93 results found
Dons E, Goetschi T, Nieuwenhuijsen M, et al., 2015, Physical activity through sustainable transport approaches (PASTA): protocol for a multi-centre, longitudinal study, BMC Public Health, Vol: 15, ISSN: 1471-2458
BackgroundPhysical inactivity is one of the leading risk factors for non-communicable diseases, yet many are not sufficiently active. The Physical Activity through Sustainable Transport Approaches (PASTA) study aims to better understand active mobility (walking and cycling for transport solely or in combination with public transport) as an innovative approach to integrate physical activity into individuals’ everyday lives. The PASTA study will collect data of multiple cities in a longitudinal cohort design to study correlates of active mobility, its effect on overall physical activity, crash risk and exposure to traffic-related air pollution.Methods/DesignA set of online questionnaires incorporating gold standard approaches from the physical activity and transport fields have been developed, piloted and are now being deployed in a longitudinal study in seven European cities (Antwerp, Barcelona, London, Oerebro, Rome, Vienna, Zurich). In total, 14000 adults are being recruited (2000 in each city). A first questionnaire collects baseline information; follow-up questionnaires sent every 13 days collect prospective data on travel behaviour, levels of physical activity and traffic safety incidents. Self-reported data will be validated with objective data in subsamples using conventional and novel methods. Accelerometers, GPS and tracking apps record routes and activity. Air pollution and physical activity are measured to study their combined effects on health biomarkers. Exposure-adjusted crash risks will be calculated for active modes, and crash location audits are performed to study the role of the built environment. Ethics committees in all seven cities have given independent approval for the study.DiscussionThe PASTA study collects a wealth of subjective and objective data on active mobility and physical activity. This will allow the investigation of numerous correlates of active mobility and physical activity using a data set that advances previous efforts in
Tsai M-Y, Hoek G, Eeftens M, et al., 2015, Spatial variation of PM elemental composition between and within 20 European study areas - Results of the ESCAPE project, ENVIRONMENT INTERNATIONAL, Vol: 84, Pages: 181-192, ISSN: 0160-4120
Cole-Hunter T, Weichenthal S, Kubesch N, et al., 2015, Impact of traffic-related air pollution on acute changes in cardiac autonomic modulation during rest and physical activity: a cross-over study, Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology, Vol: 26, Pages: 133-140, ISSN: 1559-0631
People are often exposed to traffic-related air pollution (TRAP) during physical activity (PA), but it is not clear if PA modifies the impact of TRAP on cardiac autonomic modulation. We conducted a panel study among 28 healthy adults in Barcelona, Spain to examine how PA may modify the impact of TRAP on cardiac autonomic regulation. Participants completed four 2-h exposure scenarios that included either rest or intermittent exercise in high- and low-traffic environments. Time- and frequency-domain measures of heart rate variability (HRV) were monitored during each exposure period along with continuous measures of TRAP. Linear mixed-effects models were used to estimate the impact of TRAP on HRV as well as potential effect modification by PA. Exposure to TRAP was associated with consistent decreases in HRV; however, exposure–response relationships were not always linear over the broad range of exposures. For example, each 10 μg/m3 increase in black carbon was associated with a 23% (95% CI: −31, −13) decrease in high frequency power at the low-traffic site, whereas no association was observed at the high-traffic site. PA modified the impact of TRAP on HRV at the high-traffic site and tended to weaken inverse associations with measures reflecting parasympathetic modulation (P≤0.001). Evidence of effect modification at the low-traffic site was less consistent. The strength and direction of the relationship between TRAP and HRV may vary across exposure gradients. PA may modify the impact of TRAP on HRV, particularly at higher concentrations.
