Imperial College London


Faculty of Natural SciencesDepartment of Chemistry

Professor of Physical Chemistry



+44 (0)20 7594 5831anthony Website




Mr Stuart Haylock +44 (0)20 7594 5717




433ChemistrySouth Kensington Campus






BibTex format

author = {Malko, D and Kucernak, A and Lopes, T},
doi = {10.1038/ncomms13285},
journal = {Nature Communications},
title = {In-situ electrochemical quantification of active sites in Fe-N/C non-precious metal catalysts},
url = {},
volume = {7},
year = {2016}

RIS format (EndNote, RefMan)

AB - The economic viability of low temperature fuel cells as clean energy devices is enhanced by the development of inexpensive oxygen reduction reaction catalysts. Heat treated iron and nitrogen containing carbon based materials (Fe–N/C) have shown potential to replace expensive precious metals. Although significant improvements have recently been made, their activity and durability is still unsatisfactory. The further development and a rational design of these materials has stalled due to the lack of an in situ methodology to easily probe and quantify the active site. Here we demonstrate a protocol that allows the quantification of active centres, which operate under acidic conditions, by means of nitrite adsorption followed by reductive stripping, and show direct correlation to the catalytic activity. The method is demonstrated for two differently prepared materials. This approach may allow researchers to easily assess the active site density and turnover frequency of Fe–N/C catalysts.
AU - Malko,D
AU - Kucernak,A
AU - Lopes,T
DO - 10.1038/ncomms13285
PY - 2016///
SN - 2041-1723
TI - In-situ electrochemical quantification of active sites in Fe-N/C non-precious metal catalysts
T2 - Nature Communications
UR -
UR -
VL - 7
ER -