Imperial College London

ProfessorChristosMarkides

Faculty of EngineeringDepartment of Chemical Engineering

Professor of Clean Energy Technologies
 
 
 
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Contact

 

+44 (0)20 7594 1601c.markides Website

 
 
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Location

 

404ACE ExtensionSouth Kensington Campus

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Summary

 

Publications

Publication Type
Year
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318 results found

Gupta A, Markides CN, 2020, Autoignition of an n-heptane jet in a confined turbulent hot coflow of air, Experimental Thermal and Fluid Science, Vol: 119, Pages: 1-23, ISSN: 0894-1777

The autoignition of a continuous, single jet of pure liquid n-heptane injected concentrically and axisymmetrically from a water-cooled circular nozzle into a confined turbulent hot coflow (CTHC) of air at atmospheric pressure has been investigated experimentally at air temperatures up to 1150 K and velocities up to 40 m/s. The aim of this work was to examine the emergence of liquid-fuel autoignition in the presence of flow, mixture and phase inhomogeneities, to which end, the velocity, temperature and fuel-droplet fields inside the CTHC reactor were characterized in a series of dedicated measurement campaigns. Distinct phenomena were identified concerning the emergence of various regimes: no autoignition, random spots, and continuous flame. In the random spots regime, autoignition appeared in the form of well-defined, discrete localized spots occurring randomly within the reactor, similar to observations in a similar apparatus with gaseous fuels (Markides, 2005; Markides and Mastorakos, 2005, 2011; Markides et al., 2007). High-speed optical measurements of these random spots were made from which the autoignition locations/lengths were measured, and then used to infer average autoignition delay, or residence, times from injection based on the bulk air velocity. An increase in the air temperature moved the region of autoigniting spots closer to the injector nozzle, thus decreasing the autoignition length and also decreasing the autoignition delay time. Generally, autoignition moved downstream with increasing bulk air velocity, but the delay times decreased contrary to the aforementioned earlier work with pre-vaporized n-heptane in this geometry. Of interest is the finding that at the highest investigated air velocities, the autoignition length decreased as the air velocity increased, which again deviates from the same earlier work with vaporized n-heptane. Furthermore, higher liquid injection velocities also resulted in increased autoignition lengths and times. The re

Journal article

Olympios AV, Pantaleo AM, Sapin P, Markides CNet al., 2020, On the value of combined heat and power (CHP) systems and heat pumps in centralised and distributed heating systems: Lessons from multi-fidelity modelling approaches, Applied Energy, Vol: 274, Pages: 1-19, ISSN: 0306-2619

This paper presents a multi-scale framework for the design and comparison of centralised and distributed heat generation solutions. An extensive analysis of commercially available products on the UK market is conducted to gather information on the performance and cost of a range of gas-fired combined heat and power (CHP) systems, air-source heat pumps (ASHPs) and ground-source heat pumps (GSHPs). Data-driven models with associated uncertainty bounds are derived from the collected data, which capture cost and performance variations with scale (i.e., size and rating) and operating conditions. In addition, a comprehensive thermoeconomic (thermodynamic and component-costing) heat pump model, validated against manufacturer data, is developed to capture design-related performance and cost variations, thus reducing technology-related model uncertainties. The novelty of this paper lies in the use of multi-fidelity approaches for the comparison of the economic and environmental potential of important heat-generation solutions: (i) centralised gas-fired CHP systems associated with district heating network; (ii) gas-fired CHP systems or GSHPs providing heat to differentiated energy communities; and (iii) small-scale micro-CHP systems, ASHPs or GSHPs, installed at the household level. The pathways are evaluated for the case of the Isle of Dogs district in London, UK. A centralised CHP system appears as the most profitable option, achieving annual savings of £13 M compared to the use of decentralised boilers and a levelised cost of heat equal to 31 £/MWhth. However, if the carbon intensity of the electrical grid continues to reduce at current rates, CHP systems will only provide minimal carbon savings compared to boilers (<6%), with heat pumps achieving significant heat decarbonisation (55–62%). Differentiating between high- and low-performance and cost heat pump designs shows that the former, although 25% more expensive, have significantly lower annualised

Journal article

Song J, Li X, Wang K, Markides CNet al., 2020, Parametric optimisation of a combined supercritical CO2 (S-CO2) cycle and organic Rankine cycle (ORC) system for internal combustion engine (ICE) waste-heat recovery, Energy Conversion and Management, Vol: 218, Pages: 1-15, ISSN: 0196-8904

Supercritical CO2 (S-CO2) power-cycle systems are a promising technology for waste-heat recovery from internal combustion engines (ICEs). However, the effective utilisation of the heat from both the exhaust gases and cooling circuit by a standalone S-CO2 cycle system remains a challenge due to the unmatched thermal load of these heat sources, while a large amount of unexploited heat is directly rejected in the system’s pre-cooler. In this paper, a combined-cycle system for ICE waste-heat recovery is presented that couples an S-CO2 cycle to a bottoming organic Rankine cycle (ORC), which recovers heat rejected from the S-CO2 cycle system, as well as thermal energy available from the jacket-water and exhaust-gas streams that have not been utilised by the S-CO2 cycle system. Parametric optimisation is implemented to determine operating conditions for both cycles from thermodynamic and economic perspectives. With a baseline case using a standalone S-CO2 cycle system for an ICE with a rated power output of 1170 kW, our investigation reveals that the combined-cycle system can deliver a maximum net power output of 215 kW at a minimum specific investment cost (SIC) of 4670 $/kW, which are 58% and 4% higher than those of the standalone S-CO2 cycle system, respectively. A range of ICEs of different sizes are also considered, with significant performance improvements indicating a promising potential of exploiting such combined-cycle systems. This work motivates the pursuit of further performance improvements to waste-heat recovery systems from ICEs and other similar applications.

