332 results found
Denbow C, Le Brun N, Dowell NM, et al., 2020, The potential impact of Molten Salt Reactors on the UK electricity grid, Journal of Cleaner Production, Vol: 276, Pages: 1-18, ISSN: 0959-6526
The UK electricity grid is expected to supply a growing electricity demand and also to cope with electricity generation variability as the country pursues a low-carbon future. Molten Salt Reactors (MSRs) could offer a solution to meet this demand thanks to their estimated low capital costs, low operational risk, and promise of reliably dispatchable low-carbon electricity. In the published literature, there is little emphasis placed on estimating or modelling the future impact of MSRs on electricity grids. Previous modelling efforts were limited to quantifying the value of renewable energy sources, energy storage and carbon capture technologies. To date, no study has assessed or modelled MSRs as a competing power generation source for meeting decarbonization targets. Given this gap, the main objective of this paper is to explore the cost benefits for policy makers, consumers, and investors when MSRs are deployed between 2020 and 2050 for electricity generation in the UK. This paper presents results from electricity systems optimization (ESO) modelling of the costs associated with the deployment of 1350 MWe MSRs, from 2025 onwards to 2050, and compares this against a UK grid with no MSR deployment. Results illustrate a minimum economic benefit of £1.25 billion for every reactor installed over this time period. Additionally, an investment benefit occurs for a fleet of these reactors which have a combined net present value (NPV) of £22 billion in 2050 with a payback period of 23 years if electricity is sold competitively to consumers at a price of £60/MWh.
Hart M, Austin W, Acha S, et al., 2020, A roadmap investment strategy to reduce carbon intensive refrigerants in the food retail industry, Journal of Cleaner Production, Vol: 275, Pages: 1-17, ISSN: 0959-6526
High global warming potential (GWP) refrigerant leakage is the second-highest source of carbon emissions across UK supermarket retailers and a major concern for commercial organizations. Recent stringent UN and EU regulations promoting lower GWP refrigerants have been ratified to tackle the high carbon footprint of current refrigerants. This paper introduces a data-driven modelling framework for optimal investment strategies supporting the food retail industry to transition from hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) refrigeration systems to lower GWP systems by 2030, in line with EU legislation. Representative data from a UK food retailer is applied in a mixed integer linear model, making simultaneous investment decisions across the property estate. The model considers refrigeration-system age, capacity, refrigerant type, leakage and past-performance relative to peer systems in the rest of the estate. This study proposes two possible actions for high GWP HFC refrigeration systems: a) complying with legislation by retrofitting with an HFO blend (e.g. R449-A) or b) installing a new natural refrigerant system (e.g. R744). Findings indicate that a standard (i.e. business-as-usual) investment level of £6 m/yr drives a retrofitting strategy enabling significant reduction in annual carbon emissions of 71% by the end of 2030 (against the 2018 baseline), along with meeting regulatory compliance. The strategy is also highly effective at reducing emissions in the short term as total emissions during the 12-year programme are 59% lower than would have been experienced if the HFC emissions continued unabated. However, this spending level leaves the business at significant risk of refrigeration system failures as necessary investments in new systems are delayed resulting in an ageing, poorly performing estate. The model is further tested under different budget and policy scenarios and the financial, environmental, and business-risk implications are analysed. For example, under a more agg
Bock BD, Bucci M, Markides CN, et al., 2020, Falling film boiling of refrigerants over nanostructured and roughened tubes: Heat transfer, dryout and critical heat flux, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, Vol: 163, Pages: 1-19, ISSN: 0017-9310
Falling film evaporators offer an attractive alternative to flooded evaporators as the lower fluid charge reduces the impact of leaks to the environment and associated safety concerns. A study was conducted of saturated falling film boiling of two refrigerants on one polished, one roughened and three nanostructured copper tubes in order to evaluate the potential of nanostructures in falling film refrigerant evaporators. Tubes were individually tested, placed horizontally within a test chamber and heated by an internal water flow with refrigerant distributed over the outside of the tubes. Wilson plots were used to characterise the internal water heat transfer coefficients (HTCs). A layer-by-layer (LbL) process was used to create the first nanostructured tube by coating the outside of a tube with silica nanoparticles. A chemical bath was used to create copper oxide (CuO) protrusions on the second nanostructured tube. The third tube was coated by following a commercial process referred to as nanoFLUX. R-245fa at a saturation temperature of 20 °C and R-134a at saturation temperatures of 5 °C and 25 °C were used as refrigerants. Tests were conducted over a range of heat fluxes from 20 to 100 kW/m and refrigerant mass film flow rates per unit length from 0 to 0.13 kg/m/s, which corresponds to a film Reynolds number range of 0 to approximately 1500 to 2500, depending on the refrigerant. Heat fluxes were increased further to test whether the critical heat flux (CHF) point due to a departure from nucleate boiling (DNB) could be reached. The CuO and nanoFLUX tubes had the lowest film Reynolds numbers at which critical dryout occurred at heat fluxes near 20 kW/m2, but as the heat fluxes were increased towards 100 kW/m2, critical dryout occurred at the highest film Reynolds numbers of the tubes tested. Furthermore, in some higher heat flux cases, CHF as a result of DNB for the CuO and nanoFLUX tubes was reached before critical dryout occurred, and DNB became the lim
Bock BD, Bucci M, Markides CN, et al., 2020, Pool boiling of refrigerants over nanostructured and roughened tubes, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, Vol: 162, Pages: 1-13, ISSN: 0017-9310
