202 results found
Alcantara DR, Jones CI, Altmann DM, et al., 2020, Multiplexed gene expression analysis of HLA class II-associated podoconiosis implicates chronic immune activation in its pathogenesis., Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg
BACKGROUND: Podoconiosis is a tropical lymphoedema of the leg resulting from barefoot exposure to irritant volcanic soils. Approximately 4 million people are affected, mainly in African highland regions. The pathogenesis of this neglected tropical disease is still largely unknown, although HLA class II (HLAII) polymorphisms are associated with the disease. METHODS: NanoString technology was used to assess expression of 579 immune-related genes in formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded lymph node archival samples from podoconiosis patients and unaffected controls. RESULTS: Forty-eight genes were upregulated and 21 downregulated in podoconiosis samples compared with controls. Gene ontology analysis showed differentially expressed genes to be closely related to major histocompatibility complex protein, cytokine and TNF receptor binding genes. Pathway enrichment analysis revealed involvement of lymphocyte activation, adaptive immunity, cytokine signalling, antigen processing and the IL-12 pathways. CONCLUSIONS: This exploratory study reports a multiplex gene expression analysis in podoconiosis and shows upregulation of pro-inflammatory transcripts compatible with the notion of local, chronic immune activation in this HLAII-associated disease. Implicated pathways will inform future research into podoconiosis immunopathogenesis.
Campbell VL, Nguyen L, Snoey E, et al., 2020, Proteome-Wide Zika Virus CD4 T Cell Epitope and HLA Restriction Determination., Immunohorizons, Vol: 4, Pages: 444-453
Zika virus (ZIKV) is a mosquito-borne pathogen that caused an epidemic in 2015-2016. ZIKV-specific T cell responses are functional in animal infection models, and helper CD4 T cells promote avid Abs in the vaccine context. The small volumes of blood available from field research limit the determination of T cell epitopes for complex microbes such as ZIKV. The goal of this project was efficient determination of human ZIKV CD4 T cell epitopes at the whole proteome scale, including validation of reactivity to whole pathogen, using small blood samples from convalescent time points when T cell response magnitude may have waned. Polyclonal enrichment of candidate ZIKV-specific CD4 T cells used cell-associated virus, documenting that T cells in downstream peptide analyses also recognize whole virus after Ag processing. Sequential query of bulk ZIKV-reactive CD4 T cells with pooled/single ZIKV peptides and molecularly defined APC allowed precision epitope and HLA restriction assignments across the ZIKV proteome and enabled discovery of numerous novel ZIKV CD4 T cell epitopes. The research workflow is useful for the study of emerging infectious diseases with a very limited human blood sample availability.
Altmann DM, Boyton RJ, 2020, SARS-CoV-2 T cell immunity: Specificity, function, durability, and role in protection, Science Immunology, Vol: 5, ISSN: 2470-9468
In efforts to synthesize a clear understanding of SARS-CoV-2 protective immunity, antibody analysis has been paralleled by T cell studies across asymptomatic, mild and severe COVID-19. Defining CD4 and CD8 effector functions in protection is important considering that antibody responses appear short-lived and T cell memory is potentially more durable. To fully understand population level immunity, screening for both antibody and T cell immunity using standardized testing methods would be beneficial.