Journal article

Gupta A, Qadri UA, Koutita K, Zadrazil I, Hussain T, Balachandran R, Markides CNet al., 2020, Experimental investigation of the flow in a micro-channelled combustor and its relation to flame behaviour, Experimental Thermal and Fluid Science, Vol: 116, ISSN: 0894-1777

The dynamic behaviour of periodic laminar premixed acetylene-air flames in a micro-channelled combustor consisting of an array of five planar rectangular channels was found to be influenced by the equiv- alence ratio and flow-rate of the continuously and steadily injected premixed fuel charge. Three distinct flame stages were observed — planar, chaotic and trident, which were strongly correlated to the flow dynamics. The effect of the flow on the flame behaviour was investigated by characterizing the cold flow in a scaled-up model channel with the same aspect ratio as the combustion micro-channel. Direct flow visualization using flow tracers and quantitative velocity-field data from PIV measurements showed both an increase in the bottom recircula- tion zone reattachment length (along the floor of the channel) and a decrease in the lateral recirculation zone reattachment length (along the sides of the channel) with increasing flow Reynolds number. Comparison of the flow and flame transition locations downstream of the injection point suggested that the location of trident flame onset coincides with the flow bottom recirculation zone reattachment length. The planar-chaotic flame transition location was observed to be influenced by the homogeneity of the mixture downstream of the injection plane.

Journal article

Olympios AV, Le Brun N, Acha S, Shah N, Markides CNet al., 2020, Stochastic real-time operation control of a combined heat and power (CHP) system under uncertainty, Energy Conversion and Management, Vol: 216, Pages: 1-17, ISSN: 0196-8904

In this paper we present an effort to design and apply a multi-objective real-time operation controller to a combined heat and power (CHP) system, while considering explicitly the risk-return trade-offs arising from the uncertainty in the price of exported electricity. Although extensive research has been performed on theoretically optimizing the design, sizing and operation of CHP systems, less effort has been devoted to an understanding of the practical challenges and the effects of uncertainty in implementing advanced algorithms in real-world applications. In this work, a two-stage control architecture is proposed which applies an optimization framework to a real CHP operation application involving intelligent communication between two controllers to monitor and control the engine continuously. Since deterministic approaches that involve no measure of uncertainty provide limited insight to decision-makers, the methodology then proceeds to develop a stochastic optimization technique which considers risk within the optimization problem. The uncertainty in the forecasted electricity price is quantified by using the forecasting model’s residuals to generate prediction intervals around each forecasted electricity price. The novelty of the proposed tool lies in the use of these prediction intervals to formulate a bi-objective function that represents a compromise between maximizing the expected savings and minimizing the associated risk, while satisfying specified environmental objectives. This allows decision-makers to operate CHP systems according to the risk they are willing to take. The actual operation costs during a 40–day trial period resulting from the installation of the dynamic controller on an existing CHP engine that provides electricity and heat to a supermarket are presented. Results demonstrate that the forecasted electricity price almost always falls within the developed prediction intervals, achieving savings of 23% on energy costs against

Journal article

Olympios A, Hoisenpoori P, Mersch M, Pantaleo A, Simpson M, Sapin P, Mac Dowell N, Markides Cet al., 2020, Optimal design of low-temperature heat-pumping technologies and implications to the whole energy system, The 33rd International Conference on Efficiency, Cost, Optimization, Simulation and Environmental Impact of Energy Systems.

This paper presents a methodology for identifying optimal designs for air-source heat pumps suitable for domestic heating applications from the whole-energy system perspective, accounting explicitly for a trade-off between cost and efficiency, as well as for the influence of the outside air temperature during off-design operation. The work combines dedicated brazed-plate and plate-fin heat-exchanger models with compressor efficiency maps, as well as equipment costing techniques, in order to develop a comprehensive technoeconomic model of a low-temperature air-source heat pump with a single-stage-compressor, based on the vapour-compression cycle. The cost and performance predictions are validated against manufacturer data and a non-linear thermodynamic optimisation model is developed to obtain optimal component sizes for a set of competing working fluids and design conditions. The cost and off-design performance of different configurations are integrated into a whole-energy system capacity-expansion and unit-dispatch model of the UK power and heat system. The aim is to assess the system value of proposed designs, as well as the implications of their deployment on the power generation mix and total transition cost of electrifying domestic heat in the UK as a pathway towards meeting a national net-zero emission target by 2050. Refrigerant R152a appears to have the best design and off-design performance, especially compared to the commonly used R410a. The size of the heat exchangers has a major effect on heat pump performance and cost. From a wholesystem perspective, high-performance heat pumps enable a ~20 GW (~10%) reduction in the required installed power generation capacity compared to smaller-heat-exchanger, low-performance heat pumps, which in turn requires lower and more realistic power-grid expansion rates. However, it is shown that the improved performance as a result of larger heat exchangers does not compensate overall for the increased technology cost, with

Conference paper

Schuster S, Markides CN, White AJ, 2020, Design and off-design optimisation of an organic Rankine cycle (ORC) system with an integrated radial turbine model, Applied Thermal Engineering, Vol: 174, ISSN: 1359-4311