This study investigated the heat transfer performance of three nanostructured surfaces and two plain surfaces: one roughened and one polished during the saturated pool boiling of refrigerants R-134a at 5 and 25 °C and R-245fa at 20 °C. Nanocoatings were applied to polished copper tubes through a layer-by-layer (LbL) process that deposited silica nanoparticles, a chemical oxidation process where an intertwined mat of sharp copper oxide (CuO) structures were generated and a commercial nanocoating process (nanoFLUX). A polished copper tube and a roughened copper tube were tested as comparison cases. All tubes were tested in the horizontal position in pool boiling over heat fluxes of 20 to 100 kW/m2, followed by a further increase in heat flux in an attempt to reach critical heat flux. The tubes were internally water heated and Wilson plots were conducted to characterise the internal heat transfer characteristics. The nanoFLUX surface had the highest heat transfer coefficients, the LbL and polished surfaces had the lowest heat transfer coefficients, and the CuO and roughened surfaces had intermediate heat transfer coefficients. The nanoFLUX surface had between 40 and 200% higher heat transfer coefficients than those of the polished tube. Both roughened tubes and nanocoated tubes showed typical exponentially increased heat transfer coefficients as heat flux was increased. However, the nanoFLUX and CuO surfaces displayed more heat flux sensitivity compared with the other surfaces. The nanoFLUX surfaces outperformed the other nanostructured surfaces due to a higher nucleation site density and outperformed the roughened tube due to a unique heat transfer mechanism. The nanoFLUX and CuO surfaces also experienced reduced critical heat flux compared with plain surfaces, thought to be caused by the trapping of vapour in the fibrous nanostructures, resulting in reduced wetting in the Cassie-Baxter state.
Zhao Y, Zhao CY, Markides CN, et al., 2020, Medium- and high-temperature latent and thermochemical heat storage using metals and metallic compounds as heat storage media: A technical review, Applied Energy, Vol: 280, Pages: 1-32, ISSN: 0306-2619
Latent and thermochemical heat storage technologies are receiving increased attention due to their important role in addressing the challenges of variable renewable energy generation and waste heat availability, as well as the mismatch between energy supply and demand in time and space. However, as the operating storage temperature increases, a series of challenging technical problems arise, such as complex heat transfer mechanisms, increased corrosion, material failure, reduced strength, and high-temperature measurement difficulties, especially for metals and metallic compounds as heat storage media. This paper reviews the latest research progress in medium- and high-temperature latent and thermochemical heat storage using metals and metallic compounds as storage media from a technical perspective and provides useful information for researchers and engineers in the field of energy storage. In this paper, the status and challenges of medium- and high-temperature latent and thermochemical heat storage are first introduced, followed by an assessment of metals and metallic compounds as heat storage media in latent and thermochemical heat storage applications. This is followed by a comprehensive review of three key issues associated with medium/high-temperature latent heat storage applications: heat transfer enhancement, stability and corrosion, as well as a discussion of four key issues associated with medium/high-temperature thermochemical heat storage: heat transfer, cycling stability, mechanical property and reactor/system design. Finally, the prospects of medium/high-temperature latent and thermochemical heat storage are summarized.
Fatigati F, Vittorini D, Wang Y, et al., 2020, Design and operational control strategy for optimum off-design performance of an ORC plant for low-grade waste heat recovery, Energies, Vol: 13, Pages: 5846-5846, ISSN: 1996-1073
The applicability of organic Rankine cycle (ORC) technology to waste heat recovery (WHR) is currently experiencing growing interest and accelerated technological development. The utilization of low-to-medium grade thermal energy sources, especially in the presence of heat source intermittency in applications where the thermal source is characterized by highly variable thermodynamic conditions, requires a control strategy for off-design operation to achieve optimal ORC power-unit performance. This paper presents a validated comprehensive model for off-design analysis of an ORC power-unit, with R236fa as the working fluid, a gear pump, and a 1.5 kW sliding vane rotary expander (SVRE) for WHR from the exhaust gases of a light-duty internal combustion engine. Model validation is performed using data from an extensive experimental campaign on both the rotary equipment (pump, expander) and the remainder components of the plant, namely the heat recovery vapor generator (HRVH), condenser, reservoirs, and piping. Based on the validated computational platform, the benefits on the ORC plant net power output and efficiency of either a variable permeability expander or of sliding vane rotary pump optimization are assessed. The novelty introduced by this optimization strategy is that the evaluations are conducted by a numerical model, which reproduces the real features of the ORC plant. This approach ensures an analysis of the whole system both from a plant and cycle point of view, catching some real aspects that are otherwise undetectable. These optimization strategies are considered as a baseline ORC plant that suffers low expander efficiency (30%) and a large parasitic pumping power, with a backwork ratio (BWR) of up to 60%. It is found that the benefits on the expander power arising from a lower permeability combined with a lower energy demand by the pump (20% of BWR) for circulation of the working fluid allows a better recovery performance for the ORC plant with respect to t
Gupta A, Markides CN, 2020, Autoignition of an n-heptane jet in a confined turbulent hot coflow of air, Experimental Thermal and Fluid Science, Vol: 119, Pages: 1-23, ISSN: 0894-1777
The autoignition of a continuous, single jet of pure liquid n-heptane injected concentrically and axisymmetrically from a water-cooled circular nozzle into a confined turbulent hot coflow (CTHC) of air at atmospheric pressure has been investigated experimentally at air temperatures up to 1150 K and velocities up to 40 m/s. The aim of this work was to examine the emergence of liquid-fuel autoignition in the presence of flow, mixture and phase inhomogeneities, to which end, the velocity, temperature and fuel-droplet fields inside the CTHC reactor were characterized in a series of dedicated measurement campaigns. Distinct phenomena were identified concerning the emergence of various regimes: no autoignition, random spots, and continuous flame. In the random spots regime, autoignition appeared in the form of well-defined, discrete localized spots occurring randomly within the reactor, similar to observations in a similar apparatus with gaseous fuels (Markides, 2005; Markides and Mastorakos, 2005, 2011; Markides et al., 2007). High-speed optical measurements of these random spots were made from which the autoignition locations/lengths were measured, and then used to infer average autoignition delay, or residence, times from injection based on the bulk air velocity. An increase in the air temperature moved the region of autoigniting spots closer to the injector nozzle, thus decreasing the autoignition length and also decreasing the autoignition delay time. Generally, autoignition moved downstream with increasing bulk air velocity, but the delay times decreased contrary to the aforementioned earlier work with pre-vaporized n-heptane in this geometry. Of interest is the finding that at the highest investigated air velocities, the autoignition length decreased as the air velocity increased, which again deviates from the same earlier work with vaporized n-heptane. Furthermore, higher liquid injection velocities also resulted in increased autoignition lengths and times. The re
