Imperial College London


Faculty of MedicineInstitute of Clinical Sciences

Professor of Computational Biology



+44 (0)20 3313 8353b.lenhard Website




Mr Alastair Douglas Ivor Williams +44 (0)20 3313 4318




230ICTEM buildingHammersmith Campus






BibTex format

author = {Nepal, C and Hadzhiev, Y and Balwierz, P and Tarifeño-Saldivia, E and Cardenas, R and Wragg, JW and Suzuki, A-M and Carninci, P and Peers, B and Lenhard, B and Andersen, JB and Müller, F},
doi = {10.1038/s41467-019-13687-0},
journal = {Nature Communications},
title = {Dual-initiation promoters with intertwined canonical and TCT/TOP transcription start sites diversify transcript processing},
url = {},
volume = {11},
year = {2020}

RIS format (EndNote, RefMan)

AB - Variations in transcription start site (TSS) selection reflect diversity of preinitiation complexes and can impact on post-transcriptional RNA fates. Most metazoan polymerase II-transcribed genes carry canonical initiation with pyrimidine/purine (YR) dinucleotide, while translation machinery-associated genes carry polypyrimidine initiator (5'-TOP or TCT). By addressing the developmental regulation of TSS selection in zebrafish we uncovered a class of dual-initiation promoters in thousands of genes, including snoRNA host genes. 5'-TOP/TCT initiation is intertwined with canonical initiation and used divergently in hundreds of dual-initiation promoters during maternal to zygotic transition. Dual-initiation in snoRNA host genes selectively generates host and snoRNA with often different spatio-temporal expression. Dual-initiation promoters are pervasive in human and fruit fly, reflecting evolutionary conservation. We propose that dual-initiation on shared promoters represents a composite promoter architecture, which can function both coordinately and divergently to diversify RNAs.
AU - Nepal,C
AU - Hadzhiev,Y
AU - Balwierz,P
AU - Tarifeño-Saldivia,E
AU - Cardenas,R
AU - Wragg,JW
AU - Suzuki,A-M
AU - Carninci,P
AU - Peers,B
AU - Lenhard,B
AU - Andersen,JB
AU - Müller,F
DO - 10.1038/s41467-019-13687-0
PY - 2020///
SN - 2041-1723
TI - Dual-initiation promoters with intertwined canonical and TCT/TOP transcription start sites diversify transcript processing
T2 - Nature Communications
UR -
UR -
UR -
VL - 11
ER -