114 results found
Fuks KB, Weinmayr G, Foraster M, et al., 2014, Arterial blood pressure and long-term exposure to traffic-related air pollution: an analysis in the European study of cohorts for air pollution effects (ESCAPE), Environmental Health Perspectives, Vol: 122, Pages: 896-905, ISSN: 0091-6765
Background: Long-term exposure to air pollution has been hypothesized to elevate arterial blood pressure (BP). The existing evidence is scarce and country specific.Objectives: We investigated the cross-sectional association of long-term traffic-related air pollution with BP and prevalent hypertension in European populations.Methods: We analyzed 15 population-based cohorts, participating in the European Study of Cohorts for Air Pollution Effects (ESCAPE). We modeled residential exposure to particulate matter and nitrogen oxides with land use regression using a uniform protocol. We assessed traffic exposure with traffic indicator variables. We analyzed systolic and diastolic BP in participants medicated and nonmedicated with BP-lowering medication (BPLM) separately, adjusting for personal and area-level risk factors and environmental noise. Prevalent hypertension was defined as ≥ 140 mmHg systolic BP, or ≥ 90 mmHg diastolic BP, or intake of BPLM. We combined cohort-specific results using random-effects meta-analysis.Results: In the main meta-analysis of 113,926 participants, traffic load on major roads within 100 m of the residence was associated with increased systolic and diastolic BP in nonmedicated participants [0.35 mmHg (95% CI: 0.02, 0.68) and 0.22 mmHg (95% CI: 0.04, 0.40) per 4,000,000 vehicles × m/day, respectively]. The estimated odds ratio (OR) for prevalent hypertension was 1.05 (95% CI: 0.99, 1.11) per 4,000,000 vehicles × m/day. Modeled air pollutants and BP were not clearly associated.Conclusions: In this first comprehensive meta-analysis of European population-based cohorts, we observed a weak positive association of high residential traffic exposure with BP in nonmedicated participants, and an elevated OR for prevalent hypertension. The relationship of modeled air pollutants with BP was inconsistent.
Guxens M, Garcia-Esteban R, Giorgis-Allemand L, et al., 2014, Air Pollution During Pregnancy and Childhood Cognitive and Psychomotor Development Six European Birth Cohorts, EPIDEMIOLOGY, Vol: 25, Pages: 636-647, ISSN: 1044-3983
Tainio M, Olkowicz D, Teresinski G, et al., 2014, Severity of injuries in different modes of transport, expressed with disability-adjusted life years (DALYs), BMC Public Health, Vol: 14, ISSN: 1471-2458
BackgroundHealth impact assessment (HIA) studies are increasingly predicting the health effects of mode shifts in traffic. The challenge for such studies is to combine the health effects, caused by injuries, with the disease driven health effects, and to express the change in the health with a common health indicator. Disability-adjusted life year (DALY) combines years lived disabled or injured (YLD) and years of life lost (YLL) providing practical indicator to combine injuries with diseases. In this study, we estimate the average YLDs for one person injured in a transport crash to allow easy to use methods to predict health effects of transport injuries.MethodsWe calculated YLDs and YLLs for transport fatalities and injuries based on the data from the Swedish Traffic Accident Data Acquisition (STRADA). In STRADA, all the fatalities and most of the injuries in Sweden for 2007–2011 were recorded. The type of injury was recorded with the Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) codes. In this study these AIS codes were aggregated to injury types, and YLDs were calculated for each victim by multiplying the type of injury with the disability weight and the average duration of that injury. YLLs were calculated by multiplying the age of the victim with life expectancy of that age and gender. YLDs and YLLs were estimated separately for different gender, mode of transport and location of the crash.ResultsThe average YLDs for injured person was 14.7 for lifelong injuries and 0.012 for temporal injuries. The average YLDs per injured person for lifelong injuries for pedestrians, cyclists and car occupants were 9.4, 12.8 and 18.4, YLDs, respectively. Lifelong injuries sustained in rural areas were on average 31% more serious than injuries in urban areas.ConclusionsThe results show that shifting modes of transport will not only change the likelihood of injuries but also the severity of injuries sustained, if injured. The results of this study can be used to predict DALY changes in H
Ragettli MS, Tsai M-Y, Braun-Fahrlaender C, et al., 2014, Simulation of population-based commuter exposure to NO2 using different air pollution models, International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, Vol: 11, Pages: 5049-5068, ISSN: 1660-4601
We simulated commuter routes and long-term exposure to traffic-related air pollution during commute in a representative population sample in Basel (Switzerland), and evaluated three air pollution models with different spatial resolution for estimating commute exposures to nitrogen dioxide (NO2) as a marker of long-term exposure to traffic-related air pollution. Our approach includes spatially and temporally resolved data on actual commuter routes, travel modes and three air pollution models. Annual mean NO2 commuter exposures were similar between models. However, we found more within-city and within-subject variability in annual mean (±SD) NO2 commuter exposure with a high resolution dispersion model (40 ± 7 µg m−3, range: 21–61) than with a dispersion model with a lower resolution (39 ± 5 µg m−3; range: 24–51), and a land use regression model (41 ± 5 µg m−3; range: 24–54). Highest median cumulative exposures were calculated along motorized transport and bicycle routes, and the lowest for walking. For estimating commuter exposure within a city and being interested also in small-scale variability between roads, a model with a high resolution is recommended. For larger scale epidemiological health assessment studies, models with a coarser spatial resolution are likely sufficient, especially when study areas include suburban and rural areas.