Cole-Hunter T, Donaire-Gonzalez D, Curto A, et al., 2015, Objective correlates and determinants of bicycle commuting propensity in an urban environment, Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment, Vol: 40, Pages: 132-143, ISSN: 1879-2340
ObjectiveBicycle use for commuting is being encouraged not only to address physical inactivity, but also vehicular congestion, air pollution and climate change. The current study aimed to ascertain the urban environmental correlates and determinants of bicycle use for commuting (bicycle commuting) among the working or studying population in Barcelona, Spain.MethodsAdults (n = 769; 52% females) recruited whilst commuting within Barcelona (Spain) responded to a comprehensive telephone survey concerning their travel behaviour. Based upon responses collected from June 2011 to May 2012, participants were categorised into four groups: frequent bicyclists, infrequent bicyclists, willing non-bicyclists, and unwilling non-bicyclists. The determinants of frequency and willingness (propensity) to commute by bicycle were assessed by multinomial logistic regression models adjusted for potential confounders and covariates.ResultsThe number of public bicycle stations surrounding the home address and amount of greenness surrounding the work/study address were significant positive determinants of bicycle commuting propensity. On the other hand, the number of public transport stations surrounding the home address and elevation of the work/study address were significant negative determinants of bicycle commuting propensity. Individual age, education level, gender, nationality, physical activity level and commute distance significantly affected this propensity.ConclusionGreater availability of public bicycle stations and higher levels of urban greenness may increase bicycle use by adults commuting within a city such as Barcelona, Spain. Electrically-assisted public bicycles may address the challenge of elevation, making this system a more competitive mode against traditional motorised public transport.
Mueller N, Rojas-Rueda D, Cole-Hunter T, et al., 2015, Health impact assessment of active transportation: A systematic review, Preventive Medicine, Vol: 76, Pages: 103-114, ISSN: 0091-7435
ObjectiveWalking and cycling for transportation (i.e. active transportation, AT), provide substantial health benefits from increased physical activity (PA). However, risks of injury from exposure to motorized traffic and their emissions (i.e. air pollution) exist. The objective was to systematically review studies conducting health impact assessment (HIA) of a mode shift to AT on grounds of associated health benefits and risks.MethodsSystematic database searches of MEDLINE, Web of Science and Transportation Research International Documentation were performed by two independent researchers, augmented by bibliographic review, internet searches and expert consultation to identify peer-reviewed studies from inception to December 2014.ResultsThirty studies were included, originating predominantly from Europe, but also the United States, Australia and New Zealand. They compromised of mostly HIA approaches of comparative risk assessment and cost–benefit analysis. Estimated health benefit–risk or benefit–cost ratios of a mode shift to AT ranged between − 2 and 360 (median = 9). Effects of increased PA contributed the most to estimated health benefits, which strongly outweighed detrimental effects of traffic incidents and air pollution exposure on health.ConclusionDespite different HIA methodologies being applied with distinctive assumptions on key parameters, AT can provide substantial net health benefits, irrespective of geographical context.
Andersen ZJ, de Nazelle A, Mendez MA, et al., 2015, A study of the combined effects of physical activity and air pollution on mortality in elderly urban residents: the Danish diet, cancer, and health cohort, Environmental Health Perspectives, Vol: 123, Pages: 557-563, ISSN: 1552-9924
Background: Physical activity reduces, whereas exposure to air pollution increases, the risk of premature mortality. Physical activity amplifies respiratory uptake and deposition of air pollutants in the lung, which may augment acute harmful effects of air pollution during exercise.Objectives: We aimed to examine whether benefits of physical activity on mortality are moderated by long-term exposure to high air pollution levels in an urban setting.Methods: A total of 52,061 subjects (50–65 years of age) from the Danish Diet, Cancer, and Health cohort, living in Aarhus and Copenhagen, reported data on physical activity in 1993–1997 and were followed until 2010. High exposure to air pollution was defined as the upper 25th percentile of modeled nitrogen dioxide (NO2) levels at residential addresses. We associated participation in sports, cycling, gardening, and walking with total and cause-specific mortality by Cox regression, and introduced NO2 as an interaction term.Results: In total, 5,534 subjects died: 2,864 from cancer, 1,285 from cardiovascular disease, 354 from respiratory disease, and 122 from diabetes. Significant inverse associations of participation in sports, cycling, and gardening with total, cardiovascular, and diabetes mortality were not modified by NO2. Reductions in respiratory mortality associated with cycling and gardening were more pronounced among participants with moderate/low NO2 [hazard ratio (HR) = 0.55; 95% CI: 0.42, 0.72 and 0.55; 95% CI: 0.41, 0.73, respectively] than with high NO2 exposure (HR = 0.77; 95% CI: 0.54, 1.11 and HR = 0.81; 95% CI: 0.55, 1.18, p-interaction = 0.09 and 0.02, respectively).Conclusions: In general, exposure to high levels of traffic-related air pollution did not modify associations, indicating beneficial effects of physical activity on mortality. These novel findings require replication in other study populations.
