325 results found
Pei S, Deng C, de la Torre I, et al., 2019, Magnetostratigraphic and archaeological records at the Early Pleistocene site complex of Madigou (Nihewan Basin): Implications for human adaptations in North China, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, Vol: 530, Pages: 176-189, ISSN: 0031-0182
© 2019 Elsevier B.V. The Nihewan Basin in North China contains the densest concentration of early Pleistocene Paleolithic sites outside Africa. This paper introduces a new archaeological site complex at Madigou (MDG) that was systematically excavated from 2011 to 2014 in the northeastern part of the Nihewan Basin. The site contains fossils and well-preserved stone artefacts in fluvio-lacustrine sediments. Our magnetostratigraphic results situate the MDG sedimentary sequence in the early Brunhes normal chron and the late Matuyama reverse chron, including the Jaramillo normal subchron. The MDG artifact layers are positioned within the pre-Jaramillo Matuyama chron, with an estimated age of ca. 1.2 Ma, close to the onset of Mid-Pleistocene climate transition. The MDG core and flake technology includes bipolar flaking of siliceous dolomite cobbles, and freehand flaking of chert and brecciated chert block fragments. Mammalian fauna and pollen compositions indicate that the MDG hominins lived in an open habitat varying from lightly-wooded grassland to an ecosystem dominated by sparse steppe near the shore of the Nihewan paleolake. Our combined results in the fields of archaeology, paleontology, palynology and magnetochronology suggest that innovations in technological behavior may correlate with adaptations to high environmental variability during the start of Mid-Pleistocene climate transition.
Chang E, Wu L, Masters J, et al., 2019, Iatrogenic subglottic tracheal stenosis after tracheostomy and endotracheal intubation: A cohort observational study of more severity in keloid phenotype., Acta Anaesthesiol Scand, Vol: 63, Pages: 905-912
BACKGROUND: Tracheostomy and endotracheal intubation can result in subglottic tracheal stenosis, and predisposition to keloid scar formation can increase stenosis risk after tracheal injury. This study aims to compare the incidence and severity of subglottic tracheal stenosis in keloid and non-keloid patients following iatrogenic tracheal injury, in particular tracheostomy. METHODS: From 2012 to 2017, 218 573 patients were intubated for surgery; 2276 patients received tracheostomy in People's Hospital of Zhengzhou University, China. Among these patients, 133 patients, who developed tracheal stenosis after intubation and/or tracheostomy, were divided into keloid or non-keloid groups; their Myer and Cotton grading of tracheal stenosis, time-to-onset of airway stenosis, and treatment outcome were assessed and compared. RESULTS: The percentages of high grade (Myer and Cotton grading III/IV) tracheal stenosis were higher among keloid patients than non-keloid patients (intubation: 83.3% vs 25.7%; tracheostomy: 77.7% vs 33.3%). Time-to-onset of airway stenosis following intubation (tracheostomy) was 27 ± 5 (38 ± 13) and 41 ± 7 (82 ± 14) days for keloid and non-keloid patients, respectively (P < 0.01). The incidence of tracheal stenosis is higher in keloid than non-keloid subjects (19.4% vs 1.82%, P < 0.001). Keloid patients also required more frequent treatment (P < 0.01) of longer duration, yet cure rate was significantly lower (P < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Our study suggests that tracheostomized patients with keloid phenotype are more susceptibility to develop iatrogenic tracheal stenosis of greater severity and with poorer treatment outcome. Greater cautions may be required when performing tracheostomy in keloid subjects. More substantive analysis is warranted to establish keloid phenotype as a risk factor for tracheal stenosis.