Altmann DM, Douek DC, Boyton RJ, 2020, What policy makers need to know about COVID-19 protective immunity., The Lancet, ISSN: 0140-6736
Reynolds CJ, Watber P, Santos CNO, et al., 2020, Strong CD4 T cell responses to Zika virus antigens in a cohort of Dengue virus immune mothers of congenital Zika virus syndrome infants, Frontiers in Immunology, Vol: 11, ISSN: 1664-3224
Background: There is an urgent need to understand the complex relationship between cross-reactive anti-viral immunity, disease susceptibility, and severity in the face of differential exposure to related, circulating Flaviviruses. Co-exposure to Dengue virus and Zika virus in Brazil is a case in point. A devastating aspect of the 2015-2016 South American Zika outbreak was the dramatic increase in numbers of infants born with microcephaly to mothers exposed to Zika virus during pregnancy. It has been proposed that this is more likely to ensue from Zika infection in women lacking cross-protective Dengue immunity. In this case series we measure the prevalence of Dengue immunity in a cohort of mothers exposed to Zika virus during pregnancy in the 2015-2016 Zika outbreak that gave birth to an infant affected by microcephaly and explore their adaptive immunity to Zika virus. Results: Fifty women from Sergipe, Brazil who gave birth to infants with microcephaly following Zika virus exposure during the 2015-16 outbreak were tested for serological evidence of Dengue exposure and IFNγ ELISpot spot forming cell (SFC) response to Zika virus. The majority (46/50) demonstrated Dengue immunity. IFNγ ELISpot responses to Zika virus antigens showed the following hierarchy: Env>NS1>NS3>C protein. Twenty T cell epitopes from Zika virus Env were identified. Responses to Zika virus antigens Env and NS1 were polyfunctional with cells making IFNγ, TNFα, IL-4, IL-13, and IL-10. In contrast, responses to NS5 only produced the immune regulatory TGFβ1 cytokine. There were SFC responses against Zika virus Env (1-20) and variant peptide sequences from West Nile virus, Dengue virus 1-4 and Yellow Fever virus. Conclusion: Almost all the women in our study showed serological evidence of Dengue immunity, suggesting that microcephaly can occur in DENV immune mothers. T cell immunity to Zika virus showed a multifunctional response to the antigens Env and NS1 and i
Pinato DJ, Gramenitskaya D, Altmann DM, et al., 2019, Antibiotic therapy and outcome from immune-checkpoint inhibitors, Journal for ImmunoTherapy of Cancer, Vol: 7, ISSN: 2051-1426
Sensitivity to immune checkpoint inhibitor (ICPI) therapy is governed by a complex interplay of tumor and host-related determinants. Epidemiological studies have highlighted that exposure to antibiotic therapy influences the probability of response to ICPI and predict for shorter patient survival across malignancies. Whilst a number of studies have reproducibly documented the detrimental effect of broad-spectrum antibiotics, the immune-biologic mechanisms underlying the association with outcome are poorly understood. Perturbation of the gut microbiota, an increasingly well-characterized factor capable of influencing ICPI-mediated immune reconstitution, has been indicated as a putative mechanism to explain the adverse effects attributed to antibiotic exposure in the context of ICPI therapy. Prospective studies are required to validate antibiotic-mediated gut perturbations as a mechanism of ICPI refractoriness and guide the development of strategies to overcome this barrier to an effective delivery of anti-cancer immunotherapy.
Boyton RJ, Altmann DM, 2019, Muco-obstructive lung diseases, New England Journal of Medicine, Vol: 381, Pages: E20-+, ISSN: 0028-4793
Chambers E, Byrne C, Morrison D, et al., 2019, Dietary supplementation with inulin-propionate ester or inulin improves insulin sensitivity in adults with overweight and obesity with distinct effects on the gut microbiota, plasma metabolome and systemic inflammatory responses: a randomised cross-over trial, Gut, Vol: 68, Pages: 1430-1438, ISSN: 0017-5749
Objective: To investigate the underlying mechanisms behind changes in glucose homeostasis with delivery of propionate to the human colon by comprehensive and coordinated analysis of gut bacterial composition, plasma metabolome and immune responses.Design: Twelve non-diabetic adults with overweight and obesity received 20g/day of inulin-propionate ester (IPE), designed to selectively deliver propionate to the colon, a high-fermentable fibre control (inulin) and a low-fermentable fibre control (cellulose) in a randomised, double-blind, placebo controlled, crossover design. Outcome measurements of metabolic responses, inflammatory markers and gut bacterial composition were analysed at the end of each 42-day supplementation period.Results: Both IPE and inulin supplementation improved insulin resistance compared to cellulose supplementation, measured by homeostatic model assessment (HOMA) 2 (Mean±SEM 1.23±0.17 IPE vs. 1.59±0.17 cellulose, P=0.001; 1.17±0.15 inulin vs. 1.59±0.17 cellulose, P=0.009), with no differences between IPE and inulin (P=0.272). Fasting insulin was only associated positively with plasma tyrosine and negatively with plasma glycine following inulin supplementation. IPE supplementation decreased pro-inflammatory IL-8 levels compared to cellulose, whilst inulin had no impact on the systemic inflammatory markers studied. Inulin promoted changes in gut bacterial populations at the class level (increased Actinobacteria and decreased Clostridia) and order level (decreased Clostridales) compared to cellulose, with small differences at the species level observed between IPE and cellulose. Conclusion: These data demonstrate a distinctive physiological impact of raising colonic propionate delivery in humans, as improvements in insulin sensitivity promoted by IPE and inulin were accompanied with different effects on the plasma metabolome, gut bacterial populations and markers of systemic inflammation.