This paper investigates the design and thermodynamic optimisation of both sub- and transcritical organic Rankine cycle (ORC) power systems featuring radial turbines via performance calculations using mean-line models. The emphasis is on rapid performance predictions for a given turbine geometry, as well as geometric optimisation for a given heat source. From three specified quantities, which are the turbine inlet temperature, inlet pressure and mass flow rate, the other flow properties (e.g., outlet pressure and temperature) are computed, together with derived quantities which are required for cycle- or system-level assessments, such as the isentropic efficiency of the turbine. Experimental investigations from the open literature suitable for validation purposes are summarised and analysed with respect to their strengths and weaknesses. Similar computational fluid dynamic (CFD) simulations are also used to complement the available experimental data. The main contributions of this paper are that it provides a comprehensive overview of radial turbine performance modelling, and that it proposes a detailed framework that can be used for the improved development of efficient thermodynamic power systems based on a unified mean-line model that is validated against experimental data and supported by CFD results. Specifically, predictions from the mean-line model show good accuracy over a wide range of operating conditions for different turbine designs and fluids with compressibility factors from 0.6 - 1.0. Finally, in order to demonstrate its efficacy, the integrated radial turbine and ORC system design framework is used in a case study of a nominally 400-kW power system with propane as the working fluid in low-grade waste-heat application, where the turbine inlet temperature is fixed at 150 ° C and the condenser temperature is fixed at 15 ° C. The novelty of this work arises from the optimisation of the turbine nozzle vane position at off-design conditions. This fe

Journal article

Acha Izquierdo S, Le Brun N, Damaskou M, Fubara TC, Mulgundmath V, Markides C, Shah Net al., Fuel cells as combined heat and power systems in commercial buildings: A case study in the food-retail sector, Energy, ISSN: 0360-5442

Journal article

Al Kindi A, Markides C, Pantaleo A, Wang Ket al., Optimal system configuration and operation strategies of flexible hybrid nuclear-solar power plants, The 33rd International Conference on Efficiency, Cost, Optimization, Simulation and Environmental Impact of Energy Systems

Nuclear power plants are commonly used for baseload power supply due to their high reliability, low variable costs, as well as relatively low thermal efficiencies and limited load-following capabilities; especially, in the case of light water reactors. At the same time, concentrating solar power (CSP) technology is gaining attention, but is still considered an intermittent source of power with a limited availability factor. In an effort to propose a very different performance characteristic for both technologies, a hybrid power system combining nuclear and CSP plants and integrated with a thermal energy storage system is considered in this paper. The integration of the technologies is achieved by adding an indirect solar superheater and a solar reheater to a small modular nuclear reactor (NuScale). The work includes modelling of the integrated hybrid system, thermodynamic performance analysis and operational optimization aimed at maximizing the profitability of such a hybrid power plant in Oman. The results show that the hybrid system has the potential to deliver more efficient and flexible power (operating between 55% and 100% of nominal load) with the nuclear reactor operated continuously at its full rated power. The hybridization concept can potentially produce a competitive levelized cost of electricity, especially with the integration of thermal energy storage. The study concludes that the installation of such a system in Oman is not yet economically viable unless electricity tariffs increase by 70% to UK levels.

Conference paper

Zadrazil I, Corzo C, Voulgaropoulos V, Markides C, Xu XYet al., 2020, A combined experimental and computational study of the flow characteristics in a Type B aortic dissection: Effect of primary and secondary tear size, Chemical Engineering Research and Design, ISSN: 0263-8762

Aortic dissection is related to the separation of the tunica intima from the aortic wall, which can cause blood to flow through the newly formed lumen, thereby further damaging the torn vessel. This type of pathology is the most common catastrophic event that affects the aorta and is associated with complications such as malperfusion. In this work, an idealised, simplified geometric model of Type B aortic dissection is investigated experimentally using particle image velocimetry (PIV) and numerically using computational fluid dynamic (CFD) simulations. The flow characteristics through the true and false lumina are investigated parametrically over a range of tear sizes. Specifically, four different tear sizes and size ratios are considered, each representing a different dissection case or stage, and the experimental and numerical results of the flow-rate profiles through the two lumina in each case, along with the phase-averaged velocity vector maps at mid-acceleration, mid-deceleration, relaminarisation and peak systole, and their corresponding velocity profiles are compared. The experimental and numerical results are in good qualitative as well as quantitative agreement. The flow characteristics found here provide insight into the importance of the re-entry tear. We observe that an increase in the re-entry tear size increases considerably the flow rate in the false lumen, decreases significantly the wall shear stress (WSS) and decreases the pressure difference between the false and the true lumen. On the contrary, an increase in the entry tear, increases the flow rate through the false lumen, increases slightly the WSS and increases the pressure difference between the false and the true lumen. These are crucial findings that can help interpret medical diagnosis and accelerate prevention and treatment, especially in high-risk patients.

