386 results found
Cross AJ, Gunter MJ, 2018, Coffee and Colorectal Cancer: Grounds for Prevention?, Gastroenterology, Vol: 154, Pages: 790-792
Jacobs ET, Gupta S, Baron JA, et al., 2018, Family history of colorectal cancer in first-degree relatives and metachronous colorectal adenoma., Am J Gastroenterol
OBJECTIVES: Little is known about the relationship between having a first-degree relative (FDR) with colorectal cancer (CRC) and risk for metachronous colorectal adenoma (CRA) following polypectomy. METHODS: We pooled data from seven prospective studies of 7697 patients with previously resected CRAs to quantify the relationship between having a FDR with CRC and risk for metachronous adenoma. RESULTS: Compared with having no family history of CRC, a positive family history in any FDR was significantly associated with increased odds of developing any metachronous CRA (OR = 1.14; 95% CI = 1.01-1.29). Higher odds of CRA were observed among individuals with an affected mother (OR = 1.27; 95% CI = 1.05-1.53) or sibling (OR = 1.34; 95% CI = 1.11-1.62) as compared with those without, whereas no association was shown for individuals with an affected father. Odds of having a metachronous CRA increased with number of affected FDRs, with ORs (95% CIs) of 1.07 (0.93-1.23) for one relative and 1.39 (1.02-1.91) for two or more. Younger age of diagnosis of a sibling was associated with higher odds of metachronous CRA, with ORs (95% CIs) of 1.66 (1.08-2.56) for diagnosis at <54 years; 1.34 (0.89-2.03) for 55-64 years; and 1.10 (0.70-1.72) for >65 years (p-trend = 0.008). Although limited by sample size, results for advanced metachronous CRA were similar to those for any metachronous CRA. CONCLUSIONS: A family history of CRC is related to a modestly increased odds of metachronous CRA. Future research should explore whether having a FDR with CRC, particularly at a young age, should have a role in risk stratification for surveillance colonoscopy.
Meidtner K, Podmore C, Kröger J, et al., 2018, Interaction of Dietary and Genetic Factors Influencing Body Iron Status and Risk of Type 2 Diabetes Within the EPIC-InterAct Study., Diabetes Care, Vol: 41, Pages: 277-285
OBJECTIVE: Meat intake has been consistently shown to be positively associated with incident type 2 diabetes. Part of that association may be mediated by body iron status, which is influenced by genetic factors. We aimed to test for interactions of genetic and dietary factors influencing body iron status in relation to the risk of incident type 2 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: The case-cohort comprised 9,347 case subjects and 12,301 subcohort participants from eight European countries. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were selected from genome-wide association studies on iron status biomarkers and candidate gene studies. A ferritin-related gene score was constructed. Multiplicative and additive interactions of heme iron and SNPs as well as the gene score were evaluated using Cox proportional hazards regression. RESULTS: Higher heme iron intake (per 1 SD) was associated with higher ferritin levels (β = 0.113 [95% CI 0.082; 0.144]), but not with transferrin (-0.019 [-0.043; 0.006]) or transferrin saturation (0.016 [-0.006; 0.037]). Five SNPs located in four genes (rs1799945 [HFEH63D], rs1800562 [HFEC282Y], rs236918 [PCK7], rs744653 [SLC40A1], and rs855791 [TMPRSS6V736A]) were associated with ferritin. We did not detect an interaction of heme iron and the gene score on the risk of diabetes in the overall study population (Padd= 0.16,Pmult= 0.21) but did detect a trend toward a negative interaction in men (Padd= 0.04,Pmult= 0.03). CONCLUSIONS: We found no convincing evidence that the interplay of dietary and genetic factors related to body iron status associates with type 2 diabetes risk above the level expected from the sum or product of the two individual exposures.
