Vol: 118, Pages: 920-929, ISSN: 0007-0920
Murphy N, Achaintre D, Zamora-Ros R, et al., 2018, A prospective evaluation of plasma polyphenol levels and colon cancer risk., Int J Cancer
Polyphenols have been shown to exert biological activity in experimental models of colon cancer; however, human data linking specific polyphenols to colon cancer is limited. We assessed the relationship between pre-diagnostic plasma polyphenols and colon cancer risk in a case-control study nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition study. Using high pressure liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry, we measured concentrations of 35 polyphenols in plasma from 809 incident colon cancer cases and 809 matched controls. We used multivariable adjusted conditional logistic regression models that included established colon cancer risk factors. The false discovery rate (qvalues ) was computed to control for multiple comparisons. All statistical tests were two-sided. After false discovery rate correction and in continuous log2 -transformed multivariable models, equol (odds ratio [OR] per log2 -value, 0.86, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] = 0.79-0.93; qvalue = 0.01) and homovanillic acid (OR per log2 -value, 1.46, 95% CI = 1.16-1.84; qvalue = 0.02) were associated with colon cancer risk. Comparing extreme fifths, equol concentrations were inversely associated with colon cancer risk (OR = 0.61, 95% CI = 0.41-0.91, ptrend = 0.003), while homovanillic acid concentrations were positively associated with colon cancer development (OR = 1.72, 95% CI = 1.17-2.53, ptrend < 0.0001). No heterogeneity for these associations was observed by sex and across other colon cancer risk factors. The remaining polyphenols were not associated with colon cancer risk. Higher equol concentrations were associated with lower risk, and higher homovanillic acid concentrations were associated with greater risk of colon cancer. These findings support a potential role for specific polyphenols in colon tumorigene
Pearson-Stuttard J, Zhou B, Kontis V, et al., 2018, Worldwide burden of cancer attributable to diabetes and high body-mass index: a comparative risk assessment., Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol, Vol: 6, Pages: 95-104
BACKGROUND: Diabetes and high body-mass index (BMI) are associated with increased risk of several cancers, and are increasing in prevalence in most countries. We estimated the cancer incidence attributable to diabetes and high BMI as individual risk factors and in combination, by country and sex. METHODS: We estimated population attributable fractions for 12 cancers by age and sex for 175 countries in 2012. We defined high BMI as a BMI greater than or equal to 25 kg/m2. We used comprehensive prevalence estimates of diabetes and BMI categories in 2002, assuming a 10-year lag between exposure to diabetes or high BMI and incidence of cancer, combined with relative risks from published estimates, to quantify contribution of diabetes and high BMI to site-specific cancers, individually and combined as independent risk factors and in a conservative scenario in which we assumed full overlap of risk of diabetes and high BMI. We then used GLOBOCAN cancer incidence data to estimate the number of cancer cases attributable to the two risk factors. We also estimated the number of cancer cases in 2012 that were attributable to increases in the prevalence of diabetes and high BMI from 1980 to 2002. All analyses were done at individual country level and grouped by region for reporting. FINDINGS: We estimated that 5·6% of all incident cancers in 2012 were attributable to the combined effects of diabetes and high BMI as independent risk factors, corresponding to 792 600 new cases. 187 600 (24·5%) of 766 000 cases of liver cancer and 121 700 (38·4%) of 317 000 cases of endometrial cancer were attributable to these risk factors. In the conservative scenario, about 4·5% (626 900 new cases) of all incident cancers assessed were attributable to diabetes and high BMI combined. Individually, high BMI (544 300 cases) was responsible for twice as many cancer cases as diabetes (280 100 cases). 26·1% of diabetes-related cancers (equating to 77 000 new cases) an
Pinsky PF, Loberg M, Senore C, et al., 2018, Number of Adenomas Removed and Colorectal Cancers Prevented in Randomized Trials of Flexible Sigmoidoscopy Screening., Gastroenterology
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Screening for colorectal cancer (CRC) with sigmoidoscopy reduces CRC incidence by detecting and removing adenomas. The number needed to screen is a measure of screening efficiency, but is not directly associated with adenoma removal. We propose 2 new metrics for quantifying the relationship between adenoma removal and CRC prevented: number of adenomas needed to remove (NNR) and adenoma dwell time avoided (DTA). METHODS: We collected data from 4 randomized trials of sigmoidoscopy screening (in the United States and 3 in Europe) to assess NNR and DTA. For each trial, NNR was computed as the number of adenomas removed from subjects in the intervention group divided by the number of CRCs prevented. DTA was computed similarly but taking into account the timing of adenoma