Wang K, Pantaleo AM, Herrando M, et al., 2020, Spectral-splitting hybrid PV-thermal (PVT) systems for combined heat and power provision to dairy farms, Renewable Energy, Vol: 159, Pages: 1047-1065, ISSN: 0960-1481
Dairy farming is one of the most energy- and emission-intensive industrial sectors, and offers noteworthy opportunities for displacing conventional fossil-fuel consumption both in terms of cost saving and decarbonisation. In this paper, a solar-combined heat and power (S–CHP) system is proposed for dairy-farm applications based on spectral-splitting parabolic-trough hybrid photovoltaic-thermal (PVT) collectors, which is capable of providing simultaneous electricity, steam and hot water for processing milk products. A transient numerical model is developed and validated against experimental data to predict the dynamic thermal and electrical characteristics and to assess the thermoeconomic performance of the S–CHP system. A dairy farm in Bari (Italy), with annual thermal and electrical demands of 6000 MWh and 3500 MWh respectively, is considered as a case study for assessing the energetic and economic potential of the proposed S–CHP system. Hourly simulations are performed over a year using real-time local weather and measured demand-data inputs. The results show that the optical characteristic of the spectrum splitter has a significant influence on the system’s thermoeconomic performance. This is therefore optimised to reflect the solar region between 550 nm and 1000 nm to PV cells for electricity generation and (low-temperature) hot-water production, while directing the rest to solar receivers for (higher-temperature) steam generation. Based on a 10000-m2 installed area, it is found that 52% of the demand for steam generation and 40% of the hot water demand can be satisfied by the PVT S–CHP system, along with a net electrical output amounting to 14% of the farm’s demand. Economic analyses show that the proposed system is economically viable if the investment cost of the spectrum splitter is lower than 75% of the cost of the parabolic trough concentrator (i.e., <1950 €/m2 spectrum splitter) in this application. The influenc
Olympios AV, Pantaleo AM, Sapin P, et al., 2020, On the value of combined heat and power (CHP) systems and heat pumps in centralised and distributed heating systems: Lessons from multi-fidelity modelling approaches, Applied Energy, Vol: 274, Pages: 1-19, ISSN: 0306-2619
This paper presents a multi-scale framework for the design and comparison of centralised and distributed heat generation solutions. An extensive analysis of commercially available products on the UK market is conducted to gather information on the performance and cost of a range of gas-fired combined heat and power (CHP) systems, air-source heat pumps (ASHPs) and ground-source heat pumps (GSHPs). Data-driven models with associated uncertainty bounds are derived from the collected data, which capture cost and performance variations with scale (i.e., size and rating) and operating conditions. In addition, a comprehensive thermoeconomic (thermodynamic and component-costing) heat pump model, validated against manufacturer data, is developed to capture design-related performance and cost variations, thus reducing technology-related model uncertainties. The novelty of this paper lies in the use of multi-fidelity approaches for the comparison of the economic and environmental potential of important heat-generation solutions: (i) centralised gas-fired CHP systems associated with district heating network; (ii) gas-fired CHP systems or GSHPs providing heat to differentiated energy communities; and (iii) small-scale micro-CHP systems, ASHPs or GSHPs, installed at the household level. The pathways are evaluated for the case of the Isle of Dogs district in London, UK. A centralised CHP system appears as the most profitable option, achieving annual savings of £13 M compared to the use of decentralised boilers and a levelised cost of heat equal to 31 £/MWhth. However, if the carbon intensity of the electrical grid continues to reduce at current rates, CHP systems will only provide minimal carbon savings compared to boilers (<6%), with heat pumps achieving significant heat decarbonisation (55–62%). Differentiating between high- and low-performance and cost heat pump designs shows that the former, although 25% more expensive, have significantly lower annualised
Le Brun N, Simpson M, Acha S, et al., 2020, Techno-economic potential of low-temperature, jacket-water heat recovery from stationary internal combustion engines with organic Rankine cycles: A cross-sector food-retail study, Applied Energy, Vol: 274, Pages: 1-14, ISSN: 0306-2619
We examine the opportunities and challenges of deploying integrated organic Rankine cycle (ORC) engines to recover heat from low-temperature jacket-water cooling circuits of small-scale gas-fired internal combustion engines (ICEs), for the supply of combined heat and power (CHP) to supermarkets. Based on data for commercially-available ICE and ORC engines, a techno-economic model is developed and applied to simulate system performance in real buildings. Under current market trends and for the specific (low-temperature) ICE + ORC CHP configuration investigated here, results show that the ICE determines most economic savings, while the ORC engine does not significantly impact the integrated CHP system performance. The ORC engines have long payback times (4–9 years) in this application, because: (1) they do not displace high-value electricity, as the value of exporting electricity to the grid is low, and (2) it is more profitable to use the heat from the ICEs for space heating rather than for electricity conversion. Commercial ORC engines are most viable (payback ≈ 4 years) in buildings with high electrical demands and low heat-to-power ratios. The influence of factors such as the ORC engine efficiency, capital cost and energy prices is also evaluated, highlighting performance gaps and identifying promising areas for future research.