Sim M, Rajagopalan S, Altmann D, et al., 2019, Human NK cell receptor KIR2DS4 detects a conserved bacterial epitope presented by HLA-C, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol: 116, Pages: 12964-12973, ISSN: 0027-8424
Natural killer (NK) cells have an important role in immune defense against viruses and cancer. Activation of human NK cell cytotoxicity toward infected or tumor cells is regulated by killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs) that bind to human leukocyte antigen class I (HLA-I). Combinations of KIR with HLA-I are genetically associated with susceptibility to disease. KIR2DS4, an activating member of the KIR family with poorly defined ligands, is a receptor of unknown function. Here, we show that KIR2DS4 has a strong preference for rare peptides carrying a Trp at position 8 (p8) of 9-mer peptides bound to HLA-C*05:01. The complex of a peptide bound to HLA-C*05:01 with a Trp at p8 was sufficient for activation of primary KIR2DS4+ NK cells, independent of activation by other receptors and of prior NK cell licensing. HLA-C*05:01+ cells that expressed the peptide epitope triggered KIR2DS4+ NK cell degranulation. We show an inverse correlation of the worldwide allele frequency of functional KIR2DS4 with that of HLA-C*05:01, indicative of functional interaction and balancing selection. We found a highly conserved peptide sequence motif for HLA-C*05:01–restricted activation of human KIR2DS4+ NK cells in bacterial recombinase A (RecA). KIR2DS4+ NK cells were stimulated by RecA epitopes from multiple human pathogens, including Helicobacter, Chlamydia, Brucella, and Campylobacter. We predict that over 1,000 bacterial species could activate NK cells through KIR2DS4, and propose that human NK cells also contribute to immune defense against bacteria through recognition of a conserved RecA epitope presented by HLA-C*05:01.
Altmann DM, 2019, Knowns and unknowns of tissue-resident memory T cells, Immunology, Vol: 157, Pages: 1-2, ISSN: 0019-2805
Advances in transcriptomics and other approaches are shedding considerable light on tissue‐resident immune cells as distinct from recirculating cells. The advances encompass antigen‐presenting cell subsets, Tregs and importantly, tissue‐resident memory cells (TRM). What are the transcriptional programmes and functional properties that distinguish the requirements for an effective tissue resident cell in brain relative to lung, skin, adipose tissue or the genital tract? Another important conundrum has been the extent to which TRM cells are specialized either as a ‘sense and alarm’ population or as a local, primed, effector cell population in themselves. These are questions that challenge immunologists to stop thinking in terms of a generic, model, immune response and focus instead on events in the tissue in question.