removal. Combined results across trials were assessed using standard meta-analytic techniques. RESULTS: The estimated NNR for the PLCO trial was 74 (95% CI, 56-110), for the NORCCAP trial was 71 (95% CI, 44-174), for the SCORE trial was 27 (95% CI, 14-135), and for the UKFSST trial was 36 (95% CI, 28-52). The combined estimate (meta-analysis) of NNR was 52 (95% CI, 36-93) assuming heterogeneity (P for heterogeneity=.014). DTA estimates among trials ranged from 278 to 730 years, with a combined estimate of 500 years (95% CI, 344-833 years) assuming heterogeneity (P for heterogeneity=.035), or 2 CRC cases prevented per 1000 adenoma dwell years avoided. The combined estimates of NNR and DTA restricted to advanced adenomas were 13 (95% CI, 9-22) and 122 years (95% CI, 90-190), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: We collected data from 4 randomized trials of sigmoidoscopy screening for CRC to develop metrics endoscopic efficiency, NNR and DTA, that are directly linked to adenoma detection and removal. They can be used to compare screening among endoscopic modalities and to more precisely measure adenoma to carcinoma transition rates.
Robbins E, Wooldrage K, MacRae E, et al., 2018, OTU-029 Faecal immunochemical tests (FIT) for surveillance after screening and polypectomy: an accuracy and efficiency study., British Society of Gastroenterology Annual Conference, Publisher: BMJ Publishing Group, ISSN: 0017-5749
Sen A, Papadimitriou N, Lagiou P, et al., 2018, Coffee and tea consumption and risk of prostate cancer in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition., Int J Cancer
The epidemiological evidence regarding the association of coffee and tea consumption with prostate cancer risk is inconclusive, and few cohort studies have assessed these associations by disease stage and grade. We examined the associations of coffee (total, caffeinated and decaffeinated) and tea intake with prostate cancer risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition. Among 142,196 men, 7,036 incident prostate cancer cases were diagnosed over 14 years of follow-up. Data on coffee and tea consumption were collected through validated country-specific food questionnaires at baseline. We used Cox proportional hazards regression models to compute hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Models were stratified by center and age, and adjusted for anthropometric, lifestyle and dietary factors. Median coffee and tea intake were 375 mL/day and 106 mL/day, respectively, but large variations existed by country. Comparing the highest (median of 855 mL/day) versus lowest (median of 103 mL/day) consumers of coffee and tea (450 mL/day versus 12 mL/day) the HRs were 1.02 (95% CI, 0.94-1.09) and 0.98 (95% CI, 0.90-1.07) for risk of total prostate cancer, and 0.97 (95% CI, 0.79-1.21) and 0.89 (95% CI, 0.70-1.13) for risk of fatal disease, respectively. No evidence of association was seen for consumption of total, caffeinated or decaffeinated coffee or tea and risk of total prostate cancer or cancer by stage, grade or fatality in this large cohort. Further investigations are needed to clarify whether an association exists by different preparations or by concentrations and constituents of these beverages. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Smith T, Muller DC, Moons KGM, et al., 2018, Comparison of prognostic models to predict the occurrence of colorectal cancer in asymptomatic individuals: a systematic literature review and external validation in the EPIC and UK Biobank prospective cohort studies., Gut
OBJECTIVE: To systematically identify and validate published colorectal cancer risk prediction models that do not require invasive testing in two large population-based prospective cohorts. DESIGN: Models were identified through an update of a published systematic review and validated in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) and the UK Biobank. The performance of the models to predict the occurrence of colorectal cancer within 5 or 10 years after study enrolment was assessed by discrimination (C-statistic) and calibration (plots of observed vs predicted probability). RESULTS: The systematic review and its update identified 16 models from 8 publications (8 colorectal, 5 colon and 3 rectal). The number of participants included in each model validation ranged from 41 587 to 396 515, and the number of cases ranged from 115 to 1781. Eligible and ineligible participants across the models were largely comparable. Calibration of the models, where assessable, was very good and further improved by recalibration. The C-statistics of the models were largely similar between validation cohorts with the highest values achieved being 0.70 (95% CI 0.68 to 0.72) in the UK Biobank and 0.71 (95% CI 0.67 to 0.74) in EPIC. CONCLUSION: Several of these non-invasive models exhibited good calibration and discrimination within both external validation populations and are therefore potentially suitable candidates for the facilitation of risk stratification in population-based colorectal screening programmes. Future work should both evaluate this potential, through modelling and impact studies, and ascertain if further enhancement in their performance can be obtained.
