The research Clea conducts is particularly pertinent to current and world affairs given the critical need for greenhouse gas emissions reduction in order to avoid dangerous climate change as recognized by the Paris Climate Agreement ratified by 171 parties. Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) is recognized by the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, the World Bank, the IPCC and IEA as being key to least cost climate change mitigation and facilitating a global phase out of a fossil-fuel based economy.
Clea's PhD research has focused on the integration of above ground CO2 capture and below ground CO2 storage, investigating the techno-economic factors required to deploy CCS on a large-scale. Her research aims at linking the capturing system to the transport and injection of CO2 by analyzing the effect of time-varying rates of CO2 capture and CO2 stream purity requirements as a function of the transport distance and injection sink e.g. depleted oil reservoirs and saline aquifers. Clea has used reservoir modelling tools such as ECLIPSE and PETREL to assess the potential of a critical saline aquifer storage sink for the UK, the Bunter Sandstone located in the Southern North Sea.
Clea has also developed a model named MIICE that assesses the key economic and policy indicators that would be needed for CCS to reach large-scale deployment when considering the boost in revenue obtained from using CO2 for enhanced oil recovery (EOR), the largest market opportunity for CO2.
Clea has collaborated with a number of institutions and companies including Stanford University, University College London, the British Geological Survey and Shell.
"CO2 enhanced oil recovery: a catalyst for gigatonne-scale carbon capture and storage deployment?", C. Kolster, M. S. Masnadi, S. Krevor, N. Mac Dowell, A. R. Brandt, Energy & Environmental Science, 2017, 10, p. 2594-2608.
"The impact of time-varying CO2 injection rate on large scale storage in the UK Bunter Sandstone", C. Kolster, S. Agada, N. Mac Dowell, S. Krevor, International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control, 2018, 68, p.77-85.
“The role of CO2 purification and transport networks in carbon capture and storage cost reduction”, C. Kolster, E. Mechleri, S. Krevor, N. Mac Dowell, International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control, 2017.
“The Sensitivity of CO2 Storage in the Bunter Sandstone of the UK Southern North Sea to Operational Demands from Energy Systems”, S. Agada, C. Kolster, N. Mac Dowell, S. Krevor, submitted to the Int. J. Greenhouse Gas Control, December 2016.
“Cost and Performance of some carbon capture technology options for producing different quality CO2 product streams”, R. Porter, M. Fairweather, C. Kolster, N. Mac Dowell, N. Shah, R. Wooley, Int. J. Greenhouse Gas Control 2016, 11, 020.
Clea graduated from Imperial College London with an Upper Second Class Honours MEng in Chemical Engineering in June 2014 as part of which she spent an academic year abroad (2012-2013) at Columbia University, New York.