Akita Y, Serre ML, Baldasano JM, et al., 2014, Large scale air pollution estimation method combining land use regression and chemical transport modeling in a geostatistical framework, Environmental Science and Technology, Vol: 48, Pages: 4452-4459, ISSN: 0013-936X
In recognition that intraurban exposure gradients may be as large as between-city variations, recent air pollution epidemiologic studies have become increasingly interested in capturing within-city exposure gradients. In addition, because of the rapidly accumulating health data, recent studies also need to handle large study populations distributed over large geographic domains. Even though several modeling approaches have been introduced, a consistent modeling framework capturing within-city exposure variability and applicable to large geographic domains is still missing. To address these needs, we proposed a modeling framework based on the Bayesian Maximum Entropy method that integrates monitoring data and outputs from existing air quality models based on Land Use Regression (LUR) and Chemical Transport Models (CTM). The framework was applied to estimate the yearly average NO concentrations over the region of Catalunya in Spain. By jointly accounting for the global scale variability in the concentration from the output of CTM and the intraurban scale variability through LUR model output, the proposed framework outperformed more conventional approaches. © 2014 American Chemical Society.
Jedynska A, Hoek G, Eeftens M, et al., 2014, Spatial variations of PAH, hopanes/steranes and EC/OC concentrations within and between European study areas, ATMOSPHERIC ENVIRONMENT, Vol: 87, Pages: 239-248, ISSN: 1352-2310
Schembari A, Nieuwenhuijsen MJ, Salvador J, et al., 2014, Traffic-related air pollution and congenital anomalies in Barcelona, Environmental Health Perspectives, Vol: 122, Pages: 317-323, ISSN: 0091-6765
Background: A recent meta-analysis suggested evidence for an effect of exposure to ambient air pollutants on risk of certain congenital heart defects. However, few studies have investigated the effects of traffic-related air pollutants with sufficient spatial accuracy.Objectives: We estimated associations between congenital anomalies and exposure to traffic-related air pollution in Barcelona, Spain.Method: Cases with nonchromosomal anomalies (n = 2,247) and controls (n = 2,991) were selected from the Barcelona congenital anomaly register during 1994–2006. Land use regression models from the European Study of Cohorts for Air Pollution Effects (ESCAPE), were applied to residential addresses at birth to estimate spatial exposure to nitrogen oxides and dioxide (NOx, NO2), particulate matter with diameter ≤ 10 μm (PM10), 10–2.5 μm (PMcoarse), ≤ 2.5 μm (PM2.5), and PM2.5 absorbance. Spatial estimates were adjusted for temporal trends using data from routine monitoring stations for weeks 3–8 of each pregnancy. Logistic regression models were used to calculate odds ratios (ORs) for 18 congenital anomaly groups associated with an interquartile-range (IQR) increase in exposure estimates.Results: In spatial and spatiotemporal exposure models, we estimated statistically significant associations between an IQR increase in NO2 (12.2 μg/m3) and coarctation of the aorta (ORspatiotemporal = 1.15; 95% CI: 1.01, 1.31) and digestive system defects (ORspatiotemporal = 1.11; 95% CI: 1.00, 1.23), and between an IQR increase in PMcoarse (3.6 μg/m3) and abdominal wall defects (ORspatiotemporal = 1.93; 95% CI: 1.37, 2.73). Other statistically significant increased and decreased ORs were estimated based on the spatial model only or the spatiotemporal model only, but not both.Conclusions: Our results overall do not indicate an association between traffic-related air pollution and most groups of congenital anomalies. Findings for coarctation of the aorta a
Schikowski T, Adam M, Marcon A, et al., 2014, Association of ambient air pollution with the prevalence and incidence of COPD, Eur.Respir.J.