Ward HA, Gayle A, Jakszyn P, et al., 2018, Meat and haem iron intake in relation to glioma in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition study, EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF CANCER PREVENTION, Vol: 27, Pages: 379-383, ISSN: 0959-8278
Zamora-Ros R, Cayssials V, Jenab M, et al., 2018, Dietary intake of total polyphenol and polyphenol classes and the risk of colorectal cancer in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort., Eur J Epidemiol
Polyphenols may play a chemopreventive role in colorectal cancer (CRC); however, epidemiological evidence supporting a role for intake of individual polyphenol classes, other than flavonoids is insufficient. We evaluated the association between dietary intakes of total and individual classes and subclasses of polyphenols and CRC risk and its main subsites, colon and rectum, within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study. The cohort included 476,160 men and women from 10 European countries. During a mean follow-up of 14 years, there were 5991 incident CRC cases, of which 3897 were in the colon and 2094 were in the rectum. Polyphenol intake was estimated using validated centre/country specific dietary questionnaires and the Phenol-Explorer database. In multivariable-adjusted Cox regression models, a doubling in total dietary polyphenol intake was not associated with CRC risk in women (HRlog2 = 1.06, 95% CI 0.99-1.14) or in men (HRlog2 = 0.97, 95% CI 0.90-1.05), respectively. Phenolic acid intake, highly correlated with coffee consumption, was inversely associated with colon cancer in men (HRlog2 = 0.91, 95% CI 0.85-0.97) and positively associated with rectal cancer in women (HRlog2 = 1.10, 95% CI 1.02-1.19); although associations did not exceed the Bonferroni threshold for significance. Intake of other polyphenol classes was not related to colorectal, colon or rectal cancer risks. Our study suggests a possible inverse association between phenolic acid intake and colon cancer risk in men and positive with rectal cancer risk in women.
Al-Dabhani K, Tsilidis KK, Murphy N, et al., 2017, Prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and association with metabolic syndrome in a Qatari population, NUTRITION & DIABETES, Vol: 7, ISSN: 2044-4052
Aleksandrova K, Schlesinger S, Fedirko V, et al., 2017, Metabolic Mediators of the Association Between Adult Weight Gain and Colorectal Cancer: Data From the European Prospective Investigation Into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) Cohort, AMERICAN JOURNAL OF EPIDEMIOLOGY, Vol: 185, Pages: 751-764, ISSN: 0002-9262
Ambatipudi S, Horvath S, Perrier F, et al., 2017, DNA methylome analysis identifies accelerated epigenetic ageing associated with postmenopausal breast cancer susceptibility, EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF CANCER, Vol: 75, Pages: 299-307, ISSN: 0959-8049
Atkin W, Wooldrage K, Brenner A, et al., 2017, Adenoma surveillance and colorectal cancer incidence: a retrospective, multicentre, cohort study, LANCET ONCOLOGY, Vol: 18, Pages: 823-834, ISSN: 1470-2045
Atkin W, Wooldrage K, Parkin DM, et al., 2017, Long-term effects of once-only flexible sigmoidoscopy screening after 17 years of follow-up: the UK Flexible Sigmoidoscopy Screening randomised controlled trial, LANCET, Vol: 389, Pages: 1299-1311, ISSN: 0140-6736
Caini S, Masala G, Saieva C, et al., 2017, Coffee, tea and melanoma risk: findings from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition, INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF CANCER, Vol: 140, Pages: 2246-2255, ISSN: 0020-7136