Zhao H, Chen Q, Huang H, et al., 2019, Osteopontin mediates necroptosis in lung injury after transplantation of ischaemic renal allografts in rats., Br J Anaesth
BACKGROUND: Respiratory complications after surgery are associated with morbidity and mortality. Acute lung injury can result from the systemic inflammatory response after acute kidney injury. The mechanisms behind this remote injury are not fully understood. In this study, a renal transplantation model was used to investigate remote lung injury and the underlying molecular mechanisms, especially the role of osteopontin (OPN). METHODS: In vitro, human lung epithelial cell line (A549) and monocyte/macrophage cell line (U937) were challenged with tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) in combination with OPN. In vivo, the Fischer rat renal grafts were extracted and stored in 4°C University of Wisconsin preserving solution for up to 16 h, and transplanted into Lewis rat recipients. Lungs were harvested on Day 1 after grafting for further analysis. RESULTS: Renal engraftment was associated with pathological changes and an increase in TNF-α and interleukin-1 beta in the lung of the recipient. OPN, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, and necroptosis were increased in both the recipient lung and A549 cells challenged with TNF-α. Exogenous OPN exacerbated lung injury and necroptosis. Suppression of OPN through siRNA reduced remote lung injury by mitigation of ER stress, necroptosis, and the inflammatory response. CONCLUSIONS: Renal allograft transplant triggers recipient remote lung injury, which is, in part, mediated by OPN signalling. This study may provide a molecular basis for strategies to be developed to treat such perioperative complications.
Freeman J, Crowley PD, Foley AG, et al., 2019, Effect of Perioperative Lidocaine, Propofol and Steroids on Pulmonary Metastasis in a Murine Model of Breast Cancer Surgery, CANCERS, Vol: 11, ISSN: 2072-6694
Forget P, Aguirre JA, Bencic I, et al., 2019, How Anesthetic, Analgesic and Other Non-Surgical Techniques During Cancer Surgery Might Affect Postoperative Oncologic Outcomes: A Summary of Current State of Evidence, CANCERS, Vol: 11, ISSN: 2072-6694
Wu L, Zhao H, Weng H, et al., 2019, Lasting effects of general anesthetics on the brain in the young and elderly: "mixed picture" of neurotoxicity, neuroprotection and cognitive impairment, JOURNAL OF ANESTHESIA, Vol: 33, Pages: 321-335, ISSN: 0913-8668
Chen L, Zhao H, Alam A, et al., 2019, Postoperative remote lung injury and its impact on surgical outcome, BMC ANESTHESIOLOGY, Vol: 19, ISSN: 1471-2253
Dong J, Zeng M, Ji N, et al., 2019, Impact of Anesthesia on Long-term Outcomes in Patients With Supratentorial High-grade Glioma Undergoing Tumor Resection: A Retrospective Cohort Study., J Neurosurg Anesthesiol
BACKGROUND: Intravenous and inhalational anesthesia might have different associations with long-term outcome in cancer patients, with reports of adverse effects of inhalation anesthesia. However, the effects of anesthesia in patients with high-grade glioma (HGG) are not known. METHODS: This study investigated 154 patients who received propofol and 140 patients who received sevoflurane for maintenance of anesthesia during HGG tumor resection. The primary outcomes were progression-free survival and overall survival. RESULTS: Median progression-free survival was 10 months (interquartile range [IQR], 6 to 18) versus 11 months (IQR 6 to 20; P=0.674), and median overall survival was 18 months (IQR, 11 to 39) versus 18 months (IQR, 10 to 44; P=0.759) in patients maintained with propofol and sevoflurane, respectively. Higher preoperative Karnofsky performance status and postoperative chemotherapy were associated with a reduced hazard of tumor progression or death, whereas higher age-adjusted Charlson comorbidity index and longer duration of anesthesia were associated with an increased hazard of progression or death. World Health Organization tumor classification IV and incomplete tumor resection were associated with an increased hazard of tumor progression but not death. Anesthesia maintenance with sevoflurane increased the risk of death in patients with Karnofsky performance status <80 compared with propofol (hazard ratio, 1.66; 95% confidence interval, 1.08-2.57; P=0.022). CONCLUSIONS: Compared with maintenance of anesthesia with propofol, sevoflurane did not worsen progression-free or overall survival in patients with HGG undergoing tumor resection. However, propofol might be beneficial in patients with poor preoperative Karnofsky performance status.