Morris JS, Bradbury KE, Cross AJ, et al., 2018, Physical activity, sedentary behaviour and colorectal cancer risk in the UK Biobank., Br J Cancer
BACKGROUND: Observational studies have shown that physical activity levels are inversely, and sedentary behaviours are positively, associated with colorectal cancer risk; however, whether these relationships are consistent across anatomical subsites is uncertain. METHODS: We investigated the associations between colorectal cancer and physical activity (metabolic equivalents (METs)-hours per week), and indicators of sedentary behaviour (television watching time and time spent using computers) among 430 584 men and women enroled in the UK Biobank. Multivariable hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated using Cox proportional hazards models. RESULTS: After a median follow-up time of 5.6 years, 2391 incident colorectal cancer cases were recorded. High (⩾60-MET-hours per week) vs low (<10-MET-hours per week) total physical activity was associated with a lower colon cancer risk (HR=0.84, 95% CI: 0.72-0.98; p-trend=0.04), with comparable relationships observed for proximal and distal colon tumours, but no association for rectal cancer. Higher levels of television watching time were associated with greater colon cancer risk (HR for ⩾5 h per day vs ⩽1 h per day=1.32, 95% CI: 1.04-1.68; p-trend=0.007). Time spent using computers was not associated with colorectal cancer risk. CONCLUSIONS: Higher levels of physical activity were associated with lower colon cancer risk, with no heterogeneity by colonic subsite. Sedentary behaviour (television watching) was associated with elevated colon cancer risk.British Journal of Cancer advance online publication, 8 March 2018; doi:10.1038/bjc.2017.496 www.bjcancer.com.
Pearson-Stuttard J, Zhou B, Kontis V, et al., 2018, Worldwide burden of cancer attributable to diabetes and high body-mass index: a comparative risk assessment., Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol, Vol: 6, Pages: 95-104
BACKGROUND: Diabetes and high body-mass index (BMI) are associated with increased risk of several cancers, and are increasing in prevalence in most countries. We estimated the cancer incidence attributable to diabetes and high BMI as individual risk factors and in combination, by country and sex. METHODS: We estimated population attributable fractions for 12 cancers by age and sex for 175 countries in 2012. We defined high BMI as a BMI greater than or equal to 25 kg/m2. We used comprehensive prevalence estimates of diabetes and BMI categories in 2002, assuming a 10-year lag between exposure to diabetes or high BMI and incidence of cancer, combined with relative risks from published estimates, to quantify contribution of diabetes and high BMI to site-specific cancers, individually and combined as independent risk factors and in a conservative scenario in which we assumed full overlap of risk of diabetes and high BMI. We then used GLOBOCAN cancer incidence data to estimate the number of cancer cases attributable to the two risk factors. We also estimated the number of cancer cases in 2012 that were attributable to increases in the prevalence of diabetes and high BMI from 1980 to 2002. All analyses were done at individual country level and grouped by region for reporting. FINDINGS: We estimated that 5·6% of all incident cancers in 2012 were attributable to the combined effects of diabetes and high BMI as independent risk factors, corresponding to 792 600 new cases. 187 600 (24·5%) of 766 000 cases of liver cancer and 121 700 (38·4%) of 317 000 cases of endometrial cancer were attributable to these risk factors. In the conservative scenario, about 4·5% (626 900 new cases) of all incident cancers assessed were attributable to diabetes and high BMI combined. Individually, high BMI (544 300 cases) was responsible for twice as many cancer cases as diabetes (280 100 cases). 26·1% of diabetes-related cancers (equating to 77 000 new cases) an
Aglago EK, Biessy C, Torres-Mejía G, et al., 2017, Association between serum phospholipid fatty acid levels and adiposity in Mexican women, Journal of Lipid Research, Vol: 58, Pages: 1462-1470, ISSN: 0022-2275
