Imperial College London


Faculty of EngineeringDepartment of Chemical Engineering

Professor of Clean Energy Technologies



+44 (0)20 7594 1601c.markides Website




404ACE ExtensionSouth Kensington Campus






BibTex format

author = {Acha, Izquierdo S and Mariaud, A and Shah, N and Markides, C},
doi = {10.1016/},
journal = {Energy},
pages = {578--591},
title = {Optimal Design and Operation of Distributed Low-Carbon Energy Technologies in Commercial Buildings},
url = {},
volume = {142},
year = {2017}

RIS format (EndNote, RefMan)

AB - Commercial buildings are large energy consumers and opportunities exist to improve the way they produce and consume electricity, heating and cooling. If energy system integration is feasible, this can lead to significant reductions in energy consumption and emissions. In this context, this work expands on an existing integrated Technology Selection and Operation (TSO) optimisation model for distributed energy systems (DES). The model considers combined heat and power (CHP) and organic Rankine cycle (ORC) engines, absorption chillers, photovoltaic panels and batteries with the aim of guiding decision makers in making attractive investments that are technically feasible and environmentally sound. A retrofit case study of a UK food distribution centre is presented to showcase the benefits and trade-offs that integrated energy systems present by contrasting outcomes when different technologies are considered. Results show that the preferred investment options select a CHP coupled either to an ORC unit or to an absorption chiller. These solutions provide appealing internal rates of return of 28–30% with paybacks within 3.5–3.7 years, while also decarbonising the building by 95–96% (if green gas is used to power the site). Overall, the TSO model provides valuable insights allowing stakeholders to make well-informed decisions when evaluating complex integrated energy systems.
AU - Acha,Izquierdo S
AU - Mariaud,A
AU - Shah,N
AU - Markides,C
DO - 10.1016/
EP - 591
PY - 2017///
SN - 0360-5442
SP - 578
TI - Optimal Design and Operation of Distributed Low-Carbon Energy Technologies in Commercial Buildings
T2 - Energy
UR -
UR -
VL - 142
ER -