Imperial College London


Faculty of EngineeringDepartment of Chemical Engineering

Professor of Clean Energy Technologies



+44 (0)20 7594 1601c.markides Website




404ACE ExtensionSouth Kensington Campus






BibTex format

author = {Sarabia, EJ and Acha, Izquierdo S and Le, Brun N and Soto, V and Jose, Manuel P and Shah, N and Markides, C},
publisher = {ASHRAE},
title = {Modelling of a CO2 refrigerant booster system for waste heat recovery applications in retail for space heating provision},
url = {},
year = {2020}

RIS format (EndNote, RefMan)

AB - This paper compares and quantifies the energy, environmental and economic benefits of various control strategies for recovering heat from a supermarket’s CO2 booster refrigeration system. There covered heat is used for space heating, with the goal of displacing natural gas fueled boilers. A theoretical model with thermal storage is presentedbased on a previous validated model from an existing refrigeration system in a food-retail building located in the UK. Sixheat recovery strategies are analysed by modifying thermal storage volumes and pressure levels in the gas-cooler/condenser. The model shows that a reduction of 30-40% in natural-gasc onsumption is feasible by the installation of a de-superheater and without any advanced operating strategy, and 40-50% by using a thermal storage tank. However, the CO2 system can fully supply the entire space-heating requirement by adopting alternative control strategies, albeit by penalising the coefficient of performance (COP) of the compressor. Results show that the best energy strategy can reduce total consumption by 35%, while the best economic strategy can reduce costs by 11%. Findings from this work suggest that heat recovery systems can bring substantial benefits to improve the overall efficiency of energy-intensive buildings,although trade-offs need to be carefully considered and further analysed before embarking on such initiatives.
AU - Sarabia,EJ
AU - Acha,Izquierdo S
AU - Le,Brun N
AU - Soto,V
AU - Jose,Manuel P
AU - Shah,N
AU - Markides,C
PY - 2020///
TI - Modelling of a CO2 refrigerant booster system for waste heat recovery applications in retail for space heating provision
UR -
ER -