Journal article

Voulgaropoulos V, Brun NL, Charogiannis A, Markides CNet al., 2020, Transient freezing of water between two parallel plates: A combined experimental and modelling study, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, Vol: 153, Pages: 1-13, ISSN: 0017-9310

The transient freezing/solidification of water subjected to shear flow inside a rectangular cell is investigated under laminar flow conditions. A flow of freezing water is established inside the cell by cooling the top surface of the conductive, copper plate that forms the cell’s top side by contact with boiling liquid nitrogen (C). This heat removal results in an ice layer that forms and grows gradually on the ceiling of the cell, which is subjected to shear from the flow below it inside the channel. The spatiotemporal characteristics of the ice layer are recorded with optical, laser-based measurements and are compared with predictions from a transient freezing model that is developed for this purpose. Furthermore, tracer particles are introduced into the flow to aid the tracking of the ice layer and to allow for measurements based on particle image velocimetry (PIV) of the velocity field inside the flow during the ice-layer evolution. After an initial time-lag/‘buffer’ period (of s) that depends on the flow conditions, a quasi-linear growth of the ice layer is observed; at longer times the thickness of the ice layer reaches a maximum and then decreases again. The increase in the thickness, and hence thermal resistance, of the ice layer is counter-balanced by a decrease in the temperature of the copper plate and, therefore, a decrease in the temperature difference across the ice layer. Furthermore, it is found that the flow is associated with symmetric velocity profiles, recorded along the vertical spanwise length between the ice layer at the top of the cell and the floor of the cell, while an increase of the velocity maxima is recorded as the ice layer gradually thickens and, consequently, the flow cross-section is reduced. A constant heat flux of 19.7 × 103 W m is measured on the top side of the channel, while the heat transfer coefficient on the top side of the channel is found to be in the range of 90–110 W m K depending on the wa

Journal article

Gangar N, Macchietto S, Markides C, 2020, Recovery and utilization of low-grade waste heat in the oil-refining industry using heat engines and heat pumps: an international technoeconomic comparison, Energies, Vol: 13, Pages: 2560-2560, ISSN: 1996-1073

We assess the technoeconomic feasibility of onsite electricity and steam generation from recovered low-grade thermal energy in oil refineries using organic Rankine cycle (ORC) engines and mechanical vapour compression (MVC) heat pumps in various countries. The efficiencies of 34 ORC and 20 MVC current commercial systems are regressed against modified theoretical models. The resulting theoretical relations predict the thermal efficiency of commercial ORC engines within 4–5% and the coefficient of performance (COP) of commercial MVC heat pumps within 10–15%, on average. Using these models, the economic viability of ORC engines and MVC heat pumps is then assessed for 19 refinery streams as a function of heat source and sink temperatures, and the available stream thermal energy, for gas and electricity prices in selected countries. Results show that: (i) conversion to electrical power with ORC engines is, in general, economically feasible for heat-source temperatures >70 ◦C, however with high sensitivity to energy prices; and (ii) steam generation in MVC heat pumps, even more sensitive to energy prices, is in some cases not economical under any conditions—it is only viable with high gas/low electricity prices, for large heat sources (>2 MW) and higher temperatures (>140 ◦C). In countries and conditions with positive economics, payback periods down to two years are found for both technologies.

Journal article

Georgios M, Emilio Jose S, Acha Izquierdo S, Shah N, Markides Cet al., 2020, CO2 refrigeration system heat recovery and thermal storage modelling for space heating provision in supermarkets: An integrated approach, Applied Energy, Vol: 264, ISSN: 0306-2619

The large amount of recoverable heat from CO2 refrigeration systems has led UK food retailers to examine the prospect of using refrigeration integrated heating and cooling systems to provide both the space heating and cooling to food cabinets in supermarkets. This study assesses the performance of a refrigeration integrated heating and cooling system installation with thermal storage in a UK supermarket. This is achieved by developing a thermal storage model and integrating it into a pre-existing CO2 booster refrigeration model. Five scenarios involving different configurations and operation strategies are assessed to understand the techo-economic implications. The results indicate that the integrated heating and cooling system with thermal storage has the potential to reduce energy consumption by 17–18% and GHG emissions by 12–13% compared to conventional systems using a gas boiler for space heating. These reductions are achieved despite a marginal increase of 2–3% in annual operating costs. The maximum amount of heat that can be stored and utilised is constrained by the refrigeration system compressor capacity. These findings suggest that refrigeration integrated heating and cooling systems with thermal storage are a viable heating and cooling strategy that can significantly reduce the environmental footprint of supermarket space heating provision and under the adequate circumstances can forsake the use of conventional fossil-fuel (natural gas) boiler systems in food-retail buildings.

Journal article

Peng J, Yan J, Zhai Z, Markides CN, Lee ES, Eicker U, Zhao X, Kuhn TE, Sengupta M, Taylor RAet al., 2020, Solar energy integration in buildings, APPLIED ENERGY, Vol: 264, ISSN: 0306-2619

Journal article

Gasparrini C, Rana D-S, Le Brun N, Horlait D, Markides C, Farnan I, Lee Wet al., 2020, On the stoichiometry of zirconium carbide, Scientific Reports, Vol: 10, ISSN: 2045-2322

The dependencies of the enhanced thermomechanical properties of zirconium carbide (ZrCx) with sample purity and stoichiometry are still not understood due to discrepancies in the literature. Multiple researchers have recently reported a linear relation between the carbon to zirconium atomic ratio (C/Zr) and the lattice parameter, in contrast with a more established relationship that suggests that the lattice parameter value attains a maximum value at a C/Zr ~ 0.83. In this study, the relationship between C/Zr atomic ratio and the lattice parameter is critically assessed: it is found that recent studies reporting the thermophysical properties of ZrCx have unintentionally produced and characterised samples containing zirconium oxycarbide. To avoid such erroneous characterization of ZrCx thermophysical properties in the future, we propose a method for the accurate measurement of the stoichiometry of ZrCx using three independent experimental techniques, namely: elemental analysis, thermogravimetric analysis and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Although a large scatter in the results (ΔC/Zr = 0.07) from these different techniques was found when used independently, when combining the techniques together consistent values of x in ZrCx were obtained.

