589 results found
Seligman H, Teixeira-Pinto A, Nowbar A, et al., 2019, Fragility of the Bond Between Cardiovascular Investigators and Their Readers, CIRCULATION-CARDIOVASCULAR QUALITY AND OUTCOMES, Vol: 12, ISSN: 1941-7705
Ahmad Y, Vendrik J, Eftekhari A, et al., 2019, Determining the Predominant Lesion in Patients With Severe Aortic Stenosis and Coronary Stenoses: A Multicenter Study Using Intracoronary Pressure and Flow, Circulation: Cardiovascular Interventions, Vol: 12, ISSN: 1941-7640
Background:Patients with severe aortic stenosis (AS) often have coronary artery disease. Both the aortic valve and the coronary disease influence the blood flow to the myocardium and its ability to respond to stress; leading to exertional symptoms. In this study, we aim to quantify the effect of severe AS on the coronary microcirculation and determine if this is influenced by any concomitant coronary disease. We then compare this to the effect of coronary stenoses on the coronary microcirculation.Methods:Group 1: 55 patients with severe AS and intermediate coronary stenoses treated with transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) were included. Group 2: 85 patients with intermediate coronary stenoses and no AS treated with percutaneous coronary intervention were included. Coronary pressure and flow were measured at rest and during hyperemia in both groups, before and after TAVI (group 1) and before and after percutaneous coronary intervention (group 2).Results:Microvascular resistance over the wave-free period of diastole increased significantly post-TAVI (pre-TAVI, 2.71±1.4 mm Hg·cm·s−1 versus post-TAVI 3.04±1.6 mm Hg·cm·s−1 [P=0.03]). Microvascular reserve over the wave-free period of diastole significantly improved post-TAVI (pre-TAVI 1.88±1.0 versus post-TAVI 2.09±0.8 [P=0.003]); this was independent of the severity of the underlying coronary stenosis. The change in microvascular resistance post-TAVI was equivalent to that produced by stenting a coronary lesion with an instantaneous wave-free ratio of ≤0.74.Conclusions:TAVI improves microcirculatory function regardless of the severity of underlying coronary disease. TAVI for severe AS produces a coronary hemodynamic improvement equivalent to the hemodynamic benefit of stenting coronary stenoses with instantaneous wave-free ratio values <0.74. Future trials of physiology-guided revascularization in severe AS may consider us
Kaura A, Panoulas V, Glampson B, et al., 2019, Association of troponin level and age with mortality in 250 000 patients: cohort study across five UK acute care centres, BMJ-British Medical Journal, Vol: 367, ISSN: 1756-1833
ObjectiveTo determine the relation between age and troponinlevel and its prognostic implication.DesignRetrospective cohort study.SettingFive cardiovascular centres in the UK National Institutefor Health Research Health Informatics Collaborative(UK-NIHR HIC).Participants257948 consecutive patients undergoing troponintesting for any clinical reason between 2010 and2017.Main outcome measureAll cause mortality.Results257948 patients had troponin measured during thestudy period. Analyses on troponin were performedusing the peak troponin level, which was the highesttroponin level measured during the patient’s hospitalstay. Troponin levels were standardised as a multipleof each laboratory’s 99th centile of the upper limitof normal (ULN). During a median follow-up of 1198days (interquartile range 514-1866 days), 55850(21.7%) deaths occurred. A positive troponin result(that is, higher than the upper limit of normal)signified an overall 3.2-fold higher mortality hazard(95% confidence interval 3.1-fold to 3.2-fold) overthree years. The mortality hazard varied markedly withage, from 10.6-fold (8.5-fold to 13.3-fold) in 18-29year olds to 1.5 (1.4 to 1.6) in those older than 90.A positive troponin result was associated with anapproximately 15 percentage points higher absolutethree year mortality across all age groups. The excessmortality with a positive troponin result was heavilyconcentrated in the first few weeks. Results wereanalysed using multivariable adjusted restrictedcubic spline Cox regression. A direct relation wasseen between troponin level and mortality in patientswithout acute coronary syndrome (ACS, n=120049),whereas an inverted U shaped relation was foundin patients with ACS (n=14468), with a paradoxicaldecline in mortality at peak troponin levels >70xULN.In the group with ACS, the inverted U shaped relationpersisted after multivariable adjustment in those whowere managed invasively; however, a direct positiverelation was found between troponin level
Al-Lamee R, Shun-Shin M, Howard J, et al., 2019, Dobutamine stress echocardiography ischemia as a predictor of the placebo-controlled efficacy of percutaneous coronary intervention in stable coronary artery disease: the stress echo-stratified analysis of ORBITA, Circulation, Vol: 140, Pages: 1971-1980, ISSN: 0009-7322