The role of air pollution in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) remains uncertain.The aim was to assess the impact of chronic exposure to air pollution on COPD in four cohorts using the standardised ESCAPE exposure estimates. Annual average particulate matter (PM), nitrogen oxides (NOx) and road traffic exposure were assigned to home addresses using land-use regression models. COPD was defined by NHANES reference equation (forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1)/forced vital capacity (FVC) less than the lower limit of normal) and the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease criterion (FEV1/FVC <0.70) and categorised by severity in non-asthmatics.We included 6550 subjects with assigned NOx and 3692 with PM measures. COPD was not associated with NO2 or PM10 in any individual cohort. In meta-analyses only NO2, NOx, PM10 and the traffic indicators were positively, although not significantly, associated with COPD. The only statistically significant associations were seen in females (COPD prevalence using GOLD: OR 1.57, 95% CI 1.11-2.23; and incidence: OR 1.79, 95% CI 1.21-2.68).None of the principal results were statistically significant, the weak positive associations of exposure with COPD and the significant subgroup findings need to be evaluated in further well standardised cohorts followed up for longer time, and with time-matched exposure assignments
Dadvand P, Basagana X, Figueras F, et al., 2014, Air Pollution and Preterm Premature Rupture of Membranes: A Spatiotemporal Analysis, AMERICAN JOURNAL OF EPIDEMIOLOGY, Vol: 179, Pages: 200-207, ISSN: 0002-9262
Rojas-Rueda D, de Nazelle A, Teixido O, et al., 2013, Health impact assessment of increasing public transport and cycling use in Barcelona: A morbidity and burden of disease approach, PREVENTIVE MEDICINE, Vol: 57, Pages: 573-579, ISSN: 0091-7435
de Nazelle A, Aguilera I, Nieuwenhuijsen M, et al., 2013, Comparison of performance of land use regression models derived for Catalunya, Spain, ATMOSPHERIC ENVIRONMENT, Vol: 77, Pages: 598-606, ISSN: 1352-2310
Ragettli MS, Corradi E, Braun-Faehrlaender C, et al., 2013, Commuter exposure to ultrafine particles in different urban locations, transportation modes and routes, ATMOSPHERIC ENVIRONMENT, Vol: 77, Pages: 376-384, ISSN: 1352-2310
Kubesch N, de Nazelle A, Martinez D, et al., 2013, Lung function and -inflammation after short term exposures to traffic related air pollution and physical activity, EUROPEAN RESPIRATORY JOURNAL, Vol: 42, ISSN: 0903-1936
Cole-Hunter T, Kubesch N, Martinez D, et al., 2013, The effect of short-term pre-exposure to ambient bioaerosols, anthropogenic pollutants and noise on cardiopulmonary health baseline parameters, Publisher: EUROPEAN RESPIRATORY SOC JOURNALS LTD, ISSN: 0903-1936
de Hoogh K, Wang M, Adam M, et al., 2013, Development of Land Use Regression Models for Particle Composition in Twenty Study Areas in Europe, ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY, Vol: 47, Pages: 5778-5786, ISSN: 0013-936X
Donaire-Gonzalez D, de Nazelle A, Seto E, et al., 2013, Comparison of Physical Activity Measures Using Mobile Phone-Based CalFit and Actigraph, JOURNAL OF MEDICAL INTERNET RESEARCH, Vol: 15, ISSN: 1438-8871
Beelen R, Hoek G, Vienneau D, et al., 2013, Development of NO2 and NOx land use regression models for estimating air pollution exposure in 36 study areas in Europe - The ESCAPE project, ATMOSPHERIC ENVIRONMENT, Vol: 72, Pages: 10-23, ISSN: 1352-2310
de Nazelle A, Seto E, Donaire-Gonzalez D, et al., 2013, Improving estimates of air pollution exposure through ubiquitous sensing technologies, Environmental Pollution, Vol: 176, Pages: 92-99
Audrey de Nazellea, b, c, d, , 1, , , Edmund Setoe, David Donaire-Gonzalezb, c, d, f, Michelle Mendezb, c, d, g, Jaume Matamalab, c, d, Mark J. Nieuwenhuijsenb, c, d, Michael Jerrette
Jarjour S, Jerrett M, Westerdahl D, et al., 2013, Cyclist route choice, traffic-related air pollution, and lung function: a scripted exposure study, Environmental Health, Vol: 12, ISSN: 1476-069X