Copyright © 2017 by the American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc. Fatty acids (FAs) have been postulated to impact adiposity, but few epidemiological studies addressing this hypothesis have been conducted. This study investigated the association between serum phospholipid FAs (S-PLFAs) and indicators of obesity. BMI and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) were collected from 372 healthy Mexican women included as controls in a case-control study. S-PLFA percentages were determined through gas chromatography. Desaturation indices, SCD-16, SCD-18, FA desaturase (FADS)1, and FADS2, biomarkers of endogenous metabolism, were proxied respectively as 16:1n-7/16:0, 18:1n-9/18:0, 20:4n-6/20:3n-6, and 22:6n-3/20:5n-3. Multiple linear regressions adjusted for relevant confounders and corrected for multiple testing were conducted to determine the association between S-PLFA, desaturation indices, and indicators of adiposity. SCD-16 ( = 0.034, P = 0.001, q = 0.014), palmitoleic acid ( = 0.031, P = 0.001, q = 0.014), and dihomo--linolenic acid ( = 0.043, P = 0.000, q = 0.0002) were positively associated with BMI. Total n-6 PUFAs ( = 1.497, P = 0.047, q = 0.22) and the ratio of n-6/n-3 PUFAs ( = 0.034, P = 0.040, q = 0.19) were positively associated with WHR, while odd-chain FAs (pentadecanoic and heptadecanoic acid) showed negative associations with all the adiposity indicators. In conclusion, increased endogenous synthesis of palmitoleic acid and a high n-6/n-3 ratio are associated with increased adiposity, while odd-chain FAs are associated with decreased adiposity. Further studies are needed to determine the potential causality behind these associations.—Aglago, E. K., C. Biessy, G. Torres-Mejía, A. Angeles-Llerenas, M. J. Gunter, I. Romieu, and V. Chajès. Association between serum phospholipid fatty acid levels and adiposity in Mexican women.
Al-Dabhani K, Tsilidis KK, Murphy N, et al., 2017, Prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and association with metabolic syndrome in a Qatari population, NUTRITION & DIABETES, Vol: 7, ISSN: 2044-4052
Aleksandrova K, Schlesinger S, Fedirko V, et al., 2017, Metabolic Mediators of the Association Between Adult Weight Gain and Colorectal Cancer: Data From the European Prospective Investigation Into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) Cohort, AMERICAN JOURNAL OF EPIDEMIOLOGY, Vol: 185, Pages: 751-764, ISSN: 0002-9262
Ambatipudi S, Horvath S, Perrier F, et al., 2017, DNA methylome analysis identifies accelerated epigenetic ageing associated with postmenopausal breast cancer susceptibility, EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF CANCER, Vol: 75, Pages: 299-307, ISSN: 0959-8049
Atkin W, Wooldrage K, Brenner A, et al., 2017, Adenoma surveillance and colorectal cancer incidence: a retrospective, multicentre, cohort study, LANCET ONCOLOGY, Vol: 18, Pages: 823-834, ISSN: 1470-2045
Atkin W, Wooldrage K, Parkin DM, et al., 2017, Long-term effects of once-only flexible sigmoidoscopy screening after 17 years of follow-up: the UK Flexible Sigmoidoscopy Screening randomised controlled trial, LANCET, Vol: 389, Pages: 1299-1311, ISSN: 0140-6736
Atkin W, Wooldrage K, Sasieni P, et al., 2017, Colorectal adenomas, surveillance, and cancer - Authors' reply., Lancet Oncol, Vol: 18
Brown JP, Wooldrage K, Wright S, et al., 2017, High test positivity and low positive predictive value for colorectal cancer of continued faecal occult blood test screening after negative colonoscopy., J Med Screen
Objectives The English Bowel Cancer Screening Programme offers biennial guaiac faecal occult blood test (gFOBT) screening to 60-74-year-olds. Participants with positive results are referred for follow-up, but many do not have significant findings. If they remain age eligible, these individuals are reinvited for gFOBT screening. We evaluated the performance of repeat screening in this group. Methods We analysed data on programme participants reinvited to gFOBT screening after either previous negative gFOBT ( n = 327,542), or positive gFOBT followed by a diagnostic investigation negative for colorectal cancer (CRC) or adenomas requiring surveillance ( n = 42,280). Outcomes calculated were uptake, test positivity, yield of CRC, and positive predictive value (PPV) of gFOBT for CRC. Results For participants with a previous negative gFOBT, uptake in the subsequent screening round was 87.5%, positivity was 1.3%, yield of CRC was 0.112% of those adequately screened, and the PPV of gFOBT for CRC was 9.1%. After a positive gFOBT and a negative diagnostic investigation, uptake in the repeat screening round was 82.6%, positivity was 11.3%, CRC yield was 0.172% of participants adequately screened, and the PPV of gFOBT for CRC was 1.7%. Conclusion With high positivity and low PPV for CRC, the suitability of routine repeat gFOBT screening in two years among individuals with a previous positive test and a negative diagnostic examination needs to be carefully considered.