Wang E, Markides CN, Lu Y, et al., 2020, Editorial: Organic Rankine Cycle for Efficiency Improvement of Industrial Processes and Urban Systems, FRONTIERS IN ENERGY RESEARCH, Vol: 8, ISSN: 2296-598X
Acha Izquierdo S, Le Brun N, Damaskou M, et al., 2020, Fuel cells as combined heat and power systems in commercial buildings: A case study in the food-retail sector, Energy, Vol: 206, Pages: 1-13, ISSN: 0360-5442
This work investigates the viability of fuel cells (FC) as combined heat and power (CHP) prime movers in commercial buildings with a specific focus on supermarkets. Up-to-date technical data from a FC manufacturing company was obtained and applied to evaluate their viability in an existing food-retail building. A detailed optimisation model for enhancing distributed energy system management described in previous work is expanded upon to optimise the techno-economic performance of FC-CHP systems. The optimisations employ comprehensive techno-economic datasets that reflect current market trends. Outputs highlight the key factors influencing the economics of FC-CHP projects. Furthermore, a comparative analysis against a competing internal combustion engine (ICE) CHP system is performed to understand the relative techno-economic characterisitcs of each system. Results indicate that FCs are becoming financially competitive although ICEs are still a more attractive option. For supermarkets, the payback period for installing a FC system is 4.7–5.9 years vs. 4.0–5.6 years for ICEs when policies are considered. If incentives are removed, FC-CHP systems have paybacks in the range 6–10 years vs. 5–8.5 years for ICE-based systems. A sensitivity analysis under different market and policy scenarios is performed, offering insights into the performance gap fuel cells face before becoming more competitive.
Song J, Li X, Wang K, et al., 2020, Parametric optimisation of a combined supercritical CO2 (S-CO2) cycle and organic Rankine cycle (ORC) system for internal combustion engine (ICE) waste-heat recovery, Energy Conversion and Management, Vol: 218, Pages: 1-15, ISSN: 0196-8904
Supercritical CO2 (S-CO2) power-cycle systems are a promising technology for waste-heat recovery from internal combustion engines (ICEs). However, the effective utilisation of the heat from both the exhaust gases and cooling circuit by a standalone S-CO2 cycle system remains a challenge due to the unmatched thermal load of these heat sources, while a large amount of unexploited heat is directly rejected in the system’s pre-cooler. In this paper, a combined-cycle system for ICE waste-heat recovery is presented that couples an S-CO2 cycle to a bottoming organic Rankine cycle (ORC), which recovers heat rejected from the S-CO2 cycle system, as well as thermal energy available from the jacket-water and exhaust-gas streams that have not been utilised by the S-CO2 cycle system. Parametric optimisation is implemented to determine operating conditions for both cycles from thermodynamic and economic perspectives. With a baseline case using a standalone S-CO2 cycle system for an ICE with a rated power output of 1170 kW, our investigation reveals that the combined-cycle system can deliver a maximum net power output of 215 kW at a minimum specific investment cost (SIC) of 4670 $/kW, which are 58% and 4% higher than those of the standalone S-CO2 cycle system, respectively. A range of ICEs of different sizes are also considered, with significant performance improvements indicating a promising potential of exploiting such combined-cycle systems. This work motivates the pursuit of further performance improvements to waste-heat recovery systems from ICEs and other similar applications.
Gupta A, Qadri UA, Koutita K, et al., 2020, Experimental investigation of the flow in a micro-channelled combustor and its relation to flame behaviour, Experimental Thermal and Fluid Science, Vol: 116, ISSN: 0894-1777
The dynamic behaviour of periodic laminar premixed acetylene-air flames in a micro-channelled combustor consisting of an array of five planar rectangular channels was found to be influenced by the equiv- alence ratio and flow-rate of the continuously and steadily injected premixed fuel charge. Three distinct flame stages were observed — planar, chaotic and trident, which were strongly correlated to the flow dynamics. The effect of the flow on the flame behaviour was investigated by characterizing the cold flow in a scaled-up model channel with the same aspect ratio as the combustion micro-channel. Direct flow visualization using flow tracers and quantitative velocity-field data from PIV measurements showed both an increase in the bottom recircula- tion zone reattachment length (along the floor of the channel) and a decrease in the lateral recirculation zone reattachment length (along the sides of the channel) with increasing flow Reynolds number. Comparison of the flow and flame transition locations downstream of the injection point suggested that the location of trident flame onset coincides with the flow bottom recirculation zone reattachment length. The planar-chaotic flame transition location was observed to be influenced by the homogeneity of the mixture downstream of the injection plane.