BackgroundDobutamine stress echocardiography (DSE) is widely used to test for ischemia in patients with stable coronary artery disease (CAD). In this analysis we studied the ability of pre-randomization stress echo score to predict the placebo-controlled efficacy of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) within the ORBITA trial. MethodsOne hundred and eighty-three patients underwent DSE before randomization. The stress echo score is broadly the number of segments abnormal at peak stress, with akinetic segments counting double and dyskinetic segments counting triple. The ability of pre-randomization stress echo to predict the placebo-controlled effect of PCI on response variables was tested using regression modelling.ResultsAt pre-randomization, the stress echo score was 1.561.77 in the PCI arm (n=98) and 1.611.73 in the placebo arm (n=85). There was a detectable interaction between pre-randomization stress echo score and the effect of PCI on angina frequency score with a larger placebo-controlled effect in patients with the highest stress echo score (pinteraction=0.031). With our sample size we were unable to detect an interaction between stress echo score and any other patient-reported response variables: freedom from angina (pinteraction=0.116), physical limitation (pinteraction=0.461), quality of life (pinteraction=0.689), EQ-5D-5L quality of life score (pinteraction=0.789) or between stress echo score and physician-assessed Canadian Cardiovascular Society angina class (pinteraction=0.693), and treadmill exercise time (pinteraction=0.426). ConclusionsThe degree of ischemia assessed by DSE predicts the placebo-controlled efficacy of PCI on patient-reported angina frequency. The greater the downstream stress echo abnormality caused by a stenosis, the greater the reduction in symptoms from PCI.
Howard JP, Cook CM, van de Hoef TP, et al., 2019, Artificial Intelligence for Aortic Pressure Waveform Analysis During Coronary Angiography Machine Learning for Patient Safety, JACC-CARDIOVASCULAR INTERVENTIONS, Vol: 12, Pages: 2093-2101, ISSN: 1936-8798
Arnold A, Howard J, Chiew K, et al., 2019, Right ventricular pacing for hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy: meta-analysis and meta-regression of clinical trials, European Heart Journal - Quality of Care and Clinical Outcomes, Vol: 5, Pages: 321-333, ISSN: 2058-5225
AimsRight ventricular pacing for left ventricular outflow tract gradient reduction in hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy remains controversial. We undertook a meta-analysis for echocardiographic and functional outcomes.Methods and resultsThirty-four studies comprising 1135 patients met eligibility criteria. In the four blinded randomized controlled trials (RCTs), pacing reduced gradient by 35% [95% confidence interval (CI) 23.2–46.9, P < 0.0001], but there was only a trend towards improved New York Heart Association (NYHA) class [odds ratio (OR) 1.82, CI 0.96–3.44; P = 0.066]. The unblinded observational studies reported a 54.3% (CI 44.1–64.6, P < 0.0001) reduction in gradient, which was a 18.6% greater reduction than the RCTs (P = 0.0351 for difference between study designs). Observational studies reported an effect on unblinded NYHA class at an OR of 8.39 (CI 4.39–16.04, P < 0.0001), 450% larger than the OR in RCTs (P = 0.0042 for difference between study designs). Across all studies, the gradient progressively decreased at longer follow durations, by 5.2% per month (CI 2.5–7.9, P = 0.0001).ConclusionRight ventricular pacing reduces gradient in blinded RCTs. There is a non-significant trend to reduction in NYHA class. The bias in assessment of NYHA class in observational studies appears to be more than twice as large as any genuine treatment effect.
Keene D, Arnold A, Jastrzębski M, et al., 2019, His bundle pacing, learning curve, procedure characteristics, safety, and feasibility: Insights from a large international observational study, Journal of Cardiovascular Electrophysiology, Vol: 30, Pages: 1984-1993, ISSN: 1045-3873
BackgroundHis‐bundle pacing (HBP) provides physiological ventricular activation. Observational studies have demonstrated the techniques feasibility however, data has come from a limited number of centres.ObjectivesWe set out to explore contemporary global practise in HBP focusing on learning curve, procedural characteristics and outcomes.MethodsThis is a retrospective, multi‐centre observational study of patients undergoing attempted HBP at seven centres. Pacing indication, fluoroscopy time, HBP thresholds and lead re‐intervention and deactivation rates were recorded. Where centres had systematically recorded implant success rates from the outset, these were collated.Results529 patients underwent attempted HBP during the study period (2014‐19) with mean follow‐up of 217±303 days. Most implants were for bradycardia indications.In the three centres with systematic collation of all attempts, overall implant success rate was 81% which improved to 87% after completion of 40 cases.All seven centres reported data on successful implants. Mean fluoroscopy time was 11.7±12.0 minutes, His‐bundle capture threshold at implant was 1.4±0.9V at 0.8±0.3 ms and was 1.3±1.2V at 0.9±0.2ms at last device check.HBP lead re‐intervention or deactivation (for lead displacement or rise in threshold) occurred in 7.5% of successful implants.There was evidence of a learning curve: fluoroscopy time and HBP capture threshold reduced with greater experience, plateauing after ~30‐50 cases.ConclusionWe found that it is feasible to establish a successful HBP program, using the currently available implantation tools. For physicians who are experienced at pacemaker implantation the steepest part of the learning curve appears to be over the first 30‐50 cases.