Boyton R, Reynolds C, Chong D, et al., 2019, Bioluminescent reporting of in vivo interferon gamma immune responses during infection and autoimmunity, Journal of Immunology, Vol: 202, Pages: 2502-2510, ISSN: 1550-6606
IFN-γ is a key cytokine of innate and adaptive immunity. It is important to understand temporal changes in IFN-γ production and how these changes relate to the role of IFN-γ in diverse models of infectious and autoimmune disease, making the ability to monitor and track IFN-γ production in vivo of a substantial benefit. IFN-γ ELISPOTs have been a central methodology to measure T cell immunity for many years. In this study, we add the capacity to analyze IFN-γ responses with high sensitivity and specificity, longitudinally, in vitro and in vivo. This allows the refinement of experimental protocols because immunity can be tracked in real-time through a longitudinal approach. We have generated a novel murine IFN-γ reporter transgenic model that allows IFN-γ production to be visualized and quantified in vitro and in vivo as bioluminescence using an imaging system. At baseline, in the absence of an inflammatory stimulus, IFN-γ signal from lymphoid tissue is detectable in vivo. Reporter transgenics are used in this study to track the IFN-γ response to Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection in the lung over time in vivo. The longitudinal development of the adaptive T cell immunity following immunization with Ag is identified from day 7 in vivo. Finally, we show that we are able to use this reporter transgenic to follow the onset of autoimmune T cell activation after regulatory T cell depletion in an established model of systemic autoimmunity. This IFN-γ reporter transgenic, termed “Gammaglow,” offers a valuable new modality for tracking IFN-γ immunity, noninvasively and longitudinally over time.
Altmann DM, 2019, "Just 17 if you know what I mean' ... but what do we really mean to say about Th17 immunity?, IMMUNOLOGY, Vol: 156, Pages: 297-298, ISSN: 0019-2805
Altmann DM, 2019, The immune regulatory role of neutrophils, Immunology, Vol: 156, Pages: 215-216, ISSN: 0019-2805
Neutrophils are appreciated to perform a wide range of pro‐ and anti‐inflammatory effector functions in diverse settings. These go far beyond the response to acute infection, encompassing sterile injury, autoimmunity, allergy and tumours. There is growing appreciation of the nuances of their modes of action, especially elucidation of the nature and consequences of NETosis. New work suggests that it is time to give greater consideration to the anti‐inflammatory role of neutrophils, such as in the control of cytokine release during sepsis.
Altmann DM, 2019, Natural killer cell transcriptional control, subsets, receptors and effector function, IMMUNOLOGY, Vol: 156, Pages: 109-110, ISSN: 0019-2805
Altmann DM, 2018, T-cell immunology of the lung: maintaining the balance between host defence and immune pathology, IMMUNOLOGY, Vol: 156, Pages: 1-2, ISSN: 0019-2805
Altmann DM, 2018, Functions of adipose-resident immune subsets and the impact on metabolic syndrome, IMMUNOLOGY, Vol: 155, Pages: 405-406, ISSN: 0019-2805
Reynolds CJ, Quigley K, Cheng X, et al., 2018, Lung defense through interleukin-8 carries a cost of chronic lung remodeling and impaired function, American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology, Vol: 59, Pages: 557-571, ISSN: 1044-1549
RATIONALE: IL-8 dependent inflammation is a hallmark of host lung innate immunity to bacterial pathogens, yet in many human lung diseases including COPD, bronchiectasis, and pulmonary fibrosis, there are progressive, irreversible pathologic, changes associated with elevated levels of IL-8 in the lung. OBJECTIVES: To better understand the duality of IL-8 dependent host immunity to bacterial infection and lung pathology, we targeted human IL-8 to express transgenically in murine bronchial epithelium, investigating the impact of over-expression on lung bacterial clearance, host immunity, lung pathology and function. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Persistent IL-8 expression in bronchial epithelium resulted in neutrophilia, neutrophil maturation, activation and chemtoaxis. There was enhanced protection from challenge with Pseudomonas aeruginosa and significant changes in baseline expression of innate and adaptive immunity transcripts for Ccl5, Tlr6, IL2 and Tlr1. There was increased expression of Tbet and Foxp3 in response to the Pseudomonas antigen, OprF, indicating a regulatory T cell phenotype. However, this enhanced bacterial immunity comes at the high price of progressive lung remodelling, with increased inflammation, mucus hyper-secretion, and fibrosis. There is increased expression of Ccl3 and reduced expressioh of Claudin 18 and F11r, with damage to epithelial organization leading to leaky tight junctions, all resulting in impaired lung function with reduced compliance, increased resistance and bronchial hyperreactivity measured by whole body plethysmography. CONCLUSIONS: IL-8 over-expression in the bronchial epithelium benefits lung immunity to bacterial infection, but specifically drives lung damage through persistent inflammation, lung remodelling and damaged tight junctions, leading to impaired lung function.