Zadrazil I, Corzo C, Voulgaropoulos V, et al., 2020, A combined experimental and computational study of the flow characteristics in a Type B aortic dissection: effect of primary and secondary tear size, Chemical Engineering Research and Design, Vol: 160, Pages: 240-253, ISSN: 0263-8762
Aortic dissection is related to the separation of the tunica intima from the aortic wall, which can cause blood to flow through the newly formed lumen, thereby further damaging the torn vessel. This type of pathology is the most common catastrophic event that affects the aorta and is associated with complications such as malperfusion. In this work, an idealised, simplified geometric model of Type B aortic dissection is investigated experimentally using particle image velocimetry (PIV) and numerically using computational fluid dynamic (CFD) simulations. The flow characteristics through the true and false lumina are investigated parametrically over a range of tear sizes. Specifically, four different tear sizes and size ratios are considered, each representing a different dissection case or stage, and the experimental and numerical results of the flow-rate profiles through the two lumina in each case, along with the phase-averaged velocity vector maps at mid-acceleration, mid-deceleration, relaminarisation and peak systole, and their corresponding velocity profiles are compared. The experimental and numerical results are in good qualitative as well as quantitative agreement. The flow characteristics found here provide insight into the importance of the re-entry tear. We observe that an increase in the re-entry tear size increases considerably the flow rate in the false lumen, decreases significantly the wall shear stress (WSS) and decreases the pressure difference between the false and the true lumen. On the contrary, an increase in the entry tear, increases the flow rate through the false lumen, increases slightly the WSS and increases the pressure difference between the false and the true lumen. These are crucial findings that can help interpret medical diagnosis and accelerate prevention and treatment, especially in high-risk patients.
An JS, Cherdantsev A, Zadrazil I, et al., 2020, Study of disturbance wave development in downwards annular flows with a moving frame‐of‐reference brightness‐based laser‐induced fluorescence method, Experiments in Fluids, Vol: 61, Pages: 1-6, ISSN: 0723-4864
A novel moving frame-of-reference brightness-based laser-induced fluorescence (MFoR-BBLIF) method was developed and demonstrated in downwards co-current air–water annular flows. The method was applied to study the downstream develop- ment of individual disturbance waves in flows over a range of conditions (ReL = 276–1321, ReG = 39,500–79,000). In this method, the optical measurement system, and hence, the region of interrogation (ROI) was translated physically along the length of the test-section with a velocity close to that of individual disturbance waves to obtain the velocities of individual disturbance-waves as a function of downstream distance from the inlet. It was found that the velocities of individual distur- bance waves increase with both downstream distance and gas–liquid flow conditions. In addition, the variation in the wave velocities was more significant at higher gas and liquid Reynolds numbers. The approach can be integrated with many other contactless measurement methods, and can also be used over a range of translation speeds (not necessarily in a “Lagrangian” manner) to study the evolution of important advecting flow phenomena.
Olympios AV, Le Brun N, Acha S, et al., 2020, Stochastic real-time operation control of a combined heat and power (CHP) system under uncertainty, Energy Conversion and Management, Vol: 216, Pages: 1-17, ISSN: 0196-8904
In this paper we present an effort to design and apply a multi-objective real-time operation controller to a combined heat and power (CHP) system, while considering explicitly the risk-return trade-offs arising from the uncertainty in the price of exported electricity. Although extensive research has been performed on theoretically optimizing the design, sizing and operation of CHP systems, less effort has been devoted to an understanding of the practical challenges and the effects of uncertainty in implementing advanced algorithms in real-world applications. In this work, a two-stage control architecture is proposed which applies an optimization framework to a real CHP operation application involving intelligent communication between two controllers to monitor and control the engine continuously. Since deterministic approaches that involve no measure of uncertainty provide limited insight to decision-makers, the methodology then proceeds to develop a stochastic optimization technique which considers risk within the optimization problem. The uncertainty in the forecasted electricity price is quantified by using the forecasting model’s residuals to generate prediction intervals around each forecasted electricity price. The novelty of the proposed tool lies in the use of these prediction intervals to formulate a bi-objective function that represents a compromise between maximizing the expected savings and minimizing the associated risk, while satisfying specified environmental objectives. This allows decision-makers to operate CHP systems according to the risk they are willing to take. The actual operation costs during a 40–day trial period resulting from the installation of the dynamic controller on an existing CHP engine that provides electricity and heat to a supermarket are presented. Results demonstrate that the forecasted electricity price almost always falls within the developed prediction intervals, achieving savings of 23% on energy costs against
Song J, Li X, Ren X, et al., 2020, Supercritical CO2-cycle configurations for internal combustion engine waste-heat recovery: A comparative techno-economic investigation, 33rd International Conference on Efficiency, Cost, Optimization, Simulation and Environmental Impact of Energy Systems (ECOS 2020), Publisher: ECOS
Supercritical-CO2(S-CO2) cycle systems have appeared as an attractive option for waste-heat recovery from internal combustion engines(ICEs) thanks to the advantages offered by CO2as a working fluid, which is nontoxic and non-flammable, and does not suffer decomposition at high temperatures. Since the high density of CO2in the supercritical region enables compact component design, various S-CO2cycle systemconfigurations have been presented involving different layouts and combinations of heat exchangers with which to enhance heat recovery from both engine exhaust gases and jacket waterstreams. Despite the thermodynamicperformance improvement offered by more complex configurations, the additional heat exchangers bring extra costs and therefore key thermo-economic decisions need to be considered carefully during the design and development of suchsystems. This paper seeks to conduct both thermodynamic and economic (cost) assessments of a variety of S-CO2cycle system configurationsin ICE waste-heat recovery applications, with results indicating that in some cases a significant thermodynamic performance improvement can compensate the extra costs associated with a morecomplex system structure. The comparison results across a range ofICEs can also be a valuable guide for the early-stage S-CO2cycle system design in ICE waste-heat recovery andother similar applications.