Journal article

Nemati H, Moghimi MA, Sapin P, Markides CNet al., 2020, Shape optimisation of air-cooled finned-tube heat exchangers, International Journal of Thermal Sciences, Vol: 150, Pages: 1-14, ISSN: 1290-0729

The use of annular fins in air-cooled heat exchangers is a well-known solution, commonly used in air-conditioning and heat-recovery systems, for enhancing the air-side heat transfer. Although associated with additional material and manufacturing costs, custom-designed finned-tube heat exchangers can be cost-effective. In this article, the shape of the annular fins in a multi-row air heat exchanger is optimised in order to enhance performance without incurring a manufacturing cost penalty. The air-side heat transfer, pressure drop and entropy generation in a regular, four-row heat exchanger are predicted using a steady-state turbulent CFD model and validated against experimental data. The validated simulation tool is then used to perform model-based optimisation of the fin shapes. The originality of the proposed approach lies in optimising the shape of each fin row individually, resulting in a non-homogenous custom bundle of tubes. Evidence of this local-optimisation potential is first provided by a short preliminary study, followed by four distinct optimisation studies (with four distinct objective functions), aimed at addressing the major problems faced by designers. Response-surface methods – namely, NLPQL for single-objective and MOGA for multi-objective optimisations – are used to determine the optimum configuration for each optimisation strategy. It is shown that elliptical annular-shaped fins minimise the pressure drop and entropy generation, while circular-shaped fins at the entrance region (i.e., first row) can be employed to maximise heat transfer. The results also show that, for the scenario in which the total heat transfer rate is maximised and the pressure drop minimised, the pressure drop is reduced by up to 31%, the fin weight is reduced up to 23%, with as little as a 14% decrease in the total air-side heat transfer, relative to the case in which all the fins across the tube bundle are circular. Moreover, in all optimised cases, the entropy

Journal article

Romanos P, Voumvoulakis E, Markides CN, Hatziargyriou Net al., 2020, Thermal energy storage contribution to the economic dispatch of island power systems, CSEE Journal of Power and Energy Systems, Vol: 6, Pages: 100-110, ISSN: 2096-0042

In this paper the provision of flexible generation is investigated by extracting steam from Rankine-cycle power stations during off-peak demand in order to charge thermal tanks that contain suitable phase-change materials (PCMs); at a later time when this is required and/or is economically effective, these thermal energy storage (TES) tanks can act as the heat sources of secondary thermal power plants in order to generate power, for example as evaporators of, e.g., organic Rankine cycle (ORC) plants that are suitable for power generation at reduced temperatures and smaller scales. This type of solution offers greater flexibility than TES-only technologies that store thermal energy and release it back to the base power station, since it allows both derating but also over-generation compared to the base power-station capacity. The solution is applied in a case study of a 50-MW rated oil-fired power station unit at the autonomous system of Crete. The optimal operation of the TES system is investigated, by solving a modified Unit Commitment – Economic Dispatch optimization problem, which includes the TES operating constraints. The results indicate that for most of the scenarios the discounted payback period is lower than 12 years, while in few cases the payback period is 5 years.

Journal article

Hart MBP, Olympios A, Le Brun N, Shah N, Markides C, Acha Izquierdo Set al., Pre-feasibility modelling and market potential analysis of a cloud-based CHP optimiser, 2020 ASHRAE Annual Conference (Virtual), Publisher: ASHRAE

Smart control system technologies for combined heat and power (CHP) units arenot previously reported in literature, and have potential to generate significant savings. Only minimal capital investment is required in infrastructure and software development. A live cloud-based solution has therefore been developed,and installed in a real UK supermarket store, to optimise CHP output based upon predicted price forecasts,and live electricity and head demand data. This has allowed validation of the optimiser price forecasts, and predicted cost savings, anda model of the optimiser has therefore been applied to three case study sites. The model itself has also been validated against the installed optimiser data.The pre-feasibility analysis undertaken indicates cost savings between 2% and 12%.CHP units sized within the feasible operating range, above a part loadlevelof 0.65, generate the greatest percentage savings. This is because the optimiser has the greatest flexibility to control the CHP output. However, larger units, even though less nearly optimal,may actually generate greater overall savings and would therefore be targeted for earlier optimiser implementation. Installation costs are not expected to vary greatly from site-to-site. Some stores, though,show no material improvement over the existing control systems, demonstrating the valueof the pre-feasibility analysis using the model.Though waste heat increases significantly with all strategies, the propensity to sell this heat within the UK is likely to improvein the near future.

Conference paper

Sarabia EJ, Acha Izquierdo S, Le Brun N, Soto V, Jose Manuel P, Shah N, Markides Cet al., Modelling of a CO2 refrigerant booster system for waste heat recovery applications in retail for space heating provision, 2020 ASHRAE Annual Conference (Virtual), Publisher: ASHRAE

This paper compares and quantifies the energy, environmental and economic benefits of various control strategies for recovering heat from a supermarket’s CO2 booster refrigeration system. There covered heat is used for space heating, with the goal of displacing natural gas fueled boilers. A theoretical model with thermal storage is presentedbased on a previous validated model from an existing refrigeration system in a food-retail building located in the UK. Sixheat recovery strategies are analysed by modifying thermal storage volumes and pressure levels in the gas-cooler/condenser. The model shows that a reduction of 30-40% in natural-gasc onsumption is feasible by the installation of a de-superheater and without any advanced operating strategy, and 40-50% by using a thermal storage tank. However, the CO2 system can fully supply the entire space-heating requirement by adopting alternative control strategies, albeit by penalising the coefficient of performance (COP) of the compressor. Results show that the best energy strategy can reduce total consumption by 35%, while the best economic strategy can reduce costs by 11%. Findings from this work suggest that heat recovery systems can bring substantial benefits to improve the overall efficiency of energy-intensive buildings,although trade-offs need to be carefully considered and further analysed before embarking on such initiatives.