Shun-Shin MJ, Leong KMW, Ng FS, et al., 2019, Ventricular conduction stability test: a method to identify and quantify changes in whole heart activation patterns during physiological stress, EP-Europace, Vol: 21, Pages: 1422-1431, ISSN: 1099-5129
AIMS: Abnormal rate adaptation of the action potential is proarrhythmic but is difficult to measure with current electro-anatomical mapping techniques. We developed a method to rapidly quantify spatial discordance in whole heart activation in response to rate cycle length changes. We test the hypothesis that patients with underlying channelopathies or history of aborted sudden cardiac death (SCD) have a reduced capacity to maintain uniform activation following exercise. METHODS AND RESULTS: Electrocardiographical imaging (ECGI) reconstructs >1200 electrograms (EGMs) over the ventricles from a single beat, providing epicardial whole heart activation maps. Thirty-one individuals [11 SCD survivors; 10 Brugada syndrome (BrS) without SCD; and 10 controls] with structurally normal hearts underwent ECGI vest recordings following exercise treadmill. For each patient, we calculated the relative change in EGM local activation times (LATs) between a baseline and post-exertion phase using custom written software. A ventricular conduction stability (V-CoS) score calculated to indicate the percentage of ventricle that showed no significant change in relative LAT (<10 ms). A lower score reflected greater conduction heterogeneity. Mean variability (standard deviation) of V-CoS score over 10 consecutive beats was small (0.9 ± 0.5%), with good inter-operator reproducibility of V-CoS scores. Sudden cardiac death survivors, compared to BrS and controls, had the lowest V-CoS scores post-exertion (P = 0.011) but were no different at baseline (P = 0.50). CONCLUSION: We present a method to rapidly quantify changes in global activation which provides a measure of conduction heterogeneity and proof of concept by demonstrating SCD survivors have a reduced capacity to maintain uniform activation following exercise.
ShunShin MJ, Miyazawa AA, Keene D, et al., 2019, How to deliver personalized Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy through the precise measurement of the acute hemodynamic response: insights from the iSpot trial, Journal of Cardiovascular Electrophysiology, Vol: 30, Pages: 1610-1619, ISSN: 1045-3873
IntroductionNew pacing technologies offer greater choice of left ventricular pacing sites and greater personalization of cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT). The effects on cardiac function of novel pacing configurations are often compared using multi‐beat averages of acute hemodynamic measurements. In this analysis of the iSpot trial we explore whether this is sufficient.MethodsThe iSpot trial was an international, prospective, acute hemodynamic trial that assessed seven CRT configurations: Standard CRT, Multispot (posterolateral vein), and Multivein (anterior and posterior vein) pacing. Invasive and non‐invasive blood pressure, and LV dP/dtmax were recorded. Eight beats were recorded before and after an alternation from AAI to the tested pacing configuration and vice‐versa. Eight alternations were performed for each configuration at each of the 5 AV delays.Results25 patients underwent the full protocol of 8 alternations. Only 4 (16%) patients had a statistically significant >3mmHg improvement over conventional CRT configuration (posterolateral vein, distal electrode). However, if only one alternation was analyzed (standard multi‐beat averaging protocol), 15 (60%) patients falsely appeared to have a superior non‐conventional configuration. Responses to pacing were significantly correlated between the different hemodynamic measures: invasive SBP versus non‐invasive SBP r=0.82 (p<0.001); invasive SBP versus LV dP/dt r=0.57, r2=0.32 (p<0.001).ConclusionsCurrent standard multi‐beat acquisition protocols are unfortunately unable to prevent false impressions of optimality arising in individual patients. Personalization processes need to include distinct repeated transitions to the tested pacing configuration in addition to averaging multiple beats. The need is not only during research stages, but also during clinical implementation.