Altmann DM, 2018, A Nobel Prize-worthy pursuit: cancer immunology and harnessing immunity to tumour neoantigens, IMMUNOLOGY, Vol: 155, Pages: 283-284, ISSN: 0019-2805
Altmann DM, 2018, Regulatory T-cells: receptors, repertoires and roles in disease, IMMUNOLOGY, Vol: 155, Pages: 153-154, ISSN: 0019-2805
Altmann DM, 2018, Bioinformatics for immunologists, IMMUNOLOGY, Vol: 155, Pages: 1-2, ISSN: 0019-2805
Altmann DM, 2018, Establishing the new playbook for interactions among microbiota, bacterial metabolites, adaptive immunity, autoimmune disease and metabolic syndrome, IMMUNOLOGY, Vol: 154, Pages: 533-534, ISSN: 0019-2805
Altmann DM, 2018, New tools for MHC research from machine learning and predictive algorithms to the tumour immunopeptidome, IMMUNOLOGY, Vol: 154, Pages: 329-330, ISSN: 0019-2805
Altmann DM, Reynolds CJ, Boyton RJ, 2018, Immunology of the microbiome: Implications for rheumatoid arthritis and other autoimmune diseases, The Microbiome in Rheumatic Diseases and Infection, Pages: 55-62, ISBN: 9783319790251
Altmann DM, 2018, Neuroimmunology and neuroinflammation in autoimmune, neurodegenerative and psychiatric disease, IMMUNOLOGY, Vol: 154, Pages: 167-168, ISSN: 0019-2805
Altmann DM, 2018, Mapping innate and adaptive immune function in arbovirus infections, IMMUNOLOGY, Vol: 154, Pages: 1-2, ISSN: 0019-2805
Nithichanon A, Rinchai D, Buddhisa S, et al., 2018, Immune control of Burkholderia pseudomallei––common, high-frequency T-cell responses to a broad repertoire of immunoprevalent epitopes, Frontiers in Immunology, Vol: 9, ISSN: 1664-3224
Burkholderia pseudomallei (Bp) is an environmental bacterial pathogen that causes potentially lethal sepsis in susceptible individuals and is considered a Category B, Tier-1 biothreat agent. As such, it is crucial to gain an improved understanding of protective immunity and potential vaccine candidates. The nature of immune correlates dictating why most exposed individuals in endemic regions undergo asymptomatic seroconversion while others succumb to life-threatening sepsis is largely uncharted. Bp seroreactive, immunogenic proteins have previously been identified by antigen microarray. We here set out to conduct an analysis of T-cell recognition of the Bp immunome using serodominant antigens represented in the original antigen microarray, examining immune correlates of disease in healthy seropositive individuals and those with acute disease or in convalescence. By screening a library of 739 overlapping peptides representing the sequences of 20 different Bp antigens, we aimed to define immune correlates of protection at the level of immunoprevalent T-cell epitopes. Responses to a large number of epitopes were common in healthy seropositive individuals: we found remarkably broad responsiveness to Bp epitopes, with 235 of 739 peptides recognized by ≥80% of all tested donors. The cumulative response to Bp epitopes in healthy, seropositive, donors from this endemic region were of the order of thousands of spot forming cells per million cells, making Bp recognition a significant component of the T-cell repertoire. Noteworthy among our findings, analysis revealed 10 highly immunoprevalent T-cell epitopes, able to induce Bp-specific IFNγ responses that were high in responding T-cell frequency within the repertoire, and also common across individuals with different human leukocyte antigen types. Acute melioidosis patients showed poor T-cell responses to the immunoprevalent epitopes, but acquired responsiveness following recovery from infection. Our findings suggest