Olympios A, Hoisenpoori P, Mersch M, et al., 2020, Optimal design of low-temperature heat-pumping technologies and implications to the whole energy system, The 33rd International Conference on Efficiency, Cost, Optimization, Simulation and Environmental Impact of Energy Systems.
This paper presents a methodology for identifying optimal designs for air-source heat pumps suitable for domestic heating applications from the whole-energy system perspective, accounting explicitly for a trade-off between cost and efficiency, as well as for the influence of the outside air temperature during off-design operation. The work combines dedicated brazed-plate and plate-fin heat-exchanger models with compressor efficiency maps, as well as equipment costing techniques, in order to develop a comprehensive technoeconomic model of a low-temperature air-source heat pump with a single-stage-compressor, based on the vapour-compression cycle. The cost and performance predictions are validated against manufacturer data and a non-linear thermodynamic optimisation model is developed to obtain optimal component sizes for a set of competing working fluids and design conditions. The cost and off-design performance of different configurations are integrated into a whole-energy system capacity-expansion and unit-dispatch model of the UK power and heat system. The aim is to assess the system value of proposed designs, as well as the implications of their deployment on the power generation mix and total transition cost of electrifying domestic heat in the UK as a pathway towards meeting a national net-zero emission target by 2050. Refrigerant R152a appears to have the best design and off-design performance, especially compared to the commonly used R410a. The size of the heat exchangers has a major effect on heat pump performance and cost. From a wholesystem perspective, high-performance heat pumps enable a ~20 GW (~10%) reduction in the required installed power generation capacity compared to smaller-heat-exchanger, low-performance heat pumps, which in turn requires lower and more realistic power-grid expansion rates. However, it is shown that the improved performance as a result of larger heat exchangers does not compensate overall for the increased technology cost, with
Schuster S, Markides CN, White AJ, 2020, Design and off-design optimisation of an organic Rankine cycle (ORC) system with an integrated radial turbine model, Applied Thermal Engineering, Vol: 174, ISSN: 1359-4311
This paper investigates the design and thermodynamic optimisation of both sub- and transcritical organic Rankine cycle (ORC) power systems featuring radial turbines via performance calculations using mean-line models. The emphasis is on rapid performance predictions for a given turbine geometry, as well as geometric optimisation for a given heat source. From three specified quantities, which are the turbine inlet temperature, inlet pressure and mass flow rate, the other flow properties (e.g., outlet pressure and temperature) are computed, together with derived quantities which are required for cycle- or system-level assessments, such as the isentropic efficiency of the turbine. Experimental investigations from the open literature suitable for validation purposes are summarised and analysed with respect to their strengths and weaknesses. Similar computational fluid dynamic (CFD) simulations are also used to complement the available experimental data. The main contributions of this paper are that it provides a comprehensive overview of radial turbine performance modelling, and that it proposes a detailed framework that can be used for the improved development of efficient thermodynamic power systems based on a unified mean-line model that is validated against experimental data and supported by CFD results. Specifically, predictions from the mean-line model show good accuracy over a wide range of operating conditions for different turbine designs and fluids with compressibility factors from 0.6 - 1.0. Finally, in order to demonstrate its efficacy, the integrated radial turbine and ORC system design framework is used in a case study of a nominally 400-kW power system with propane as the working fluid in low-grade waste-heat application, where the turbine inlet temperature is fixed at 150 ° C and the condenser temperature is fixed at 15 ° C. The novelty of this work arises from the optimisation of the turbine nozzle vane position at off-design conditions. This fe
Al Kindi A, Markides C, Pantaleo A, et al., 2020, Optimal system configuration and operation strategies of flexible hybrid nuclear-solar power plants, The 33rd International Conference on Efficiency, Cost, Optimization, Simulation and Environmental Impact of Energy Systems, Publisher: ECOS
Nuclear power plants are commonly used for baseload power supply due to their high reliability, low variable costs, as well as relatively low thermal efficiencies and limited load-following capabilities; especially, in the case of light water reactors. At the same time, concentrating solar power (CSP) technology is gaining attention, but is still considered an intermittent source of power with a limited availability factor. In an effort to propose a very different performance characteristic for both technologies, a hybrid power system combining nuclear and CSP plants and integrated with a thermal energy storage system is considered in this paper. The integration of the technologies is achieved by adding an indirect solar superheater and a solar reheater to a small modular nuclear reactor (NuScale). The work includes modelling of the integrated hybrid system, thermodynamic performance analysis and operational optimization aimed at maximizing the profitability of such a hybrid power plant in Oman. The results show that the hybrid system has the potential to deliver more efficient and flexible power (operating between 55% and 100% of nominal load) with the nuclear reactor operated continuously at its full rated power. The hybridization concept can potentially produce a competitive levelized cost of electricity, especially with the integration of thermal energy storage. The study concludes that the installation of such a system in Oman is not yet economically viable unless electricity tariffs increase by 70% to UK levels.