Perez L, Wolf K, Hennig F, et al., 2015, Air pollution and atherosclerosis: a cross-sectional analysis of four European cohort studies in the ESCAPE study, Environmental Health Perspectives, Vol: 123, Pages: 597-605, ISSN: 1552-9924
Background: In four European cohorts, we investigated the cross-sectional association between long-term exposure to air pollution and intima-media thickness of the common carotid artery (CIMT), a preclinical marker of atherosclerosis.Methods: Individually assigned levels of nitrogen dioxide, nitrogen oxides, particulate matter ≤ 2.5 μm (PM2.5), absorbance of PM2.5 (PM2.5abs), PM10, PMcoarse, and two indicators of residential proximity to highly trafficked roads were obtained under a standard exposure protocol (European Study of Cohorts for Air Pollution Effects—ESCAPE study) in the Stockholm area (Sweden), the Ausburg and Ruhr area (Germany), and the Girona area (Spain). We used linear regression and meta-analyses to examine the association between long-term exposure to air pollution and CIMT.Results: The meta-analysis with 9,183 individuals resulted in an estimated increase in CIMT (geometric mean) of 0.72% (95% CI: –0.65%, 2.10%) per 5-μg/m3 increase in PM2.5 and 0.42% (95% CI: –0.46%, 1.30%) per 10–5/m increase in PM2.5abs. Living in proximity to high traffic was also positively but not significantly associated with CIMT. Meta-analytic estimates for other pollutants were inconsistent. Results were similar across different adjustment sets and sensitivity analyses. In an extended meta-analysis for PM2.5 with three other previously published studies, a 0.78% (95% CI: –0.18%, 1.75%) increase in CIMT was estimated for a 5-μg/m3 contrast in PM2.5.Conclusions: Using a standardized exposure and analytical protocol in four European cohorts, we found that cross-sectional associations between CIMT and the eight ESCAPE markers of long-term residential air pollution exposure did not reach statistical significance. The additional meta-analysis of CIMT and PM2.5 across all published studies also was positive but not significant.
Kubesch N, De Nazelle A, Guerra S, et al., 2015, Arterial blood pressure responses to short-term exposure to low and high traffic-related air pollution with and without moderate physical activity, EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF PREVENTIVE CARDIOLOGY, Vol: 22, Pages: 548-557, ISSN: 2047-4873
Janet Kubesch N, de Nazelle A, Westerdahl D, et al., 2015, Respiratory and inflammatory responses to short-term exposure to traffic-related air pollution with and without moderate physical activity, OCCUPATIONAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL MEDICINE, Vol: 72, Pages: 284-293, ISSN: 1351-0711
Jacquemin B, Siroux V, Sanchez M, et al., 2015, Ambient Air Pollution and Adult Asthma Incidence in Six European Cohorts (ESCAPE), Environmental Health Perspectives, Vol: 123, Pages: 613-621, ISSN: 1552-9924