Altmann D, 2018, Don't let peer review panels for grant awards turn into a wolf pack., Nature, Vol: 555, Pages: 311-311
Reynolds CJ, Suleyman OM, Ortega-Prieto AM, et al., 2018, T cell immunity to Zika virus targets immunodominant epitopes that show cross-reactivity with other Flaviviruses, Scientific Reports, Vol: 8, ISSN: 2045-2322
Zika virus (ZIKV) Infection has several outcomes from asymptomatic exposure to rash, conjunctivitis, Guillain-Barré syndrome or congenital Zika syndrome. Analysis of ZIKV immunity is confounded by the fact that several related Flaviviruses infect humans, including Dengue virus 1–4, West Nile virus and Yellow Fever virus. HLA class II restricted T cell cross-reactivity between ZIKV and other Flaviviruses infection(s) or vaccination may contribute to protection or to enhanced immunopathology. We mapped immunodominant, HLA class II restricted, CD4 epitopes from ZIKV Envelope (Env), and Non-structural (NS) NS1, NS3 and NS5 antigens in HLA class II transgenic mice. In several cases, ZIKV primed CD4 cells responded to homologous sequences from other viruses, including DENV1–4, WNV or YFV. However, cross-reactive responses could confer immune deviation - the response to the Env DENV4 p1 epitope in HLA-DR1 resulted in IL-17A immunity, often associated with exacerbated immunopathogenesis. This conservation of recognition across Flaviviruses, may encompass protective and/or pathogenic components and poses challenges to characterization of ZIKV protective immunity.
Dunachie SJ, Jenjaroen K, Reynolds CJ, et al., 2017, Infection with Burkholderia pseudomallei - immune correlates of survival in acute melioidosis, SCIENTIFIC REPORTS, Vol: 7, ISSN: 2045-2322
Melioidosis, caused by Burkholderia pseudomallei, is a potentially lethal infection with no licensed vaccine. There is little understanding of why some exposed individuals have no symptoms, while others rapidly progress to sepsis and death, or why diabetes confers increased susceptibility. We prospectively recruited a cohort of 183 acute melioidosis patients and 21 control subjects from Northeast Thailand and studied immune parameters in the context of survival status and the presence or absence of diabetes. HLA-B*46 (one of the commonest HLA class I alleles in SE Asia) and HLA-C*01 were associated with an increased risk of death (odds ratio 2.8 and 3.1 respectively). Transcriptomic analysis during acute infection in diabetics indicated the importance of interplay between immune pathways including those involved in antigen presentation, chemotaxis, innate and adaptive immunity and their regulation. Survival was associated with enhanced T cell immunity to nine of fifteen immunodominant antigens analysed including AhpC (BPSL2096), BopE (BPSS1525), PilO (BPSS1599), ATP binding protein (BPSS1385) and an uncharacterised protein (BPSL2520). T cell immunity to GroEL (BPSL2697) was specifically impaired in diabetic individuals. This characterization of immunity associated with survival during acute infection offers insights into correlates of protection and a foundation for design of an effective multivalent vaccine.
Lima Keesen TS, de Almeida RP, Gois BM, et al., 2017, Guillain-Barre syndrome and arboviral infection in Brazil, Lancet Infectious Diseases, Vol: 17, Pages: 693-694, ISSN: 1473-3099
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