Sau A, Howard J, Al-Aidarous S, et al., 2019, Meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials of atrial fibrillation ablation with pulmonary vein isolation versus without, JACC: Clinical Electrophysiology, Vol: 5, Pages: 968-976, ISSN: 2405-5018
ObjectivesThis meta-analysis examined the ability of pulmonary vein isolation (PVI) to prevent atrial fibrillation in randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in which the patients not receiving PVI nevertheless underwent a procedure.BackgroundPVI is a commonly used procedure for the treatment of atrial fibrillation (AF), and its efficacy has usually been judged against therapy with anti-arrhythmic drugs in open-label trials. There have been several RCTs of AF ablation in which both arms received an ablation, but the difference between the treatment arms was inclusion or omission of PVI. These trials of an ablation strategy with PVI versus an ablation strategy without PVI may provide a more rigorous method for evaluating the efficacy of PVI.MethodsMedline and Cochrane databases were searched for RCTs comparing ablation including PVI with ablation excluding PVI. The primary efficacy endpoint was freedom from atrial fibrillation (AF) and atrial tachycardia at 12 months. A random-effects meta-analysis was performed using the restricted maximum likelihood estimator.ResultsOverall, 6 studies (610 patients) met inclusion criteria. AF recurrence was significantly lower with an ablation including PVI than an ablation without PVI (RR: 0.54; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.33 to 0.89; p 1⁄4 0.0147; I2 1⁄4 79.7%). Neither the type of AF (p 1⁄4 0.48) nor the type of non-PVI ablation (p 1⁄4 0.21) was a significant moderator of the effect size. In 3 trials the non-PVI ablation procedure was performed in both arms, whereas PVI was performed in only 1 arm. In these studies, AF recurrence was significantly lower when PVI was included (RR: 0.32; 95% CI: 0.14 to 0.73; p 1⁄4 0.007, I2 78%ConclusionIn RCTs where both arms received an ablation, and therefore an expectation amongst patients and doctors of benefit, being randomized to PVI had a striking effect, reducing AF recurrence by a half.
Sau A, Al-Aidarous S, Howard J, et al., 2019, Optimum lesion set and predictors of outcome in persistent atrial fibrillation ablation: a meta-regression analysis, Europace, Vol: 21, Pages: 1176-1184, ISSN: 1099-5129
AIMS: Ablation of persistent atrial fibrillation (PsAF) has been performed by many techniques with varying success rates. This may be due to ablation techniques, patient demographics, comorbidities, and trial design. We conducted a meta-regression of studies of PsAF ablation to elucidate the factors affecting atrial fibrillation (AF) recurrence. METHODS AND RESULTS : Databases were searched for prospective studies of PsAF ablation. A meta-regression was performed. Fifty-eight studies (6767 patients) were included. Complex fractionated atrial electrogram (CFAE) ablation reduced freedom from AF by 8.9% [95% confidence interval (CI) -15 to -2.3, P = 0.009). Left atrial appendage [LAA isolation (three study arms)] increased freedom from AF by 39.5% (95% CI 9.1-78.4, P = 0.008). Posterior wall isolation (PWI) (eight study arms) increased freedom from AF by 19.4% (95% CI 3.3-38.1, P = 0.017). Linear ablation or ganglionated plexi ablation resulted in no significant effect on freedom from AF. More extensive ablation increased intraprocedural AF termination; however, intraprocedural AF termination was not associated with improved outcomes. Increased left atrial diameter was associated with a reduction in freedom from AF by 4% (95% CI -6.8% to -1.1%, P = 0.007) for every 1 mm increase in diameter. CONCLUSION : Linear ablation, PWI, and CFAE ablation improves intraprocedural AF termination, but such termination does not predict better long-term outcomes. Study arms including PWI or LAA isolation in the lesion set were associated with improved outcomes in terms of freedom from AF; however, further randomized trials are required before these can be routinely recommended. Left atrial size is the most important marker of AF chronicity influencing outcomes.