BACKGROUND: Short-term exposure to air pollution has adverse effects among patients with asthma, whether long-term exposure to air pollution is a cause of adult-onset asthma is unclear. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between air pollution and adult onset asthma. METHODS: Asthma incidence was prospectively assessed in six European cohorts. Exposures studied were annual average concentrations at home addresses for nitrogen oxides assessed for 23,704 participants (including 1,257 incident cases) and particulate matter assessed for 17,909 participants through ESCAPE land-use regression models, and traffic exposure indicators. Meta-analyses of cohort-specific logistic regression on asthma incidence were performed. Models were adjusted on age, sex, overweight, education and smoking and included city/area within each cohort as a random effect. RESULTS: In this longitudinal analysis, asthma incidence was positively, but not significantly, associated with all exposure metrics, except for PMcoarse. Positive associations of borderline significance were observed for NO2, (adjusted OR = 1.10; 95% CI: 0.99, 1.21 per 10 mug/m3; p=0.10) and NOx (1.04; 95% CI: 0.99, 1.08 per 20 mug/m3; p=0.08). Non-significant positive associations were estimated for PM10 (1.04; 95% CI: 0.88, 1.23 per 10 mug/m3), PM2.5 (1.04; 95% CI: 0.88, 1.23 per 5 mug/m3), PM2.5absorbance (1.06; 95% CI: 0.95, 1.19 per 10-5/m), traffic load (1.10; 95% CI: 0.93, 1.30 per four million vehicles x m/day on major roads in a 100m buffer) and traffic intensity (1.10; 95% CI: 0.93, 1.30 per 5,000 vehicles/day on the nearest road). A non-significant negative association was estimated for PMcoarse (0.98; 95% CI: 0.87, 1.14 per 5 mug/m3). CONCLUSIONS: Results are suggestive of a deleterious effect of ambient air pollution on asthma incidence in adults. Further research with improved personal-level exposure assessment (versus residential exposure assessment only) and phenotypic characterization is needed.
Jedynska A, Hoek G, Wang M, et al., 2015, Spatial variations of levoglucosan in four European study areas, SCIENCE OF THE TOTAL ENVIRONMENT, Vol: 505, Pages: 1072-1081, ISSN: 0048-9697
Adam M, Schikowski T, Carsin AE, et al., 2014, Adult lung function and long-term air pollution exposure. ESCAPE: a multicentre cohort study and meta-analysis, European Respiratory Journal, Vol: 45, Pages: 38-50, ISSN: 1399-3003
The chronic impact of ambient air pollutants on lung function in adults is not fully understood. The objective of this study was to investigate the association of long-term exposure to ambient air pollution with lung function in adult participants from five cohorts in the European Study of Cohorts for Air Pollution Effects (ESCAPE).Residential exposure to nitrogen oxides (NO2, NOx) and particulate matter (PM) was modelled and traffic indicators were assessed in a standardised manner. The spirometric parameters forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) and forced vital capacity (FVC) from 7613 subjects were considered as outcomes. Cohort-specific results were combined using meta-analysis.We did not observe an association of air pollution with longitudinal change in lung function, but we observed that a 10 μg·m−3 increase in NO2 exposure was associated with lower levels of FEV1 (−14.0 mL, 95%CI −25.8– −2.1) and FVC (−14.9 mL, 95% CI −28.7– −1.1). An increase of 10 μg·m−3 in PM10, but not other PM metrics (PM2.5, coarse fraction of PM, PM absorbance), was associated with a lower level of FEV1 (−44.6 mL, 95% CI −85.4– −3.8) and FVC (−59.0 mL, 95% CI −112.3– −5.6). The associations were particularly strong in obese persons.This study adds to the evidence for an adverse association of ambient air pollution with lung function in adults at very low levels in Europe.