Sapin P, Simpson M, Olympios A, et al., 2020, Cost-benefit analysis of reversible reciprocating-piston engines with adjustable volume ratio in pumped thermal electricity storage, 33rd International Conference on Efficiency, Cost, Optimization, Simulation and Environmental Impact of Energy Systems (ECOS 2020), Publisher: ECOS
Decarbonisation of heating, cooling and/or power services through the utilisation of renewable en-ergy sources relies on the development of efficient and economically-viable energy storage technolo-gies, ideally without geographical constraints. Pumped thermal electricity storage (PTES) is a strongcandidate technology – along with reversible Rankine cycle, (advanced adiabatic) compressed airenergy storage (CAES), and liquid air energy storage (LAES). One of the leading PTES variants isthe reversible Joule-Brayton cycle engine, where energy is stored as sensible heat in hot and coldthermal stores, while the temperature difference is achieved through gas compression and expansionprocesses. For cost reasons, and to achieve high round-trip efficiencies, it is advantageous for thecompression and expansion machines used in PTES plants to be reversible. Positive-displacementdevices offer this possibility. In particular, recent developments in pneumatically or electromagneti-cally actuated intake and exhaust valves could pave the way for high-efficiency reversible reciprocat-ing compression-expansion devices based on variable-valve control in real time. Advanced variablevalve timing (VVT) is a promising feature that allows piston machines not only to be operated bothas reversible compression and expansion devices, but also to maintain high efficiencies over a widerange of operating conditions, thanks to the possibility of adjusting the built-in volume ratio of a par-ticular machine. With enhanced part-load performance, such disruptive piston machines offer greatpotential for round-trip efficiency enhancement and cost minimisation of PTES storage plants. In thiswork, a cost-benefit analysis of innovative VVT-fitted reciprocating-piston technology is performedusing: (i) comprehensive dynamic reduced-order models to predict the compressor-expander perfor-mance for design optimisation, and (ii) Schumann-style one-dimensional models for simulating heatand mass transf
Slim N, Harraz A, Kheirabadi AN, et al., 2020, Innovating a Novel Brain Protection Device for Use in Cardiac Surgery and Cardiac Arrest: A Cool Solution Using Diffusion-Absorption-Refrigeration Technology, International Surgical Conference of the Association-of-Surgeons-in-Training, Publisher: WILEY, Pages: 38-38, ISSN: 0007-1323
Voulgaropoulos V, Brun NL, Charogiannis A, et al., 2020, Transient freezing of water between two parallel plates: A combined experimental and modelling study, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, Vol: 153, Pages: 1-13, ISSN: 0017-9310
The transient freezing/solidification of water subjected to shear flow inside a rectangular cell is investigated under laminar flow conditions. A flow of freezing water is established inside the cell by cooling the top surface of the conductive, copper plate that forms the cell’s top side by contact with boiling liquid nitrogen (C). This heat removal results in an ice layer that forms and grows gradually on the ceiling of the cell, which is subjected to shear from the flow below it inside the channel. The spatiotemporal characteristics of the ice layer are recorded with optical, laser-based measurements and are compared with predictions from a transient freezing model that is developed for this purpose. Furthermore, tracer particles are introduced into the flow to aid the tracking of the ice layer and to allow for measurements based on particle image velocimetry (PIV) of the velocity field inside the flow during the ice-layer evolution. After an initial time-lag/‘buffer’ period (of s) that depends on the flow conditions, a quasi-linear growth of the ice layer is observed; at longer times the thickness of the ice layer reaches a maximum and then decreases again. The increase in the thickness, and hence thermal resistance, of the ice layer is counter-balanced by a decrease in the temperature of the copper plate and, therefore, a decrease in the temperature difference across the ice layer. Furthermore, it is found that the flow is associated with symmetric velocity profiles, recorded along the vertical spanwise length between the ice layer at the top of the cell and the floor of the cell, while an increase of the velocity maxima is recorded as the ice layer gradually thickens and, consequently, the flow cross-section is reduced. A constant heat flux of 19.7 × 103 W m is measured on the top side of the channel, while the heat transfer coefficient on the top side of the channel is found to be in the range of 90–110 W m K depending on the wa
Gangar N, Macchietto S, Markides C, 2020, Recovery and utilization of low-grade waste heat in the oil-refining industry using heat engines and heat pumps: an international technoeconomic comparison, Energies, Vol: 13, Pages: 2560-2560, ISSN: 1996-1073
We assess the technoeconomic feasibility of onsite electricity and steam generation from recovered low-grade thermal energy in oil refineries using organic Rankine cycle (ORC) engines and mechanical vapour compression (MVC) heat pumps in various countries. The efficiencies of 34 ORC and 20 MVC current commercial systems are regressed against modified theoretical models. The resulting theoretical relations predict the thermal efficiency of commercial ORC engines within 4–5% and the coefficient of performance (COP) of commercial MVC heat pumps within 10–15%, on average. Using these models, the economic viability of ORC engines and MVC heat pumps is then assessed for 19 refinery streams as a function of heat source and sink temperatures, and the available stream thermal energy, for gas and electricity prices in selected countries. Results show that: (i) conversion to electrical power with ORC engines is, in general, economically feasible for heat-source temperatures >70 ◦C, however with high sensitivity to energy prices; and (ii) steam generation in MVC heat pumps, even more sensitive to energy prices, is in some cases not economical under any conditions—it is only viable with high gas/low electricity prices, for large heat sources (>2 MW) and higher temperatures (>140 ◦C). In countries and conditions with positive economics, payback periods down to two years are found for both technologies.
