Imperial College London


Faculty of EngineeringDepartment of Chemical Engineering

Professor of Clean Energy Technologies



+44 (0)20 7594 1601c.markides Website




404ACE ExtensionSouth Kensington Campus






BibTex format

author = {Voulgaropoulos, V and Brun, NL and Charogiannis, A and Markides, CN},
doi = {10.1016/j.ijheatmasstransfer.2020.119596},
journal = {International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer},
pages = {1--13},
title = {Transient freezing of water between two parallel plates: A combined experimental and modelling study},
url = {},
volume = {153},
year = {2020}

RIS format (EndNote, RefMan)

AB - The transient freezing/solidification of water subjected to shear flow inside a rectangular cell is investigated under laminar flow conditions. A flow of freezing water is established inside the cell by cooling the top surface of the conductive, copper plate that forms the cell’s top side by contact with boiling liquid nitrogen (C). This heat removal results in an ice layer that forms and grows gradually on the ceiling of the cell, which is subjected to shear from the flow below it inside the channel. The spatiotemporal characteristics of the ice layer are recorded with optical, laser-based measurements and are compared with predictions from a transient freezing model that is developed for this purpose. Furthermore, tracer particles are introduced into the flow to aid the tracking of the ice layer and to allow for measurements based on particle image velocimetry (PIV) of the velocity field inside the flow during the ice-layer evolution. After an initial time-lag/‘buffer’ period (of s) that depends on the flow conditions, a quasi-linear growth of the ice layer is observed; at longer times the thickness of the ice layer reaches a maximum and then decreases again. The increase in the thickness, and hence thermal resistance, of the ice layer is counter-balanced by a decrease in the temperature of the copper plate and, therefore, a decrease in the temperature difference across the ice layer. Furthermore, it is found that the flow is associated with symmetric velocity profiles, recorded along the vertical spanwise length between the ice layer at the top of the cell and the floor of the cell, while an increase of the velocity maxima is recorded as the ice layer gradually thickens and, consequently, the flow cross-section is reduced. A constant heat flux of 19.7 × 103 W m is measured on the top side of the channel, while the heat transfer coefficient on the top side of the channel is found to be in the range of 90–110 W m K depending on the wa
AU - Voulgaropoulos,V
AU - Brun,NL
AU - Charogiannis,A
AU - Markides,CN
DO - 10.1016/j.ijheatmasstransfer.2020.119596
EP - 13
PY - 2020///
SN - 0017-9310
SP - 1
TI - Transient freezing of water between two parallel plates: A combined experimental and modelling study
T2 - International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer
UR -
UR -
UR -
VL - 153
ER -