Caini S, Masala G, Saieva C, et al., 2017, Coffee, tea and melanoma risk: findings from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition, INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF CANCER, Vol: 140, Pages: 2246-2255, ISSN: 0020-7136
Campbell PT, Newton CC, Kitahara CM, et al., 2017, Body Size Indicators and Risk of Gallbladder Cancer: Pooled Analysis of Individual-Level Data from 19 Prospective Cohort Studies., Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev, Vol: 26, Pages: 597-606
Background:There are few established risk factors for gallbladder cancer beyond gallstones. Recent studies suggest a higher risk with high body mass index (BMI), an indicator of general heaviness, but evidence from other body size measures is lacking.Methods:Associations of adult BMI, young adult BMI, height, adult weight gain, waist circumference (WC), waist-height ratio (WHtR), hip circumference (HC), and waist-hip ratio (WHR) with gallbladder cancer risk were evaluated. Individual-level data from 1,878,801 participants in 19 prospective cohort studies (14 studies had circumference measures) were harmonized and included in this analysis. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression estimated hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI).Results:After enrollment, 567 gallbladder cancer cases were identified during 20.1 million person-years of observation, including 361 cases with WC measures. Higher adult BMI (per 5 kg/m2, HR: 1.24; 95% CI, 1.13-1.35), young adult BMI (per 5 kg/m2, HR: 1.12; 95% CI, 1.00-1.26), adult weight gain (per 5 kg, HR: 1.07; 95% CI, 1.02-1.12), height (per 5 cm, HR: 1.10; 95% CI, 1.03-1.17), WC (per 5 cm, HR: 1.09; 95% CI, 1.02-1.17), WHtR (per 0.1 unit, HR: 1.24; 95% CI, 1.00-1.54), and HC (per 5 cm, HR: 1.13; 95% CI, 1.04-1.22), but not WHR (per 0.1 unit, HR: 1.03; 95% CI, 0.87-1.22), were associated with higher risks of gallbladder cancer, and results did not differ meaningfully by sex or other demographic/lifestyle factors.Conclusions:These findings indicate that measures of overall and central excess body weight are associated with higher gallbladder cancer risks.Impact:Excess body weight is an important, and potentially preventable, gallbladder cancer risk factor.Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 26(4); 597-606. ©2017 AACR.