Georgios M, Emilio Jose S, Acha Izquierdo S, et al., 2020, CO2 refrigeration system heat recovery and thermal storage modelling for space heating provision in supermarkets: An integrated approach, Applied Energy, Vol: 264, ISSN: 0306-2619
The large amount of recoverable heat from CO2 refrigeration systems has led UK food retailers to examine the prospect of using refrigeration integrated heating and cooling systems to provide both the space heating and cooling to food cabinets in supermarkets. This study assesses the performance of a refrigeration integrated heating and cooling system installation with thermal storage in a UK supermarket. This is achieved by developing a thermal storage model and integrating it into a pre-existing CO2 booster refrigeration model. Five scenarios involving different configurations and operation strategies are assessed to understand the techo-economic implications. The results indicate that the integrated heating and cooling system with thermal storage has the potential to reduce energy consumption by 17–18% and GHG emissions by 12–13% compared to conventional systems using a gas boiler for space heating. These reductions are achieved despite a marginal increase of 2–3% in annual operating costs. The maximum amount of heat that can be stored and utilised is constrained by the refrigeration system compressor capacity. These findings suggest that refrigeration integrated heating and cooling systems with thermal storage are a viable heating and cooling strategy that can significantly reduce the environmental footprint of supermarket space heating provision and under the adequate circumstances can forsake the use of conventional fossil-fuel (natural gas) boiler systems in food-retail buildings.
The dependencies of the enhanced thermomechanical properties of zirconium carbide (ZrCx) with sample purity and stoichiometry are still not understood due to discrepancies in the literature. Multiple researchers have recently reported a linear relation between the carbon to zirconium atomic ratio (C/Zr) and the lattice parameter, in contrast with a more established relationship that suggests that the lattice parameter value attains a maximum value at a C/Zr ~ 0.83. In this study, the relationship between C/Zr atomic ratio and the lattice parameter is critically assessed: it is found that recent studies reporting the thermophysical properties of ZrCx have unintentionally produced and characterised samples containing zirconium oxycarbide. To avoid such erroneous characterization of ZrCx thermophysical properties in the future, we propose a method for the accurate measurement of the stoichiometry of ZrCx using three independent experimental techniques, namely: elemental analysis, thermogravimetric analysis and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Although a large scatter in the results (ΔC/Zr = 0.07) from these different techniques was found when used independently, when combining the techniques together consistent values of x in ZrCx were obtained.
Nemati H, Moghimi MA, Sapin P, et al., 2020, Shape optimisation of air-cooled finned-tube heat exchangers, International Journal of Thermal Sciences, Vol: 150, Pages: 1-14, ISSN: 1290-0729
The use of annular fins in air-cooled heat exchangers is a well-known solution, commonly used in air-conditioning and heat-recovery systems, for enhancing the air-side heat transfer. Although associated with additional material and manufacturing costs, custom-designed finned-tube heat exchangers can be cost-effective. In this article, the shape of the annular fins in a multi-row air heat exchanger is optimised in order to enhance performance without incurring a manufacturing cost penalty. The air-side heat transfer, pressure drop and entropy generation in a regular, four-row heat exchanger are predicted using a steady-state turbulent CFD model and validated against experimental data. The validated simulation tool is then used to perform model-based optimisation of the fin shapes. The originality of the proposed approach lies in optimising the shape of each fin row individually, resulting in a non-homogenous custom bundle of tubes. Evidence of this local-optimisation potential is first provided by a short preliminary study, followed by four distinct optimisation studies (with four distinct objective functions), aimed at addressing the major problems faced by designers. Response-surface methods – namely, NLPQL for single-objective and MOGA for multi-objective optimisations – are used to determine the optimum configuration for each optimisation strategy. It is shown that elliptical annular-shaped fins minimise the pressure drop and entropy generation, while circular-shaped fins at the entrance region (i.e., first row) can be employed to maximise heat transfer. The results also show that, for the scenario in which the total heat transfer rate is maximised and the pressure drop minimised, the pressure drop is reduced by up to 31%, the fin weight is reduced up to 23%, with as little as a 14% decrease in the total air-side heat transfer, relative to the case in which all the fins across the tube bundle are circular. Moreover, in all optimised cases, the entropy
Romanos P, Voumvoulakis E, Markides CN, et al., 2020, Thermal energy storage contribution to the economic dispatch of island power systems, CSEE Journal of Power and Energy Systems, Vol: 6, Pages: 100-110, ISSN: 2096-0042
In this paper the provision of flexible generation is investigated by extracting steam from Rankine-cycle power stations during off-peak demand in order to charge thermal tanks that contain suitable phase-change materials (PCMs); at a later time when this is required and/or is economically effective, these thermal energy storage (TES) tanks can act as the heat sources of secondary thermal power plants in order to generate power, for example as evaporators of, e.g., organic Rankine cycle (ORC) plants that are suitable for power generation at reduced temperatures and smaller scales. This type of solution offers greater flexibility than TES-only technologies that store thermal energy and release it back to the base power station, since it allows both derating but also over-generation compared to the base power-station capacity. The solution is applied in a case study of a 50-MW rated oil-fired power station unit at the autonomous system of Crete. The optimal operation of the TES system is investigated, by solving a modified Unit Commitment – Economic Dispatch optimization problem, which includes the TES operating constraints. The results indicate that for most of the scenarios the discounted payback period is lower than 12 years, while in few cases the payback period is 5 years.
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