Soni S, O'Dea K, Tan YY, et al., 2019, ATP redirects cytokine trafficking and promotes novel membrane TNF signalling via microvesicles, FASEB Journal, ISSN: 0892-6638
Cellular stress or injury induces release of endogenous danger signals such as ATP, which plays a central role in activating immune cells. ATP is essential for the release of nonclassically secreted cytokines such as IL-1β but, paradoxically, has been reported to inhibit the release of classically secreted cytokines such as TNF. Here, we reveal that ATP does switch off soluble TNF (17 kDa) release from LPS-treated macrophages, but rather than inhibiting the entire TNF secretion, ATP packages membrane TNF (26 kDa) within microvesicles (MVs). Secretion of membrane TNF within MVs bypasses the conventional endoplasmic reticulum– and Golgi transport–dependent pathway and is mediated by acid sphingomyelinase. These membrane TNF–carrying MVs are biologically more potent than soluble TNF in vivo, producing significant lung inflammation in mice. Thus, ATP critically alters TNF trafficking and secretion from macrophages, inducing novel unconventional membrane TNF signaling via MVs without direct cell-to-cell contact. These data have crucial implications for this key cytokine, particularly when therapeutically targeting TNF in acute inflammatory diseases.—Soni, S., O’Dea, K. P., Tan, Y. Y., Cho, K., Abe, E., Romano, R., Cui, J., Ma, D., Sarathchandra, P., Wilson, M. R., Takata, M. ATP redirects cytokine trafficking and promotes novel membrane TNF signaling via microvesicles.
Sun Y-B, Zhao H, Mu D-L, et al., 2019, Dexmedetomidine inhibits astrocyte pyroptosis and subsequently protects the brain in in vitro and in vivo models of sepsis, Cell Death and Disease, Vol: 10, ISSN: 2041-4889
Sepsis is life-threatening and often leads to acute brain damage. Dexmedetomidine, an α2-adrenoceptor agonist, has been reported to possess neuroprotective effects against various brain injury but underlying mechanisms remain elusive. In this study, in vitro and in vivo models of sepsis were used to explore the effects of dexmedetomidine on the inflammasome activity and its associated glia pyroptosis and neuronal death. In vitro, inflammasome activation and pyroptosis were found in astrocytes following lipopolysaccharide (LPS) exposure. Dexmedetomidine significantly alleviated astrocyte pyroptosis and inhibited histone release induced by LPS. In vivo, LPS treatment in rats promoted caspase-1 immunoreactivity in astrocytes and caused an increase in the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines of IL-1β and IL-18, resulting in neuronal injury, which was attenuated by dexmedetomidine; this neuroprotective effect was abolished by α2-adrenoceptor antagonist atipamezole. Dexmedetomidine significantly reduced the high mortality rate caused by LPS challenge. Our data demonstrated that dexmedetomidine may protect glia cells via reducing pyroptosis and subsequently protect neurons, all of which may preserve brain function and ultimately improve the outcome in sepsis.
Li T, Chen L, Zhao H, et al., 2019, Both Bupivacaine and Levobupivacaine inhibit colon cancer cell growth but not melanoma cells in vitro, JOURNAL OF ANESTHESIA, Vol: 33, Pages: 17-25, ISSN: 0913-8668
Singh M, Nabavi E, Zhou Y, et al., 2019, Laparoscopic fluorescence image-guided photothermal therapy enhances cancer diagnosis and treatment, Nanotheranostics, Vol: 3, Pages: 89-102, ISSN: 2206-7418
Endoscopy is the gold standard investigation in the diagnosis of gastrointestinal cancers and the management of early and pre-malignant lesions either by resection or ablation. Recently gold nanoparticles have shown promise in cancer diagnosis and therapeutics (theranostics). The combination of multifunctional gold nanoparticles with near infrared fluorescence endoscopy for accurate mapping of early or pre-malignant lesions can potentially enhance diagnostic efficiency while precisely directing endoscopic near infrared photothermal therapy for established cancers. The integration of endoscopy with near infrared fluorescence imaging and photothermal therapy was aided by the accumulation of our multifunctionalized PEG-GNR-Cy5.5-anti-EGFR-antibody gold nanorods within gastrointestinal tumor xenografts in BALB/c mice. Control mice (with tumors) received either gold nanorods or photothermal therapy, while study mice received both treatment modalities. Local (tumor-centric) and systemic effects were examined for 30 days. Clear endoscopic near infrared fluorescence signals were observed emanating specifically from tumor sites and these corresponded precisely to the tumor margins. Endoscopic fluorescence-guided near infrared photothermal therapy successfully induced tumor ablations in all 20 mice studied, with complete histological clearance and minimal collateral damage. Multi-source analysis from histology, electron microscopy, mass spectrometry, blood, clinical evaluation, psychosocial and weight monitoring demonstrated the inherent safety of this technology. The combination of this innovative nanotechnology with gold standard clinical practice will be of value in enhancing the early optical detection of gastrointestinal cancers and a useful adjunct for its therapy.