Chajes V, Assi N, Biessy C, et al., 2017, A prospective evaluation of plasma phospholipid fatty acids and breast cancer risk in the EPIC study, ANNALS OF ONCOLOGY, Vol: 28, Pages: 2836-2842, ISSN: 0923-7534
Cheung W, Keski-Rahkonen P, Assi N, et al., 2017, A metabolomic study of biomarkers of meat and fish intake, AMERICAN JOURNAL OF CLINICAL NUTRITION, Vol: 105, Pages: 600-608, ISSN: 0002-9165
Dimitrakopoulou VI, Travis RC, Shui IM, et al., 2017, Interactions Between Genome-Wide Significant Genetic Variants and Circulating Concentrations of 25-Hydroxyvitamin D in Relation to Prostate Cancer Risk in the National Cancer Institute BPC3, AMERICAN JOURNAL OF EPIDEMIOLOGY, Vol: 185, Pages: 452-464, ISSN: 0002-9262
Duell EJ, Lujan-Barroso L, Sala N, et al., 2017, Plasma microRNAs as biomarkers of pancreatic cancer risk in a prospective cohort study, INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF CANCER, Vol: 141, Pages: 905-915, ISSN: 0020-7136
Ezzati M, Bentham J, Di Cesare M, et al., 2017, Worldwide trends in body-mass index, underweight, overweight, and obesity from 1975 to 2016: a pooled analysis of 2416 population-based measurement studies in 128.9 million children, adolescents, and adults, LANCET, Vol: 390, Pages: 2627-2642, ISSN: 0140-6736
Fortner RT, Huesing A, Kuehn T, et al., 2017, Endometrial cancer risk prediction including serum-based biomarkers: results from the EPIC cohort, INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF CANCER, Vol: 140, Pages: 1317-1323, ISSN: 0020-7136
Fortner RT, Sarink D, Schock H, et al., 2017, Osteoprotegerin and breast cancer risk by hormone receptor subtype: a nested case-control study in the EPIC cohort, BMC MEDICINE, Vol: 15, ISSN: 1741-7015
Fortner RT, Vitonis AF, Schock H, et al., 2017, Correlates of circulating ovarian cancer early detection markers and their contribution to discrimination of early detection models: results from the EPIC cohort, JOURNAL OF OVARIAN RESEARCH, Vol: 10, ISSN: 1757-2215
Freisling H, Noh H, Slimani N, et al., 2017, Nut intake and 5-year changes in body weight and obesity risk in adults: results from the EPIC-PANACEA study., Eur J Nutr
PURPOSE: There is inconsistent evidence regarding the relationship between higher intake of nuts, being an energy-dense food, and weight gain. We investigated the relationship between nut intake and changes in weight over 5 years. METHODS: This study includes 373,293 men and women, 25-70 years old, recruited between 1992 and 2000 from 10 European countries in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study. Habitual intake of nuts including peanuts, together defined as nut intake, was estimated from country-specific validated dietary questionnaires. Body weight was measured at recruitment and self-reported 5 years later. The association between nut intake and body weight change was estimated using multilevel mixed linear regression models with center/country as random effect and nut intake and relevant confounders as fixed effects. The relative risk (RR) of becoming overweight or obese after 5 years was investigated using multivariate Poisson regressions stratified according to baseline body mass index (BMI). RESULTS: On average, study participants gained 2.1 kg (SD 5.0 kg) over 5 years. Compared to non-consumers, subjects in the highest quartile of nut intake had less weight gain over 5 years (-0.07 kg; 95% CI -0.12 to -0.02) (P trend = 0.025) and had 5% lower risk of becoming overweight (RR 0.95; 95% CI 0.92-0.98) or obese (RR 0.95; 95% CI 0.90-0.99) (both P trend <0.008). CONCLUSIONS: Higher intake of nuts is associated with reduced weight gain and a lower risk of becoming overweight or obese.
