Imperial College London

DrAudreyde Nazelle

Faculty of Natural SciencesCentre for Environmental Policy

Senior Lecturer



+44 (0)20 7594 7319anazelle Website




20416 Prince's GardensSouth Kensington Campus






BibTex format

author = {Gaupp-Berghausen, M and Raser, E and Anaya-Boig, E and Avila-Palencia, I and de, Nazelle A and Dons, E and Franzen, H and Gerike, R and Gtschi, T and Iacorossi, F and Hssinger, R and Nieuwenhuijsen, M and Rojas-Rueda, D and Sanchez, J and Smeds, E and Deforth, M and Standaert, A and Stigell, E and Cole-Hunter, T and Int, Panis L},
doi = {10.2196/11492},
journal = {Journal of Medical Internet Research},
title = {Evaluating different recruitment methods in a longitudinal survey: Findings from the pan-European PASTA project},
url = {},
volume = {21},
year = {2019}

RIS format (EndNote, RefMan)

AB - Background: Sufficient sample size and minimal sample bias are core requirements for empirical data analyses. Combining opportunistic recruitment with a Web-based survey and data-collection platform yields new benefits over traditional recruitment approaches.Objective: This paper aims to report the success of different recruitment methods and obtain data on participants’ characteristics, participation behavior, recruitment rates, and representativeness of the sample.Methods: A longitudinal, Web-based survey was implemented as part of the European PASTA (Physical Activity through Sustainable Transport Approaches) project, between November 2014 and December 2016. During this period, participants were recruited from 7 European cities on a rolling basis. A standardized guide on recruitment strategy was developed for all cities, to reach a sufficient number of adult participants. To make use of the strengths and minimize weakness, a combination of different opportunistic recruitment methods was applied. In addition, the random sampling approach was applied in the city of Örebro. To reduce the attrition rate and improve real-time monitoring, the Web-based platform featured a participant’s and a researchers’ user interface and dashboard.Results: Overall, 10,691 participants were recruited; most people found out about the survey through their workplace or employer (2300/10691, 21.51%), outreach promotion (2219/10691, 20.76%), and social media (1859/10691, 17.39%). The average number of questionnaires filled in per participant varied significantly between the cities (P<.001), with the highest number in Zurich (11.0, SE 0.33) and the lowest in Örebro (4.8, SE 0.17). Collaboration with local organizations, the use of Facebook and mailing lists, and direct street recruitment were the most effective approaches in reaching a high share of participants (P<.001). Considering the invested working hours, Facebook was one of the most time-efficient me
AU - Gaupp-Berghausen,M
AU - Raser,E
AU - Anaya-Boig,E
AU - Avila-Palencia,I
AU - de,Nazelle A
AU - Dons,E
AU - Franzen,H
AU - Gerike,R
AU - Gtschi,T
AU - Iacorossi,F
AU - Hssinger,R
AU - Nieuwenhuijsen,M
AU - Rojas-Rueda,D
AU - Sanchez,J
AU - Smeds,E
AU - Deforth,M
AU - Standaert,A
AU - Stigell,E
AU - Cole-Hunter,T
AU - Int,Panis L
DO - 10.2196/11492
PY - 2019///
SN - 1438-8871
TI - Evaluating different recruitment methods in a longitudinal survey: Findings from the pan-European PASTA project
T2 - Journal of Medical Internet Research
UR -
UR -
VL - 21
ER -