Perry NJS, Buggy D, Ma D, 2019, Can Anesthesia Influence Cancer Outcomes after Surgery?, JAMA Surgery, ISSN: 2168-6254
Xenon is a colorless and odorless noble gas, licensed for human use as an anesthetic gas as well as a radiological marker. The MAC of this gas is about 63% but xenon anesthesia is associated with fast recovery of cognitive function and cardiovascular stability. Nevertheless, postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) incidence for xenon anesthesia is very high. It has been reported that Xenon has cytoprotective effects that may have therapeutic values in both CNS protection, and in organ graft preservation. Currently, there are few studies about the effect of xenon on ischemia reperfusion injury of transplantable organs and insufficient clinical data upon its effect on intracranial and cerebral perfusion pressure. We shortly review the pros and cons of xenon as an anesthetic agent.
Yu ZY, Geng J, Li ZQ, et al., 2019, Dexmedetomidine enhances ropivacaine-induced sciatic nerve injury in diabetic rats, British Journal of Anaesthesia, Vol: 122, Pages: 141-149, ISSN: 1471-6771
BackgroundPrevious studies suggest that dexmedetomidine has a protective effect against local anaesthetic-induced nerve injury in regional nerve blocks. Whether this potentially protective effect exists in the context of diabetes mellitus is unknown.MethodsA diabetic state was established in adult male Sprague–Dawley rats with intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin. Injections of ropivacaine 0.5%, dexmedetomidine 20 μg kg−1 (alone and in combination), or normal saline (all in 0.2 ml) were made around the sciatic nerve in control and diabetic rats (n=8 per group). The duration of sensory and motor nerve block and the motor nerve conduction velocity (MNCV) were determined. Sciatic nerves were harvested at post-injection day 7 and assessed with light and electron microscopy or used for pro-inflammatory cytokine measurements.ResultsRopivacaine and dexmedetomidine alone or in combination did not produce nerve fibre damage in control non-diabetic rats. In diabetic rats, ropivacaine induced significant nerve fibre damage, which was enhanced by dexmedetomidine. This manifested with slowed MNCV, decreased axon density, and decreased ratio of inner to outer diameter of the myelin sheath (G ratio). Demyelination, axon disappearance, and empty vacuoles were also found using electron microscopy. An associated increase in nerve interleukin-1β and tumour necrosis factor-α was also seen.ConclusionsRopivacaine 0.5% causes significant sciatic nerve injury in diabetic rats that is greatly potentiated by high-dose dexmedetomidine. Although the dose of dexmedetomidine used in this study is considerably higher than that used in clinical practice, our data suggest that further studies to assess ropivacaine (alone and in combination with dexmedetomidine) use for peripheral nerve blockade in diabetic patients are warranted.