Whinnett Z, Sohaib SMA, Mason M, et al., 2019, Multicenter randomized controlled crossover trial comparing hemodynamic optimization against echocardiographic optimization of AV and VV delay of Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy: The BRAVO Trial, JACC: Cardiovascular Imaging, Vol: 12, Pages: 1407-1416, ISSN: 1936-878X
ObjectivesBRAVO (British Randomized Controlled Trial of AV and VV Optimization) is a multicenter, randomized, crossover, noninferiority trial comparing echocardiographic optimization of atrioventricular (AV) and interventricular delay with a noninvasive blood pressure method.BackgroundCardiac resynchronization therapy including AV delay optimization confers clinical benefit, but the optimization requires time and expertise to perform.MethodsThis study randomized patients to echocardiographic optimization or hemodynamic optimization using multiple-replicate beat-by-beat noninvasive blood pressure at baseline; after 6 months, participants were crossed over to the other optimization arm of the trial. The primary outcome was exercise capacity, quantified as peak exercise oxygen uptake. Secondary outcome measures were echocardiographic left ventricular (LV) remodeling, quality-of-life scores, and N-terminal pro–B-type natriuretic peptide.ResultsA total of 401 patients were enrolled, the median age was 69 years, 78% of patients were men, and the New York Heart Association functional class was II in 84% and III in 16%. The primary endpoint, peak oxygen uptake, met the criterion for noninferiority (pnoninferiority = 0.0001), with no significant difference between the hemodynamically optimized arm and echocardiographically optimized arm of the trial (mean difference 0.1 ml/kg/min). Secondary endpoints for noninferiority were also met for symptoms (mean difference in Minnesota score 1; pnoninferiority = 0.002) and hormonal changes (mean change in N-terminal pro–B-type natriuretic peptide -10 pg/ml; pnoninferiority = 0.002). There was no significant difference in LV size (mean change in LV systolic dimension 1 mm; pnoninferiority < 0.001; LV diastolic dimension 0 mm; pnoninferiority <0.001). In 30% of patients the AV delay identified as optimal was more than 20 ms from the nominal setting of 120 ms.ConclusionsOptimization of cardiac resynchronization therapy
Mann I, Coyle C, Qureshi N, et al., 2019, Evaluation of a new algorithm for tracking activation during atrial fibrillation using multipolar catheters in humans, JOURNAL OF CARDIOVASCULAR ELECTROPHYSIOLOGY, Vol: 30, Pages: 1464-1474, ISSN: 1045-3873
Giannoni A, Gentile F, Navari A, et al., 2019, Contribution of the Lung to the Genesis of Cheyne-Stokes Respiration in Heart Failure: Plant Gain Beyond Chemoreflex Gain and Circulation Time., J Am Heart Assoc, Vol: 8, Pages: e012419-e012419
Background The contribution of the lung or the plant gain ( PG ; ie, change in blood gases per unit change in ventilation) to Cheyne-Stokes respiration ( CSR ) in heart failure has only been hypothesized by mathematical models, but never been directly evaluated. Methods and Results Twenty patients with systolic heart failure (age, 72.4±6.4 years; left ventricular ejection fraction, 31.5±5.8%), 10 with relevant CSR (24-hour apnea-hypopnea index [ AHI ] ≥10 events/h) and 10 without ( AHI <10 events/h) at 24-hour cardiorespiratory monitoring underwent evaluation of chemoreflex gain (CG) to hypoxia ([Formula: see text]) and hypercapnia ([Formula: see text]) by rebreathing technique, lung-to-finger circulation time, and PG assessment through a visual system. PG test was feasible and reproducible (intraclass correlation coefficient, 0.98; 95% CI , 0.91-0.99); the best-fitting curve to express the PG was a hyperbola ( R2≥0.98). Patients with CSR showed increased PG , [Formula: see text] (but not [Formula: see text]), and lung-to-finger circulation time, compared with patients without CSR (all P<0.05). PG was the only predictor of the daytime AHI ( R=0.56, P=0.01) and together with the [Formula: see text] also predicted the nighttime AHI ( R=0.81, P=0.0003) and the 24-hour AHI ( R=0.71, P=0.001). Lung-to-finger circulation time was the only predictor of CSR cycle length ( R=0.82, P=0.00006). Conclusions PG is a powerful contributor of CSR and should be evaluated together with the CG and circulation time to individualize treatments aimed at stabilizing breathing in heart failure.
Nowbar AN, gitto M, Howard J, et al., 2019, Mortality from Ischaemic Heart Disease: analysis of data from the World Health Organization and coronary artery disease risk factors from NCD-RisC, Circulation: Cardiovascular Quality and Outcomes, Vol: 12, ISSN: 1941-7705
BackgroundIschemic heart disease (IHD) has been considered the top cause of mortality globally. However, countries differ in their rates and there have been changes over time.Methods and ResultsWe analyzed mortality data submitted to the World Health Organization from 2005 to 2015 by individual countries. We explored patterns in relationships with age, sex, and income and calculated age-standardized mortality rates for each country in addition to crude death rates. In 5 illustrative countries which provided detailed data, we analyzed trends of mortality from IHD and 3 noncommunicable diseases (lung cancer, stroke, and chronic lower respiratory tract diseases) and examined the simultaneous trends in important cardiovascular risk factors. Russia, United States, and Ukraine had the largest absolute numbers of deaths among the countries that provided data. Among 5 illustrative countries (United Kingdom, United States, Brazil, Kazakhstan, and Ukraine), IHD was the top cause of death, but mortality from IHD has progressively decreased from 2005 to 2015. Age-standardized IHD mortality rates per 100 000 people per year were much higher in Ukraine (324) and Kazakhstan (97) than in United States (60), Brazil (54), and the United Kingdom (46), with much less difference in other causes of death. All 5 countries showed a progressive decline in IHD mortality, with a decline in smoking and hypertension and in all cases a rise in obesity and type II diabetes mellitus.ConclusionsIHD remains the single largest cause of death in countries of all income groups. Rates are different between countries and are falling in most countries, indicating great potential for further gains. On the horizon, future improvements may become curtailed by increasing hypertension in some developing countries and more importantly global growth in obesity.