BackgroundA travel mode shift to active transportation such as bicycling would help reduce traffic volume and related air pollution emissions as well as promote increased physical activity level. Cyclists, however, are at risk for exposure to vehicle-related air pollutants due to their proximity to vehicle traffic and elevated respiratory rates. To promote safe bicycle commuting, the City of Berkeley, California, has designated a network of residential streets as “Bicycle Boulevards.” We hypothesized that cyclist exposure to air pollution would be lower on these Bicycle Boulevards when compared to busier roads and this elevated exposure may result in reduced lung function.MethodsWe recruited 15 healthy adults to cycle on two routes – a low-traffic Bicycle Boulevard route and a high-traffic route. Each participant cycled on the low-traffic route once and the high-traffic route once. We mounted pollutant monitors and a global positioning system (GPS) on the bicycles. The monitors were all synced to GPS time so pollutant measurements could be spatially plotted. We measured lung function using spirometry before and after each bike ride.ResultsWe found that fine and ultrafine particulate matter, carbon monoxide, and black carbon were all elevated on the high-traffic route compared to the low-traffic route. There were no corresponding changes in the lung function of healthy non-asthmatic study subjects. We also found that wind-speed affected pollution concentrations.ConclusionsThese results suggest that by selecting low-traffic Bicycle Boulevards instead of heavily trafficked roads, cyclists can reduce their exposure to vehicle-related air pollution. The lung function results indicate that elevated pollutant exposure may not have acute negative effects on healthy cyclists, but further research is necessary to determine long-term effects on a more diverse population. This study and broader field of research have the potential to encourage policy-makers an
Oxley T, de Nazelle A, Katara C, et al., 2013, Bridging the gap between air pollution models and epidemiological studies, 20th International Congress on Modelling and Simulation (MODSIM), Publisher: MODELLING & SIMULATION SOC AUSTRALIA & NEW ZEALAND INC, Pages: 1882-1888
Schembari A, Triguero-Mas M, de Nazelle A, et al., 2013, Personal, indoor and outdoor air pollution levels among pregnant women, ATMOSPHERIC ENVIRONMENT, Vol: 64, Pages: 287-295, ISSN: 1352-2310
Eeftens M, Tsai M-Y, Ampe C, et al., 2012, Spatial variation of PM2.5, PM10, PM2.5 absorbance and PMcoarse concentrations between and within 20 European study areas and the relationship with NO2 - Results of the ESCAPE project, ATMOSPHERIC ENVIRONMENT, Vol: 62, Pages: 303-317, ISSN: 1352-2310
Cyrys J, Eeftens M, Heinrich J, et al., 2012, Variation of NO2 and NOx concentrations between and within 36 European study areas: Results from the ESCAPE study, ATMOSPHERIC ENVIRONMENT, Vol: 62, Pages: 374-390, ISSN: 1352-2310
Rojas-Rueda D, de Nazelle A, Teixido O, et al., 2012, Replacing car trips by increasing bike and public transport in the greater Barcelona metropolitan area: A health impact assessment study, ENVIRONMENT INTERNATIONAL, Vol: 49, Pages: 100-109, ISSN: 0160-4120
Minguillon MC, Schembari A, Triguero-Mas M, et al., 2012, Source apportionment of indoor, outdoor and personal PM2.5 exposure of pregnant women in Barcelona, Spain, ATMOSPHERIC ENVIRONMENT, Vol: 59, Pages: 426-436, ISSN: 1352-2310
de Nazelle A, Fruin S, Westerdahl D, et al., 2012, A travel mode comparison of commuters' exposures to air pollutants in Barcelona, ATMOSPHERIC ENVIRONMENT, Vol: 59, Pages: 151-159, ISSN: 1352-2310
Eeftens M, Beelen R, de Hoogh K, et al., 2012, Development of Land Use Regression Models for PM2.5, PM2.5 Absorbance, PM10 and PMcoarse in 20 European Study Areas; Results of the ESCAPE Project, ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY, Vol: 46, Pages: 11195-11205, ISSN: 0013-936X
Dadvand P, de Nazelle A, Triguero-Mas M, et al., 2012, Surrounding Greenness and Exposure to Air Pollution During Pregnancy: An Analysis of Personal Monitoring Data, ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH PERSPECTIVES, Vol: 120, Pages: 1286-1290, ISSN: 0091-6765
Basagana X, Rivera M, Aguilera I, et al., 2012, Effect of the number of measurement sites on land use regression models in estimating local air pollution, ATMOSPHERIC ENVIRONMENT, Vol: 54, Pages: 634-642, ISSN: 1352-2310
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