Conference paper

Emadi MA, Chitgar N, Oyewunmi O, Markides Cet al., 2020, Working-fluid selection and thermoeconomic optimisation of a combined cycle cogeneration dual-loop organic Rankine cycle (ORC) system for solid-oxide fuel cell (SOFC) waste heat recovery, Applied Energy, Vol: 261, Pages: 1-20, ISSN: 0306-2619

A novel combined-cycle system is proposed for the cogeneration ofelectricityand cooling, in which a dual-loop organic Rankine cycle (ORC)engine is used for waste-heat recovery from a solidoxide fuel cellsystem equipped witha gas turbine(SOFC-GT). Electricity is generated by the SOFC, its associated gas turbine, the two ORC turbines and a liquefied natural gas (LNG)turbine; the LNGsupply tothe fuel cell is also used as the heat sink to the ORC enginesandas a cooling medium for domestic applications. The performance of the system with 20 different combinationsof ORC working fluids isinvestigated by multi-objective optimisationof its capitalcostrateand exergy efficiency, using an integrationof a genetic algorithm and a neural network. The combination of R601(top cycle) and Ethane(bottom cycle)isproposed for the dual-loop ORC system, due to the satisfaction of the optimisationgoals, i.e., an optimal trade-off between efficiency and cost.With theseworking fluids, the overall system achieves an exergy efficiency of51.6%, a total electrical powergeneration of1040kW, with the ORC waste-heat recovery system supplying 20.7% of thispower,and a cooling capacityof 567kW. In addition, an economic analysisof theproposed SOFC-GT-ORCsystemshowsthat the cost of production of an electrical unit amounts to$33.2perMWh, which is 12.9%and 73.9%lowerthan the levelized cost of electricityofseparateSOFC-GT and SOFC systems,respectively. Exergy flow diagrams are usedto determine the flow rate of the exergy andthe value of exergy destructionin each component. In the waste heat recovery system,exergy destruction mainly occurs within theheat exchangers, the highestof which isin the LNG cooling unit followedby the LNG vaporiser and the evaporator ofthe bottom-cycleORCsystem, highlightingthe importance of these components’designin maximising the performance of the overall system.

Journal article

Pantaleo AM, Camporeale S, Sorrentino A, Miliozzi A, Shah N, Markides Cet al., 2020, Hybrid solar-biomass combined Brayton/organic Rankine-cycle plants integrated with thermal storage: Techno-economic feasibility in select Mediterranean areas, Renewable Energy, Vol: 147, Pages: 2913-2931, ISSN: 1879-0682

This paper presents a thermodynamic analysis and techno-economic assessment of a novel hybrid solar-biomass power-generation system configuration composed of an externally fired gas-turbine (EFGT) fuelled by biomass (wood chips) and a bottoming organic Rankine cycle (ORC) plant. The main novelty is related to the heat recovery from the exhaust gases of the EFGT via thermal energy storage (TES), and integration of heat from a parabolic-trough collectors (PTCs) field with molten salts as a heat-transfer fluid (HTF). The presence of a TES between the topping and bottoming cycles facilitates the flexible operation of the system, allows the system to compensate for solar energy input fluctuations, and increases capacity factor and dispatchability. A TES with two molten salt tanks (one cold at 200 °C and one hot at 370 °C) is chosen. The selected bottoming ORC is a superheated recuperative cycle suitable for heat conversion in the operating temperature range of the TES. The whole system is modelled by means of a Python-based software code, and three locations in the Mediterranean area are assumed in order to perform energy-yield analyses: Marseille in France, Priolo Gargallo in Italy and Rabat in Morocco. In each case, the thermal storage that minimizes the levelized cost of energy (LCE) is selected on the basis of the estimated solar radiation and CSP size. The results of the thermodynamic simulations, capital and operational costs assessments and subsidies (feed-in tariffs for biomass and solar electricity available in the Italian framework), allow estimating the global energy conversion efficiency and the investment profitability in the three locations. Sensitivity analyses of the biomass costs, size of PTCs, feed-in tariff and share of cogenerated heat delivered to the load are also performed. The results show that the high investment costs of the CSP section in the proposed size range and hybridization configuration allow investment profitability only in the

Journal article

Georgiou S, Aunedi M, Strbac G, Markides CNet al., 2020, On the value of liquid-air and Pumped-Thermal Electricity Storage systems in low-carbon electricity systems, Energy, Vol: 193, ISSN: 0360-5442

We consider two medium-to-large scale thermomechanical electricity storage technologies currently under development, namely ‘Liquid-Air Energy Storage’ (LAES) and ‘Pumped-Thermal Electricity Storage’ (PTES). Consistent thermodynamic models and costing methods based on a unified methodology for the two systems from previous work are presented and used with the objective of integrating the characteristics of the technologies into a whole-electricity system assessment model and assessing their system-level value in various scenarios for system decarbonization. It is found that the value of storage depends on the cumulative installed capacity of storage in the system, with storage technologies providing greater marginal benefits at low penetrations. The system value of PTES was found to be slightly higher than that of LAES, driven by a higher storage duration and efficiency, although these results must be seen in light of the uncertainty in the (as yet, not demonstrated) performance of key PTES components, namely the reciprocating-piston compressors and expanders. At the same time, PTES was also found to have a higher power capital cost. The results indicate that the complexity of the decarbonization challenge makes it difficult to identify clearly a ‘best’ technology and suggest that the uptake of either technology can provide significant system-level benefits.