Cook CM, Ahmad Y, Howard JP, et al., 2019, Association Between Physiological Stenosis Severity and Angina-Limited Exercise Time in Patients With Stable Coronary Artery Disease, JAMA CARDIOLOGY, Vol: 4, Pages: 569-574, ISSN: 2380-6583
Keene D, Shun-Shin M, Arnold A, et al., 2019, Quantification of Electromechanical Coupling to Prevent Inappropriate Implantable Cardioverter-Defibrillator Shocks, JACC: Clinical Electrophysiology, Vol: 5, Pages: 705-715, ISSN: 2405-500X
Objective To test specialised processing of laser Doppler signals for discriminating ventricular fibrillation(VF) from common causes of inappropriate therapies.BackgroundInappropriate ICD therapies remain a clinically important problem associated with morbidity and mortality.Tissue perfusion biomarkers, to assist automated diagnosis of VF, suffer the vulnerability of sometimes mistaking artefact and random noise for perfusion, which could lead to shocks being inappropriately withheld. MethodsWe developed a novel processing algorithm that combines electrogram data and laser Doppler perfusion monitoring, as a method for assessing circulatory status. We recruited 50 patients undergoing VF induction during ICD implantation. We recorded non-invasive laser Doppler and continuous electrograms, during both sinus-rhythm and VF. For each patient we simulated two additional scenarios that may lead to inappropriate shocks: ventricular-lead fracture and T-wave oversensing. We analysed the laser Doppler using three methods for reducing noise: (i)Running Mean, (ii)Oscillatory Height, (iii)a novel quantification of Electro-Mechanical coupling which gates laser Doppler against electrograms. We additionally tested the algorithm during exercise induced sinus tachycardia.ResultsOnly the Electro-mechanical coupling algorithm found a clear perfusion cut-off between sinus rhythm and VF (sensitivity and specificity 100%). Sensitivity and specificity remained 100% during simulated lead fracture and electrogram oversensing. (AUC: Running Mean 0.91, Oscillatory Height 0.86, Electro-Mechanical Coupling 1.00). Sinus tachycardia did not cause false positives.ConclusionsQuantifying the coupling between electrical and perfusion signals increases reliability of discrimination between VF and artefacts that ICDs may interpret as VF. Incorporating such methods into future ICDs may safely permit reductions of inappropriate shocks.
Kaura A, Panoulas V, Glampson B, et al., 2019, THE PROGNOSTIC IMPLICATION OF A POSITIVE TROPONIN ACROSS THE AGE SPECTRUM IN A QUARTER OF A MILLION PATIENTS WITH SUSPECTED ACUTE CORONARY SYNDROME (NIHR HEALTH INFORMATICS COLLABORATIVE TROP-RISK STUDY), Annual Conference of the British-Cardiovascular-Society (BCS) - Digital Health Revolution, Publisher: BMJ PUBLISHING GROUP, Pages: A121-A122, ISSN: 1355-6037
Giannoni AA, Gentile F, Navari A, et al., 2019, Plant Gain, Chemoreflex Gain, Circulation Time and Cheyne-Stokes Respiration in Heart Failure, Publisher: WILEY, Pages: 103-103, ISSN: 1388-9842
Kaura A, Panoulas V, Glampson B, et al., 2019, THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN TROPONIN LEVEL AND MORTALITY IN AN UNSELECTED POPULATION OF OVER 250,000 PATIENTS WITH SUSPECTED ACUTE CORONARY SYNDROME (NIHR HEALTH INFORMATICS COLLABORATIVE TROP-RISK STUDY), Annual Conference of the British-Cardiovascular-Society (BCS) - Digital Health Revolution, Publisher: BMJ PUBLISHING GROUP, Pages: A59-A59, ISSN: 1355-6037
Nowbar A, Gitto M, Howard J, et al., 2019, GLOBAL AND TEMPORAL TRENDS IN MORTALITY FROM ISCHAEMIC HEART DISEASE: STATISTICS FROM THE WORLD HEALTH ORGANISATION, Annual Conference of the British-Cardiovascular-Society (BCS) - Digital Health Revolution, Publisher: BMJ PUBLISHING GROUP, Pages: A93-A93, ISSN: 1355-6037
Howard J, Fisher L, Shun-Shin M, et al., 2019, Cardiac rhythm device identification using neural networks, JACC: Clinical Electrophysiology, Vol: 5, Pages: 576-586, ISSN: 2405-5018
