Imperial College London


Faculty of EngineeringDepartment of Chemical Engineering

Professor of Clean Energy Technologies



+44 (0)20 7594 1601c.markides Website




404ACE ExtensionSouth Kensington Campus






BibTex format

author = {Le, Brun N and Markides and Bismarck and Zadrazil and Lewis, Norman},
doi = {10.1016/j.ces.2016.02.009},
journal = {Chemical Engineering Science},
pages = {135--143},
title = {On the drag reduction effect and shear stability of improved acrylamide copolymers for enhanced hydraulic fracturing},
url = {},
volume = {146},
year = {2016}

RIS format (EndNote, RefMan)

AB - Polymeric drag reducers, such as partially hydrolysed polyacrylamide (PHPAAm), are important chemical additives in hydraulic fracturing fluids as they can significantly decrease the frictional pressure drop in the casing (by up to 80%),resulting in an increase of the injection rate that can be delivered to the fracturing point. The incorporation of sodium 2-acrylamido-2-methylpropane sulfonic acid (NaAMPS) moieties in to polyacrylamide (PAAm) can further improve the performance of fracturing fluids by addressing some compatibility issues related to the use of PHPA Am, e.g., the sensitivity to water salinity . In this study, three types of poly(acrylamide-co-NaAMPS) and pure PHPAAm were investigated with respect to polymer induced drag reduction and mechanical polymer degradationin turbulent pipe flow in a pressure-driven pipe flow facility. The test section comprised a horizontal 1” bore circular cross-section pipe. The facility was modified in order to allow, long time/length experiments by automatically recirculating the polymer solution in a closed-loop through the test section.The presence of NaAMPS groups in the copolymer backbone is found to increase the ability of PHPAAm to reduce frictional drag while the vulnerability to mechanical degradation remains unaffected. The drag reduction of NaAMPS copolymer solutions can be described by a modified version of Virk’s correlation (1967), extended to include the effect of Reynolds number. Polymer mechanical degradation is found to proceed until the friction reducer is almost ineffective in reducing drag. This phenomenon is in contrast with the most common correlationfor polymer degradation, which predicts the existence of a n asymptotic(but finite) limit to the reduced drag reduction.
AU - Le,Brun N
AU - Markides
AU - Bismarck
AU - Zadrazil
AU - Lewis,Norman
DO - 10.1016/j.ces.2016.02.009
EP - 143
PY - 2016///
SN - 0009-2509
SP - 135
TI - On the drag reduction effect and shear stability of improved acrylamide copolymers for enhanced hydraulic fracturing
T2 - Chemical Engineering Science
UR -
UR -
VL - 146
ER -