Jedynska A, Hoek G, Wang M, et al., 2014, Development of Land Use Regression Models for Elemental, Organic Carbon, PAH, and Hopanes/Steranes in 10 ESCAPE/TRANSPHORM European Study Areas, ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY, Vol: 48, Pages: 14435-14444, ISSN: 0013-936X
Cai Y, Schikowski T, Adam M, et al., 2014, Cross-sectional associations between air pollution and chronic bronchitis: an ESCAPE meta-analysis across five cohorts, Thorax, Vol: 69, Pages: 1005-1014, ISSN: 0040-6376
Background This study aimed to assess associations of outdoor air pollution on prevalence of chronic bronchitis symptoms in adults in five cohort studies (Asthma-E3N, ECRHS, NSHD, SALIA, SAPALDIA) participating in the European Study of Cohorts for Air Pollution Effects (ESCAPE) project.Methods Annual average particulate matter (PM10, PM2.5, PMabsorbance, PMcoarse), NO2, nitrogen oxides (NOx) and road traffic measures modelled from ESCAPE measurement campaigns 2008–2011 were assigned to home address at most recent assessments (1998–2011). Symptoms examined were chronic bronchitis (cough and phlegm for ≥3 months of the year for ≥2 years), chronic cough (with/without phlegm) and chronic phlegm (with/without cough). Cohort-specific cross-sectional multivariable logistic regression analyses were conducted using common confounder sets (age, sex, smoking, interview season, education), followed by meta-analysis.Results 15 279 and 10 537 participants respectively were included in the main NO2 and PM analyses at assessments in 1998–2011. Overall, there were no statistically significant associations with any air pollutant or traffic exposure. Sensitivity analyses including in asthmatics only, females only or using back-extrapolated NO2 and PM10 for assessments in 1985–2002 (ECRHS, NSHD, SALIA, SAPALDIA) did not alter conclusions. In never-smokers, all associations were positive, but reached statistical significance only for chronic phlegm with PMcoarse OR 1.31 (1.05 to 1.64) per 5 µg/m3 increase and PM10 with similar effect size. Sensitivity analyses of older cohorts showed increased risk of chronic cough with PM2.5abs (black carbon) exposures.Conclusions Results do not show consistent associations between chronic bronchitis symptoms and current traffic-related air pollution in adult European populations.
Fuks KB, Weinmayr G, Foraster M, et al., 2014, Arterial blood pressure and long-term exposure to traffic-related air pollution: an analysis in the European study of cohorts for air pollution effects (ESCAPE), Environmental Health Perspectives, Vol: 122, Pages: 896-905, ISSN: 0091-6765
Background: Long-term exposure to air pollution has been hypothesized to elevate arterial blood pressure (BP). The existing evidence is scarce and country specific.Objectives: We investigated the cross-sectional association of long-term traffic-related air pollution with BP and prevalent hypertension in European populations.Methods: We analyzed 15 population-based cohorts, participating in the European Study of Cohorts for Air Pollution Effects (ESCAPE). We modeled residential exposure to particulate matter and nitrogen oxides with land use regression using a uniform protocol. We assessed traffic exposure with traffic indicator variables. We analyzed systolic and diastolic BP in participants medicated and nonmedicated with BP-lowering medication (BPLM) separately, adjusting for personal and area-level risk factors and environmental noise. Prevalent hypertension was defined as ≥ 140 mmHg systolic BP, or ≥ 90 mmHg diastolic BP, or intake of BPLM. We combined cohort-specific results using random-effects meta-analysis.Results: In the main meta-analysis of 113,926 participants, traffic load on major roads within 100 m of the residence was associated with increased systolic and diastolic BP in nonmedicated participants [0.35 mmHg (95% CI: 0.02, 0.68) and 0.22 mmHg (95% CI: 0.04, 0.40) per 4,000,000 vehicles × m/day, respectively]. The estimated odds ratio (OR) for prevalent hypertension was 1.05 (95% CI: 0.99, 1.11) per 4,000,000 vehicles × m/day. Modeled air pollutants and BP were not clearly associated.Conclusions: In this first comprehensive meta-analysis of European population-based cohorts, we observed a weak positive association of high residential traffic exposure with BP in nonmedicated participants, and an elevated OR for prevalent hypertension. The relationship of modeled air pollutants with BP was inconsistent.
