Imperial College London

Professor Christopher Hankin Director, Institute for Security Science and Technology

Faculty of EngineeringInstitute for Security Science & Technology

Co-Director of Institute for Security Science & Technology



+44 (0)20 7594 7619c.hankin Website




Ms Denise McGurk +44 (0)20 7594 8864




Sherfield BuildingSouth Kensington Campus






BibTex format

author = {Fielder, A and Li, T and Hankin, C},
doi = {10.1007/978-3-319-45477-1_15},
pages = {187--200},
title = {Modelling cost-effectiveness of defenses in industrial control systems},
url = {},
year = {2016}

RIS format (EndNote, RefMan)

AB - © Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016. Industrial Control Systems (ICS) play a critical role in controlling industrial processes. Wide use of modern IT technologies enables cyber attacks to disrupt the operation of ICS. Advanced Persistent Threats (APT) are the most threatening attacks to ICS due to their long persistence and destructive cyber-physical effects to ICS. This paper considers a simulation of attackers and defenders of an ICS, where the defender must consider the cost-effectiveness of implementing defensive measures within the system in order to create an optimal defense. The aim is to identify the appropriate deployment of a specific defensive strategy, such as defense-in-depth or critical component defense. The problem is represented as a strategic competitive optimisation problem, which is solved using a co-evolutionary particle swarm optimisation algorithm. Through the development of optimal defense strategy, it is possible to identify when each specific defensive strategies is most appropriate; where the optimal defensive strategy depends on the resources available and the relative effectiveness of those resources.
AU - Fielder,A
AU - Li,T
AU - Hankin,C
DO - 10.1007/978-3-319-45477-1_15
EP - 200
PY - 2016///
SN - 0302-9743
SP - 187
TI - Modelling cost-effectiveness of defenses in industrial control systems
UR -
UR -
ER -