Chajes V, Assi N, Biessy C, et al., 2017, A prospective evaluation of plasma phospholipid fatty acids and breast cancer risk in the EPIC study, ANNALS OF ONCOLOGY, Vol: 28, Pages: 2836-2842, ISSN: 0923-7534
Cheung W, Keski-Rahkonen P, Assi N, et al., 2017, A metabolomic study of biomarkers of meat and fish intake, AMERICAN JOURNAL OF CLINICAL NUTRITION, Vol: 105, Pages: 600-608, ISSN: 0002-9165
Dimitrakopoulou VI, Travis RC, Shui IM, et al., 2017, Interactions Between Genome-Wide Significant Genetic Variants and Circulating Concentrations of 25-Hydroxyvitamin D in Relation to Prostate Cancer Risk in the National Cancer Institute BPC3, AMERICAN JOURNAL OF EPIDEMIOLOGY, Vol: 185, Pages: 452-464, ISSN: 0002-9262
Duell EJ, Lujan-Barroso L, Sala N, et al., 2017, Plasma microRNAs as biomarkers of pancreatic cancer risk in a prospective cohort study, INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF CANCER, Vol: 141, Pages: 905-915, ISSN: 0020-7136
Ezzati M, Bentham J, Di Cesare M, et al., 2017, Worldwide trends in body-mass index, underweight, overweight, and obesity from 1975 to 2016: a pooled analysis of 2416 population-based measurement studies in 128.9 million children, adolescents, and adults, LANCET, Vol: 390, Pages: 2627-2642, ISSN: 0140-6736
Fortner RT, Huesing A, Kuehn T, et al., 2017, Endometrial cancer risk prediction including serum-based biomarkers: results from the EPIC cohort, INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF CANCER, Vol: 140, Pages: 1317-1323, ISSN: 0020-7136
Fortner RT, Sarink D, Schock H, et al., 2017, Osteoprotegerin and breast cancer risk by hormone receptor subtype: a nested case-control study in the EPIC cohort, BMC MEDICINE, Vol: 15, ISSN: 1741-7015
Fortner RT, Vitonis AF, Schock H, et al., 2017, Correlates of circulating ovarian cancer early detection markers and their contribution to discrimination of early detection models: results from the EPIC cohort, JOURNAL OF OVARIAN RESEARCH, Vol: 10, ISSN: 1757-2215
Freisling H, Noh H, Slimani N, et al., 2017, Nut intake and 5-year changes in body weight and obesity risk in adults: results from the EPIC-PANACEA study., Eur J Nutr
PURPOSE: There is inconsistent evidence regarding the relationship between higher intake of nuts, being an energy-dense food, and weight gain. We investigated the relationship between nut intake and changes in weight over 5 years. METHODS: This study includes 373,293 men and women, 25-70 years old, recruited between 1992 and 2000 from 10 European countries in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study. Habitual intake of nuts including peanuts, together defined as nut intake, was estimated from country-specific validated dietary questionnaires. Body weight was measured at recruitment and self-reported 5 years later. The association between nut intake and body weight change was estimated using multilevel mixed linear regression models with center/country as random effect and nut intake and relevant confounders as fixed effects. The relative risk (RR) of becoming overweight or obese after 5 years was investigated using multivariate Poisson regressions stratified according to baseline body mass index (BMI). RESULTS: On average, study participants gained 2.1 kg (SD 5.0 kg) over 5 years. Compared to non-consumers, subjects in the highest quartile of nut intake had less weight gain over 5 years (-0.07 kg; 95% CI -0.12 to -0.02) (P trend = 0.025) and had 5% lower risk of becoming overweight (RR 0.95; 95% CI 0.92-0.98) or obese (RR 0.95; 95% CI 0.90-0.99) (both P trend <0.008). CONCLUSIONS: Higher intake of nuts is associated with reduced weight gain and a lower risk of becoming overweight or obese.
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