Ning J, Zhao H, Chen B, et al., 2019, Argon Mitigates Impaired Wound Healing Process and Enhances Wound Healing In Vitro and In Vivo, THERANOSTICS, Vol: 9, Pages: 477-490, ISSN: 1838-7640
Perry NJS, Ma D, 2019, Cancer and Other Outcomes after Surgery with Fluoridated Anesthesia-Reply, JAMA Surgery, ISSN: 2168-6254
Alam A, Hana Z, Jin Z, et al., 2018, Surgery, neuroinflammation and cognitive impairment, EBIOMEDICINE, Vol: 37, Pages: 547-556, ISSN: 2352-3964
Ma J, Chen Q, Li J, et al., 2018, Dexmedetomidine-Mediated Prevention of Renal Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury Depends in Part on Cholinergic Anti-Inflammatory Mechanisms., Anesth Analg
BACKGROUND: Organ ischemia-reperfusion injury often induces local and systemic inflammatory responses, which in turn worsen organ injury. These inflammatory responses can be regulated by the central nervous system, particularly by the vagal nerve and nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, which are the key components of cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway. Activation of the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway can suppress excessive inflammatory responses and be a potential strategy for prevention of ischemia-reperfusion injury of organs including the kidney. METHODS: Vagal nerve activity, plasma acetylcholine, catecholamine and inflammatory mediators, renal tissue injury, and cell death were measured in mice with bilateral renal ischemia/reperfusion with or without treatment with dexmedetomidine (Dex), an α2-adrenergic receptor agonist. RESULTS: Dex significantly increased the discharge frequency of the cervical vagal nerve by up to 142 Hz (mean) (P < .001), and preserved kidney gross morphology and structure and attenuated cell apoptosis after ischemia-reperfusion. Furthermore, Dex also significantly increased acetylcholine release to 135.8 pmol/L (median) when compared to that (84.7 pmol/L) in the sham group (P < .001) and reduced the levels of several inflammatory mediators induced by renal ischemia/reperfusion. All the effects were abolished by vagotomy, splenectomy, or combinative administration of atipamezole, an α2-adrenergic receptor antagonist. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that Dex provides renoprotection, at least in part, through anti-inflammatory effects of the parasympathetic nervous system activation in addition to its direct actions on α2-adrenergic receptors.
Freeman J, Crowley PD, Foley AG, et al., 2018, Effect of Perioperative Lidocaine and Cisplatin on Metastasis in a Murine Model of Breast Cancer Surgery, ANTICANCER RESEARCH, Vol: 38, Pages: 5599-5606, ISSN: 0250-7005
Liang P, Xu Y, Lan F, et al., 2018, Decreased Cerebral Blood Flow in Mesial Thalamus and Precuneus/PCC during Midazolam Induced Sedation Assessed with ASL, NEUROINFORMATICS, Vol: 16, Pages: 403-410, ISSN: 1539-2791
Chang E, Wu L, Zhang J, et al., 2018, Case series report on iatrogenic subglottic tracheal stenosis, British-Journal-of-Anaesthesia (BJA) Research Forum, Publisher: ELSEVIER SCI LTD, Pages: E18-E19, ISSN: 0007-0912
Zhang Y, Shan G-J, Zhang Y-X, et al., 2018, Preoperative vitamin D deficiency increases the risk of postoperative cognitive dysfunction: a predefined exploratory sub-analysis, ACTA ANAESTHESIOLOGICA SCANDINAVICA, Vol: 62, Pages: 924-935, ISSN: 0001-5172
Zhao H, Ma D, Huang H, et al., 2018, VEGF mitigates histone induced pyroptosis in the remote liver injury associated with renal allograft ischemia-reperfusion injury in rats, American Journal of Transplantation, Vol: 18, Pages: 1890-1903, ISSN: 1600-6135
Clinical evidence indicated a possible link between renal injury and remote liver injury. Herein, we investigated whether extracellular histone mediates remote hepatic damage following renal graft ischemia-reperfusion injury, whilst vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is protective against remote hepatic injury. In vitro, hepatocyte HepG2 cultures were treated with histone. In vivo, the Brown-Norway renal graft was stored in 4°C preserving solution for 24 hours and then transplanted into Lewis rat recipient; blood samples and livers from recipients were harvested 24 hours after surgery. Prolonged cold ischemia in renal grafts enhanced liver injury 24 hours after engraftment. Caspase-1, ASC, NLRP3 and AIM2 expression in hepatocyte, CD68+ infiltrating macrophages, tissue and serum IL-1β and IL-18 were greatly elevated, indicating that pyroptosis occurred in the liver and resulted in acute liver functional impairment. Blocking caspase-1 pathway decreased the number of necrotic hepatocytes. VEGF treatment suppressed the hepatocyte pyroptosis and liver function was partially restored. Our data suggested that renal allograft ischemia-reperfusion injury is likely associated with acute liver damage due to hepatocyte pyroptosis induced by histone and such injury may be protected by VEGF administration. VEGF, therefore, may serve as a new strategy against other remote organ injuries related to renal transplant.