Tainio M, Olkowicz D, Teresinski G, et al., 2014, Severity of injuries in different modes of transport, expressed with disability-adjusted life years (DALYs), BMC Public Health, Vol: 14, ISSN: 1471-2458
BackgroundHealth impact assessment (HIA) studies are increasingly predicting the health effects of mode shifts in traffic. The challenge for such studies is to combine the health effects, caused by injuries, with the disease driven health effects, and to express the change in the health with a common health indicator. Disability-adjusted life year (DALY) combines years lived disabled or injured (YLD) and years of life lost (YLL) providing practical indicator to combine injuries with diseases. In this study, we estimate the average YLDs for one person injured in a transport crash to allow easy to use methods to predict health effects of transport injuries.MethodsWe calculated YLDs and YLLs for transport fatalities and injuries based on the data from the Swedish Traffic Accident Data Acquisition (STRADA). In STRADA, all the fatalities and most of the injuries in Sweden for 2007–2011 were recorded. The type of injury was recorded with the Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) codes. In this study these AIS codes were aggregated to injury types, and YLDs were calculated for each victim by multiplying the type of injury with the disability weight and the average duration of that injury. YLLs were calculated by multiplying the age of the victim with life expectancy of that age and gender. YLDs and YLLs were estimated separately for different gender, mode of transport and location of the crash.ResultsThe average YLDs for injured person was 14.7 for lifelong injuries and 0.012 for temporal injuries. The average YLDs per injured person for lifelong injuries for pedestrians, cyclists and car occupants were 9.4, 12.8 and 18.4, YLDs, respectively. Lifelong injuries sustained in rural areas were on average 31% more serious than injuries in urban areas.ConclusionsThe results show that shifting modes of transport will not only change the likelihood of injuries but also the severity of injuries sustained, if injured. The results of this study can be used to predict DALY changes in H
Akita Y, Serre ML, Baldasano JM, et al., 2014, Large scale air pollution estimation method combining land use regression and chemical transport modeling in a geostatistical framework, Environmental Science and Technology, Vol: 48, Pages: 4452-4459, ISSN: 0013-936X
In recognition that intraurban exposure gradients may be as large as between-city variations, recent air pollution epidemiologic studies have become increasingly interested in capturing within-city exposure gradients. In addition, because of the rapidly accumulating health data, recent studies also need to handle large study populations distributed over large geographic domains. Even though several modeling approaches have been introduced, a consistent modeling framework capturing within-city exposure variability and applicable to large geographic domains is still missing. To address these needs, we proposed a modeling framework based on the Bayesian Maximum Entropy method that integrates monitoring data and outputs from existing air quality models based on Land Use Regression (LUR) and Chemical Transport Models (CTM). The framework was applied to estimate the yearly average NO concentrations over the region of Catalunya in Spain. By jointly accounting for the global scale variability in the concentration from the output of CTM and the intraurban scale variability through LUR model output, the proposed framework outperformed more conventional approaches. © 2014 American Chemical Society.
Jedynska A, Hoek G, Eeftens M, et al., 2014, Spatial variations of PAH, hopanes/steranes and EC/OC concentrations within and between European study areas, ATMOSPHERIC ENVIRONMENT, Vol: 87, Pages: 239-248, ISSN: 1352-2310
Schembari A, Nieuwenhuijsen MJ, Salvador J, et al., 2014, Traffic-related air pollution and congenital anomalies in Barcelona, Environmental Health Perspectives, Vol: 122, Pages: 317-323, ISSN: 0091-6765
Background: A recent meta-analysis suggested evidence for an effect of exposure to ambient air pollutants on risk of certain congenital heart defects. However, few studies have investigated the effects of traffic-related air pollutants with sufficient spatial accuracy.Objectives: We estimated associations between congenital anomalies and exposure to traffic-related air pollution in Barcelona, Spain.Method: Cases with nonchromosomal anomalies (n = 2,247) and controls (n = 2,991) were selected from the Barcelona congenital anomaly register during 1994–2006. Land use regression models from the European Study of Cohorts for Air Pollution Effects (ESCAPE), were applied to residential addresses at birth to estimate spatial exposure to nitrogen oxides and dioxide (NOx, NO2), particulate matter with diameter ≤ 10 μm (PM10), 10–2.5 μm (PMcoarse), ≤ 2.5 μm (PM2.5), and PM2.5 absorbance. Spatial estimates were adjusted for temporal trends using data from routine monitoring stations for weeks 3–8 of each pregnancy. Logistic regression models were used to calculate odds ratios (ORs) for 18 congenital anomaly groups associated with an interquartile-range (IQR) increase in exposure estimates.Results: In spatial and spatiotemporal exposure models, we estimated statistically significant associations between an IQR increase in NO2 (12.2 μg/m3) and coarctation of the aorta (ORspatiotemporal = 1.15; 95% CI: 1.01, 1.31) and digestive system defects (ORspatiotemporal = 1.11; 95% CI: 1.00, 1.23), and between an IQR increase in PMcoarse (3.6 μg/m3) and abdominal wall defects (ORspatiotemporal = 1.93; 95% CI: 1.37, 2.73). Other statistically significant increased and decreased ORs were estimated based on the spatial model only or the spatiotemporal model only, but not both.Conclusions: Our results overall do not indicate an association between traffic-related air pollution and most groups of congenital anomalies. Findings for coarctation of the aorta a
Schikowski T, Adam M, Marcon A, et al., 2014, Association of ambient air pollution with the prevalence and incidence of COPD, Eur.Respir.J.