Journal article

Qiu L, Zhu N, Feng Y, Michaelides E, Żyła G, Jing D, Zhang X, Pamela N, Markides C, Mahian Oet al., 2020, A review of recent advances in thermophysical properties at the nanoscale: from solid state to colloids, Physics Reports, Vol: 843, Pages: 1-81, ISSN: 0370-1573

Nanomaterials possess superior optical, electrical, magnetic, mechanical, and thermal properties, which have made them suitable for a multitude of applications. The present review paper deals with recent advances in the measurement and modeling of thermophysical properties at the nanoscale (from the solid state to colloids). For this purpose, first, various techniques for the measurement of the solid state properties, including thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity, and specific heat capacity, are introduced. The main factors that affect the solid state properties are grain size, grain boundaries, surface interactions, doping, and temperature, which are discussed in detail. After that, methods for the measurement and modeling of thermophysical properties of colloids (nanofluids), including thermal conductivity, dynamic viscosity, specific heat capacity, and density, are presented. The main parameters affecting these properties, such as size, shape, and concentration of nanoparticles, aggregation, and sonication time are studied. Furthermore, the properties of not only simple nanofluids but also hybrid nanofluids (which are composed of more than one type of nanoparticles) are investigated. Finally, the main research gaps and challenges are listed.

Journal article

Song J, Loo P, Teo J, Markides CNet al., 2020, Thermo-Economic Optimization of Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) Systems for Geothermal Power Generation: A Comparative Study of System Configurations, FRONTIERS IN ENERGY RESEARCH, Vol: 8, ISSN: 2296-598X

The suitability of organic Rankine cycle (ORC) technology for the conversion of low- and medium-grade heat sources to useful power has established this as a promising option in geothermal power-generation applications. Despite extensive research in this field, most of which has focused on parametric analyses and thermodynamic performance evaluations, there is still a lack of understanding concerning the comparative performance of different plant configurations from both thermodynamic and economic perspectives. This study seeks to investigate the thermo-economic performance of subcritical and transcritical geothermal ORC power-plants, while considering a range of working fluids and the use of superheating and/or recuperation. A specific case study based on the exploitation of a medium-temperature geothermal heat source (180 °C, 40 kg/s) is conducted. Multi-objective optimization is performed to maximize the power/exergy efficiency (i.e., resource use) and to minimize the payback period. Different optimized configurations are compared and the influence on system performance of superheating, recuperation, and subcritical vs. transcritical operation are evaluated. The results reveal that superheating is preferable for working fluids with low critical temperatures, but hinders the performance of fluids whose critical temperature is higher. Recuperation is not attractive under most operating conditions, since the thermodynamic performance improvement and cooling water saving cannot compensate the cost associated with the installation of the additional heat exchanger. Finally, transcritical ORC systems are favored thanks to the better thermal match between the heat source and the working fluid in these configurations. A more generalized geothermal heat source is then considered to explore the optimal configuration over a range of heat sources, which indicates that non-recuperated transcritical-cycle systems with working fluids whose critical temperature is close to the

Journal article

Oyewunmi O, Lozano Santamaria F, Markides C, Macchietto Set al., Modelling two-phase flows in renewable power generation systems, 5th Thermal and Fluids Engineering Conference (TFEC)

Conference paper

Song J, Li X, Ren X, Tian H, Shu G, Gu C, Markides CNet al., 2020, Thermodynamic and economic investigations of transcritical CO2-cycle systems with integrated radial-inflow turbine performance predictions, Applied Thermal Engineering, Vol: 165, ISSN: 1359-4311

Transcritical CO2 (TCO2) cycle systems have emerged as a promising power-generation technology in certain applications. In conventional TCO2-cycle system analyses reported in the literature, the turbine efficiency, which strongly determines the overall system performance, is generally assumed to be constant. This may lead to suboptimal designs and optimization results. In order to improve the accuracy and reliability of such system analyses and offer insight into how knowledge of these systems from earlier analyses can be interpreted, this paper presents a comprehensive model that couples TCO2-cycle calculations with preliminary turbine design based on the mean-line method. Turbine design parameters are optimized simultaneously to achieve the highest turbine efficiency, which replaces the constant turbine efficiency used in cycle calculations. A case study of heat recovery from an internal combustion engine (ICE) using a TCO2-cycle system with a radial-inflow turbine is then considered, with results revealing that the turbine efficiency is influenced by the system’s operating conditions, which in turn has a significant effect on system performance in both thermodynamic and economic terms. A more generalized heat source is then considered to explore more broadly the role of the turbine in determining TCO2-cycle power-system performance. The more detailed turbine-design modelling approach allows errors of the order of up to 10-20% in various predictions to be avoided for steady-state calculations, and potentially of an even greater magnitude at off-design operation. The model allows quick preliminary designs of radial-inflow turbines and reasonable turbine performance predictions under various operating conditions, and can be a useful tool for more accurate and reliable thermo-economic studies of TCO2-cycle systems.