BackgroundMedical staff often need to determine the model of a pacemaker or defibrillator (cardiac rhythm devices) quickly and accurately. Current approaches involve comparing a device’s X-ray appearance with a manual flow chart. We aimed to see whether a neural network could be trained to perform this task more accurately.Methods and ResultsWe extracted X-ray images of 1676 devices, comprising 45 models from 5 manufacturers. We developed a convolutional neural network to classify the images, using a training set of 1451 images. The testing set was a further 225 images, consisting of 5 examples of each model. We compared the network’s ability to identify the manufacturer of a device with those of cardiologists using a published flow-chart.The neural network was 99.6% (95% CI 97.5 to 100) accurate in identifying the manufacturer of a device from an X-ray, and 96.4% (95% CI 93.1 to 98.5) accurate in identifying the model group. Amongst 5 cardiologists using the flow-chart, median manufacturer accuracy was 72.0% (range 62.2% to 88.9%), and model group identification was not possible. The network was significantly superior to all of the cardiologists in identifying the manufacturer (p < 0.0001 against the median human; p < 0.0001 against the best human).ConclusionsA neural network can accurately identify the manufacturer and even model group of a cardiac rhythm device from an X-ray, and exceeds human performance. This system may speed up the diagnosis and treatment of patients with cardiac rhythm devices and it is publicly accessible online.
Kaura A, Hartley A, Panoulas V, et al., 2019, THE ROLE OF HIGH-SENSITIVITY C-REACTIVE PROTEIN IN PREDICTING MORTALITY BEYOND TROPONIN IN OVER 100,000 PATIENTS WITH SUSPECTED ACUTE CORONARY SYNDROME (NIHR HEALTH INFORMATICS COLLABORATIVE CRP-RISK STUDY), Annual Conference of the British-Cardiovascular-Society (BCS) - Digital Health Revolution, Publisher: BMJ PUBLISHING GROUP, Pages: A120-A121, ISSN: 1355-6037
Warisawa T, Cook CM, Howard JP, et al., 2019, Physiological pattern of disease assessed by pressure-wire pullback has an influence on fractional flow reserve/instantaneous wave-free ratio discordance, Circulation: Cardiovascular Interventions, Vol: 12, ISSN: 1941-7640
BACKGROUND: Fractional flow reserve (FFR) and instantaneous wave-free ratio (iFR) disagree on the hemodynamic significance of a coronary lesion in ≈20% of cases. It is unknown whether the physiological pattern of disease is an influencing factor for this. This study assessed whether the physiological pattern of coronary artery disease influences discordance between FFR and iFR measurement. METHODS AND RESULTS: Three-hundred and sixty intermediate coronary lesions (345 patients; mean age, 64.4±10.3 years; 76% men) with combined FFR, iFR, and iFR pressure-wire pullback were included for analysis from an international multicenter registry. Cut points for hemodynamic significance were FFR ≤0.80 and iFR ≤0.89, respectively. Lesions were classified into FFR+/iFR+ (n=154; 42.7%), FFR-/iFR+ (n=38; 10.6%), FFR+/iFR- (n=41; 11.4%), and FFR-/iFR- (n=127; 35.3%) groups. The physiological pattern of disease was classified according to the iFR pullback recordings as predominantly physiologically focal (n=171; 47.5%) or predominantly physiologically diffuse (n=189; 52.5%). Median FFR and iFR were 0.80 (interquartile range, 0.75-0.85) and 0.89 (interquartile range, 0.86-0.92), respectively. FFR disagreed with iFR in 22% (79 of 360). The physiological pattern of disease was the only influencing factor relating to FFR/iFR discordance: predominantly physiologically focal was significantly associated with FFR+/iFR- (58.5% [24 of 41]), and predominantly physiologically diffuse was significantly associated with FFR-/iFR+ (81.6% [31 of 38]; P<0.001 for pattern of disease between FFR+/iFR- and FFR-/iFR+ groups). CONCLUSIONS: The physiological pattern of coronary artery disease was an important influencing factor for FFR/iFR discordance.