The role of air pollution in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) remains uncertain.The aim was to assess the impact of chronic exposure to air pollution on COPD in four cohorts using the standardised ESCAPE exposure estimates. Annual average particulate matter (PM), nitrogen oxides (NOx) and road traffic exposure were assigned to home addresses using land-use regression models. COPD was defined by NHANES reference equation (forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1)/forced vital capacity (FVC) less than the lower limit of normal) and the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease criterion (FEV1/FVC <0.70) and categorised by severity in non-asthmatics.We included 6550 subjects with assigned NOx and 3692 with PM measures. COPD was not associated with NO2 or PM10 in any individual cohort. In meta-analyses only NO2, NOx, PM10 and the traffic indicators were positively, although not significantly, associated with COPD. The only statistically significant associations were seen in females (COPD prevalence using GOLD: OR 1.57, 95% CI 1.11-2.23; and incidence: OR 1.79, 95% CI 1.21-2.68).None of the principal results were statistically significant, the weak positive associations of exposure with COPD and the significant subgroup findings need to be evaluated in further well standardised cohorts followed up for longer time, and with time-matched exposure assignments
Dadvand P, Basagaña X, Figueras F, et al., 2014, Air pollution and preterm premature rupture of membranes: a spatiotemporal analysis., Am J Epidemiol, Vol: 179, Pages: 200-207
Preterm premature rupture of membranes (PROM) is the leading identifiable predisposing factor for preterm birth. Although maternal exposure to air pollution can potentially have an impact on preterm PROM, there is no available evidence on such an impact. In this study, based on 5,555 singleton births occurring in Barcelona, Spain (2002-2005), we investigated the associations of maternal exposure to nitrogen dioxide, nitrogen oxides, and particulate matter with aerodynamic diameters of ≤2.5 µm (PM2.5), 2.5 µm-10 µm, and ≤10 µm and PM2.5 light absorption with preterm PROM and gestational age at the rupture of membranes (ROM). We utilized temporally adjusted land-use regression models to predict pollutant levels at each subject's home address during each week of her pregnancy. We conducted matched (according to the length of exposure) case-control analyses to estimate the preterm PROM risk associated with 1 interquartile-range increase in exposure levels during the entire pregnancy and during the last 3 months prior to ROM. We found an increase in preterm PROM risk of up to 50% (95% confidence interval: 4, 116) and a 1.3-day (95% confidence interval: -1.9, -0.6) reduction in gestational age at ROM associated with PM2.5 absorbance, nitrogen dioxide exposure, and nitrogen oxide exposure during the entire pregnancy and the last 3 months prior to ROM.