Journal article

Kadivar MR, Moghimi MA, Sapin P, Markides CNet al., 2019, Annulus eccentricity optimisation of a phase-change material (PCM) horizontal double-pipe thermal energy store, Journal of Energy Storage, Vol: 26, ISSN: 2352-152X

The application of phase-change materials (PCMs) has received significant interest for use in thermal energy storage (TES) systems that can adjust the mismatch between the energy availability and demand. In the building sector, for example, PCMs can be used to reduce air-conditioning energy consumption by increasing the thermal capacity of the walls. However, as promising this technology may be, the poor thermal conductivity of PCMs has acted as a barrier to its commercialization, with many heat-transfer enhancement solutions proposed in the literature, such as microencapsulation or metal foam inserts, being either too costly and/or complex. The present study focuses on a low-cost and highly practical solution, in which natural-convective heat transfer is enhanced by placing the PCM in an eccentric annulus within a horizontal double-pipe TES heat exchanger. This paper presents an annulus-eccentricity optimisation study, whereby the optimal radial and tangential eccentricities are determined to minimize the charging time of a PCM thermal energy store. The storage performance of several geometrical configurations is predicted using a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model based on the enthalpy-porosity formulation. The optimal geometrical configuration is then determined with response surface methods. The horizontal double-pipe heat exchanger studied considered here is an annulus filled with N-eicosane as the PCM for initial studies. In presence of N-eicosane, for the concentric configuration (which is the baseline case), the charging is completed at Fo = 0.64, while the charging of optimum eccentric geometries with the quickest and slowest charging is completed at Fo = 0.09 and Fo = 2.31, respectively. In addition, an investigation on the discharging performance of the studied configurations with N-eicosane shows the quickest discharge occurs with the concentric annulus case at Fo = 0.99, while the discharge time of the proposed optimum annuli is about three times

Journal article

Herrando M, Pantaleo AM, Wang K, Markides CNet al., 2019, Solar combined cooling, heating and power systems based on hybrid PVT, PV or solar-thermal collectors for building applications, Renewable Energy, Vol: 143, Pages: 637-647, ISSN: 0960-1481

A modelling methodology is developed and used to investigate the technoeconomic performance of solar combined cooling, heating and power (S-CCHP) systems based on hybrid PVT collectors. The building energy demands are inputs to a transient system model, which couples PVT solar-collectors via thermal-store to commercial absorption chillers. The real energy demands of the University Campus of Bari, investment costs, relevant electricity and gas prices are used to estimate payback-times. The results are compared to: evacuated tube collectors (ETCs) for heating and cooling provision; and a PV-system for electricity provision. A 1.68-MWp S-CCHP system can cover 20.9%, 55.1% and 16.3% of the space-heating, cooling and electrical demands of the Campus, respectively, with roof-space availability being a major limiting factor. The payback-time is 16.7 years, 2.7-times higher than that of a PV-system. The lack of electricity generation by the ETC-based system limits its profitability, and leads to 2.3-times longer payback-time. The environmental benefits arising from the system’s operation are evaluated. The S-CCHP system can displace 911 tonsCO2/year (16% and 1.4× times more than the PV-system and the ETC-based system, respectively). The influence of utility prices on the systems’ economics is analysed. It is found that the sensitivity to these prices is significant.

Journal article

Romanos P, Pantaleo A, Markides C, Energy management and enhanced flexibility of power stations via thermal energy storage and secondary power cycles, 11th International Conference on Applied Energy

The operation of power plants must meet a series of requirements in order to enable the increasing penetration of intermittent renewable energy and the consequent intensifying demand for flexible generation. It is proposed here that during off-peak demand, steam can be extracted from Rankine-cycle power stations for the charging of thermal storage tanks that contain suitable phase-change materials (PCMs); during peak demand time, these thermal energy storage (TES) tanks can act as the heat sources of secondary thermal power plants in order to generate power, for example as evaporators of organic Rankine cycle (ORC) plants that are suitable for power generation at reduced temperatures and smaller scales. This type of solution offers greater flexibility than TES-only solutions that store thermal energy and then release this back to the base power station, in that it allows both derating andover-generation compared to the base power-station. The approach is here applied to a case study of a 670-MW rated nuclear power station, since nuclear power stations are generally suitable for baseload generation and the proposed system configuration could increase the operational flexibility of such plants.

Conference paper

Russell AW, Kahouadji L, Mirpuri K, Quarmby A, Piccione PM, Matar OK, Luckham PF, Markides CNet al., 2019, Mixing viscoplastic fluids in stirred vessels over multiple scales: An experimental and CFD approach, Chemical Engineering Science, Vol: 208, ISSN: 1873-4405

Dye visualisation techniques and CFD are used to characterise the flow of viscoplastic CarbopolTM solutions in stirred vessel systems over multiple scales. Centrally-mounted, geometrically-similar Rushton turbine (RT) impellers are used to agitate various Carbopol 980 (C980) fluids. The dimensionless cavern diameters, Dc/D, are scaled against a combination of dimensionless parameters: Rem-0.3Rey0.6n-0.1ks-1, where Rem, Rey, n and ks are the modified power-law Reynolds number, yield stress Reynolds number, flow behaviour index and impeller geometry constant, respectively. Excellent collapse of the data is demonstrated for the fluids and flows investigated. Additional data are collected using a pitched-blade turbine (PBT) with cavern size similarity being shown between the RT and PBT datasets. These results are important in the context of scale-up/scale-down mixing processes in stirred vessels containing complex fluids and can be used to show that flow similarity can be achieved in these systems if the processes are scaled appropriately.

Journal article

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