Sharp A, Sohaib A, Shun-Shin M, et al., 2019, Improving haemodynamic optimization of cardiac resynchronization therapy for heart failure., Physiol Meas
Objective Optimization of cardiac resynchronization therapy using non-invasive haemodynamic parameters, produces reliable optima when performed at high atrial paced heart rates. Here we investigate whether this is a result of increased heart rate or atrial pacing itself. Approach 43 patients with cardiac resynchronization therapy underwent haemodynamic optimization of AV delay using non-invasive beat-to-beat systolic blood pressure in three states: rest (atrial-sensing, 66±11bpm), slow atrial pacing (73±12bpm), and fast atrial pacing (94±10bpm). A 20-patient subset underwent a fourth optimization, during exercise (80±11bpm). Main results Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC, quantifying information content mean ±SE) was 0.20±0.02 for resting sensed optimization, 0.45± 0.03 for slow atrial pacing (p<0.0001 versus rest-sensed), and 0.52±0.03 for fast atrial pacing (p=0.12 versus slow-paced). 78% of the increase in ICC, from sinus rhythm to fast atrial pacing, is achieved by simply atrially pacing just above sinus rate. Atrial pacing increased signal (blood pressure difference between best and worst AV delay) from 6.5±0.6 mmHg at rest to 13.3±1.1 mmHg during slow atrial pacing (p<0.0001) and 17.2±1.3 mmHg during fast atrial pacing (p=0.003 versus slow atrial pacing). Atrial pacing reduced noise (average SD of systolic blood pressure measurements) from 4.9±0.4mmHg at rest to 4.1±0.3mmHg during slow atrial pacing (p=0.28). At faster atrial pacing the noise was 4.6±0.3mmHg (p=0.69 versus slow-paced, p=0.90 versus rest-sensed). In the exercise subgroup ICC was 0.14±0.02 (p=0.97 versus rest-sensed). Significance Atrial pacing, rather than the increase in heart rate, contributes to ~80% of the observed in
Seligman H, Shun-Shin M, Vasireddy A, et al., 2019, Fractional flow reserve derived from microcatheters versus standard pressure wires: a stenosis-level meta-analysis, Open Heart, Vol: 6, ISSN: 2053-3624
Aims: To determine the agreement between sensor-tipped microcatheter (MC) and pressure wire (PW) derived Fractional Flow Reserve (FFR). Methods and results: Studies comparing FFR obtained from MC (FFRMC, Navvus Microcatheter System, ACIST Medical Systems, Minnesota, USA) versus standard PW (FFRPW) were identified and a meta-analysis of numerical and categorical agreement was performed. The relative levels of drift and device failure of MC and PW systems from each study were assessed. Six studies with 440 lesions (413 patients) were included. The mean overall bias between FFRMC and FFRPW was -0.029 (FFRMC lower). Bias and variance were greater for lesions with lower FFRPW (p <0.001). Using a cut-off of 0.80, 18% of lesions were re-classified by FFRMC versus FFRPW (with 15% being false-positives). The difference in reported drift between FFRPW and FFRMC was small. Device failure was more common with MC than PW (7.1% versus 2%). Conclusion: FFRMC systematically overestimates lesion severity, with increased bias in more severe lesions. Using FFRMC changes revascularisation guidance in approximately 1 out of every 5 cases. Pressure wire drift was similar between systems. Device failure was higher with MC.
Rajkumar CA, Suh WM, Francis DP, 2019, Upcoding of clinical information to meet appropriate use criteria for percutaneous coronary intervention, Circulation: Cardiovascular Quality and Outcomes, Vol: 12, Pages: e005025-e005025, ISSN: 1941-7705
Kaura A, Panoulas V, Glampson B, et al., 2019, UNEXPECTED INVERTED U-SHAPED RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN TROPONIN LEVEL AND MORTALITY EXPLAINED BY REVASCULARIZATION IN BOTH PATIENTS WITH AND WITHOUT ACUTE CORONARY SYNDROME (TROP-RISK STUDY), 68th Annual Scientific Session and Expo of the American-College-of-Cardiology (ACC), Publisher: ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC, Pages: 1086-1086, ISSN: 0735-1097
Kaura A, Hartley A, Panoulas V, et al., 2019, HSCRP PREDICTS MORTALITY BEYOND TROPONIN IN 102,337 PATIENTS WITH SUSPECTED ACUTE CORONARY SYNDROME IN THE UK NATIONAL INSTITUTE FOR HEALTH RESEARCH CRP-RISK STUDY, 68th Annual Scientific Session and Expo of the American-College-of-Cardiology (ACC), Publisher: ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC, Pages: 10-10, ISSN: 0735-1097
Francis DP, Nallamothu BK, 2019, PCI guided by fractional flow reserve at 5 years, New England Journal of Medicine, Vol: 380, Pages: 103-103, ISSN: 0028-4793
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