Rojas-Rueda D, de Nazelle A, Teixido O, et al., 2013, Health impact assessment of increasing public transport and cycling use in Barcelona: A morbidity and burden of disease approach, PREVENTIVE MEDICINE, Vol: 57, Pages: 573-579, ISSN: 0091-7435
de Nazelle A, Aguilera I, Nieuwenhuijsen M, et al., 2013, Comparison of performance of land use regression models derived for Catalunya, Spain, ATMOSPHERIC ENVIRONMENT, Vol: 77, Pages: 598-606, ISSN: 1352-2310
Ragettli MS, Corradi E, Braun-Fahrländer C, et al., 2013, Commuter exposure to ultrafine particles in different urban locations, transportation modes and routes, Atmospheric Environment, Vol: 77, Pages: 376-384, ISSN: 1352-2310
Kubesch N, de Nazelle A, Martinez D, et al., 2013, Lung function and -inflammation after short term exposures to traffic related air pollution and physical activity, EUROPEAN RESPIRATORY JOURNAL, Vol: 42, ISSN: 0903-1936
de Hoogh K, Wang M, Adam M, et al., 2013, Development of Land Use Regression Models for Particle Composition in Twenty Study Areas in Europe, ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY, Vol: 47, Pages: 5778-5786, ISSN: 0013-936X
Donaire-Gonzalez D, de Nazelle A, Seto E, et al., 2013, Comparison of Physical Activity Measures Using Mobile Phone-Based CalFit and Actigraph, JOURNAL OF MEDICAL INTERNET RESEARCH, Vol: 15, ISSN: 1438-8871
Beelen R, Hoek G, Vienneau D, et al., 2013, Development of NO2 and NOx land use regression models for estimating air pollution exposure in 36 study areas in Europe - The ESCAPE project, ATMOSPHERIC ENVIRONMENT, Vol: 72, Pages: 10-23, ISSN: 1352-2310
de Nazelle A, Seto E, Donaire-Gonzalez D, et al., 2013, Improving estimates of air pollution exposure through ubiquitous sensing technologies, Environmental Pollution, Vol: 176, Pages: 92-99
Audrey de Nazellea, b, c, d, , 1, , , Edmund Setoe, David Donaire-Gonzalezb, c, d, f, Michelle Mendezb, c, d, g, Jaume Matamalab, c, d, Mark J. Nieuwenhuijsenb, c, d, Michael Jerrette
Jarjour S, Jerrett M, Westerdahl D, et al., 2013, Cyclist route choice, traffic-related air pollution, and lung function: a scripted exposure study, Environmental Health, Vol: 12, ISSN: 1476-069X
BackgroundA travel mode shift to active transportation such as bicycling would help reduce traffic volume and related air pollution emissions as well as promote increased physical activity level. Cyclists, however, are at risk for exposure to vehicle-related air pollutants due to their proximity to vehicle traffic and elevated respiratory rates. To promote safe bicycle commuting, the City of Berkeley, California, has designated a network of residential streets as “Bicycle Boulevards.” We hypothesized that cyclist exposure to air pollution would be lower on these Bicycle Boulevards when compared to busier roads and this elevated exposure may result in reduced lung function.MethodsWe recruited 15 healthy adults to cycle on two routes – a low-traffic Bicycle Boulevard route and a high-traffic route. Each participant cycled on the low-traffic route once and the high-traffic route once. We mounted pollutant monitors and a global positioning system (GPS) on the bicycles. The monitors were all synced to GPS time so pollutant measurements could be spatially plotted. We measured lung function using spirometry before and after each bike ride.ResultsWe found that fine and ultrafine particulate matter, carbon monoxide, and black carbon were all elevated on the high-traffic route compared to the low-traffic route. There were no corresponding changes in the lung function of healthy non-asthmatic study subjects. We also found that wind-speed affected pollution concentrations.ConclusionsThese results suggest that by selecting low-traffic Bicycle Boulevards instead of heavily trafficked roads, cyclists can reduce their exposure to vehicle-related air pollution. The lung function results indicate that elevated pollutant exposure may not have acute negative effects on healthy cyclists, but further research is necessary to determine long-term effects on a more diverse population. This study and broader field of research have the potential to encourage policy-makers an
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