Gunter MJ, Murphy N, Cross AJ, et al., 2017, Coffee Drinking and Mortality in 10 European Countries A Multinational Cohort Study, ANNALS OF INTERNAL MEDICINE, Vol: 167, Pages: 236-+, ISSN: 0003-4819
Haycock PC, Burgess S, Nounu A, et al., 2017, Association Between Telomere Length and Risk of Cancer and Non-Neoplastic Diseases A Mendelian Randomization Study, JAMA ONCOLOGY, Vol: 3, Pages: 636-651, ISSN: 2374-2437
Huybrechts I, Lioret S, Mouratidou T, et al., 2017, Using reduced rank regression methods to identify dietary patterns associated with obesity: a cross-country study among European and Australian adolescents., Br J Nutr, Vol: 117, Pages: 295-305
This study aims to examine repeatability of reduced rank regression (RRR) methods in calculating dietary patterns (DP) and cross-sectional associations with overweight (OW)/obesity across European and Australian samples of adolescents. Data from two cross-sectional surveys in Europe (2006/2007 Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence study, including 1954 adolescents, 12-17 years) and Australia (2007 National Children's Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey, including 1498 adolescents, 12-16 years) were used. Dietary intake was measured using two non-consecutive, 24-h recalls. RRR was used to identify DP using dietary energy density, fibre density and percentage of energy intake from fat as the intermediate variables. Associations between DP scores and body mass/fat were examined using multivariable linear and logistic regression as appropriate, stratified by sex. The first DP extracted (labelled 'energy dense, high fat, low fibre') explained 47 and 31 % of the response variation in Australian and European adolescents, respectively. It was similar for European and Australian adolescents and characterised by higher consumption of biscuits/cakes, chocolate/confectionery, crisps/savoury snacks, sugar-sweetened beverages, and lower consumption of yogurt, high-fibre bread, vegetables and fresh fruit. DP scores were inversely associated with BMI z-scores in Australian adolescent boys and borderline inverse in European adolescent boys (so as with %BF). Similarly, a lower likelihood for OW in boys was observed with higher DP scores in both surveys. No such relationships were observed in adolescent girls. In conclusion, the DP identified in this cross-country study was comparable for European and Australian adolescents, demonstrating robustness of the RRR method in calculating DP among populations. However, longitudinal designs are more relevant when studying diet-obesity associations, to prevent reverse causality.
Jakszyn P, Fonseca-Nunes A, Lujan-Barroso L, et al., 2017, Hepcidin levels and gastric cancer risk in the EPIC-EurGast study, INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF CANCER, Vol: 141, Pages: 945-951, ISSN: 0020-7136
Jay R, Brennan P, Brenner, et al., 2017, Alcohol consumption and the risk of renal cancers in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). Wozniak MB, Brennan P, Brenner DR, Overvad K, Olsen A, Tjønneland A, Boutron-Ruault MC, Clavel-Chapelon F, Fagherazzi G, Katzke V, Kühn T, Boeing H, Bergmann MM, Steffen A, Naska A, Trichopoulou A, Trichopoulos D, Saieva C, Grioni S, Panico S, Tumino R, Vineis P, Bueno-de-Mesquita HB, Peeters PH, Hjartåker A, Weiderpass E, Arriola L, Molina-Montes E, Duell EJ, Santiuste C, Alonso de la Torre R, Barricarte Gurrea A, Stocks T, Johansson M, Ljungberg B, Wareham N, Khaw KT, Travis RC, Cross AJ, Murphy N, Riboli E, Scelo G.Int J Cancer. 2015 Oct 15;137(8):1953-66. [Epub 2015 Apr 28]. doi: 10.1002/ijc.29559., Urol Oncol, Vol: 35
Epidemiologic studies have reported that moderate alcohol consumption is inversely associated with the risk of renal cancer. However, there is no information available on the associations in renal cancer subsites. From 1992 to 2010, 477,325 men and women in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort were followed for incident renal cancers (n = 931). Baseline and lifetime alcohol consumption was assessed by country-specific, validated dietary questionnaires. Information on past alcohol consumption was collected by lifestyle questionnaires. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated from Cox proportional hazard models. In multivariate analysis, total alcohol consumption at baseline was inversely associated with renal cancer; the HR and 95% CI for the increasing categories of total alcohol consumption at recruitment vs. the light drinkers category were 0.78 (0.62-0.99), 0.82 (0.64-1.04), 0.70 (0.55-0.90), and 0.91 (0.63-1.30), respectively, (ptrend = 0.001). A similar relationship was observed for average lifetime alcohol consumption and for all renal cancer subsites combined or for renal parenchyma subsite. The trend was not observed in hypertensive individuals and not significant in smokers. In conclusion, moderate alcohol consumption was associated with a decreased risk of renal cancer.
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