Zhang D-F, Su X, Meng Z-T, et al., 2018, Impact of Dexmedetomidine on Long-term Outcomes After Noncardiac Surgery in Elderly: 3-Year Follow-up of a Randomized Controlled Trial., Ann Surg
OBJECTIVES: The aim was to compare the long-term outcomes of low-dose dexmedetomidine versus placebo in a randomized controlled trial (ChiCTR-TRC-10000802). BACKGROUND: Low-dose dexmedetomidine infusion decreased delirium occurrence within 1 week after surgery in elderly admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) after noncardiac surgery, but the long-term outcome of this intervention is unknown. METHODS: Patients or their family members were telephone-interviewed for a 3-year follow-up data collection of survival, cognitive function assessed with the modified Telephone Interview for Cognitive Status, and quality of life evaluated with the World Health Organization Quality of Life. RESULTS: Of the 700 patients, 23 (3.3%) were lost at 3-year follow-up. The 3-year overall survival was not statistically different between the dexmedetomidine and placebo groups [114 deaths vs 122/350; hazard ratio (HR) 0.87, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.68-1.13, P = 0.303]. The survival rates at 6 months, 1 year, and 2 years were significantly higher in the dexmedetomidine than in the placebo group (rate difference of 5.2%, 5.3%, and 6.7% respectively; all P < 0.05). The remaining 98.4% (434/441) 3-year survivors, the dexmedetomidine group, had significantly better cognitive function (mean difference 4.7, 95% CI 3.8-5.6, P < 0.0001) and quality of life (physical domain: 13.6 [10.6-16.6]; psychological domain: 15.2 [12.5-18.0]; social relationship domain: 8.1 [5.5-10.7]; environment domain: 13.3 [10.9-15.7]; all P < 0.0001) than in the placebo group. CONCLUSIONS: For elderly admitted to ICU after noncardiac surgery, low-dose dexmedetomidine infusion did not significantly change 3-year overall survival, but increased survival up to 2 years, and improved cognitive function and quality of life in 3-year survivors.
Sun Y, Zhao H, Wang D, et al., 2018, Dexmedetomidine alleviates LPS-induced pyroptosis in astrocytes in vitro, BJA Research Forum, Publisher: ELSEVIER SCI LTD, Pages: E8-E9, ISSN: 0007-0912
Zhao H, Chen Q, Alam A, et al., 2018, The role of osteopontin in the progression of solid organ tumour, Cell Death and Disease, Vol: 9, ISSN: 2041-4889
Osteopontin (OPN) is a bone sialoprotein involved in osteoclast attachmentto mineralised bone matrix, as well as being a bone matrix protein, OPN isalso a versatile protein that acts on various receptors which are associatedwith different signalling pathways implicated in cancer. OPN mediatesvarious biological events involving the immune system and the vascularsystem; the protein plays a role in processes such as immune response, celladhesion and migration, and tumorigenesis. This review discusses thepotential role of OPN in tumour cell proliferation, angiogenesis andmetastasis, as well as the molecular mechanisms involved in theseprocesses in different cancers, including brain, lung, kidney, liver, bladder,breast, oesophageal, gastric, colon, pancreatic, prostate and ovarian cancers.The understanding of OPN’s role in tumour development and progressioncould potentially influence cancer therapy and contribute to thedevelopment of novel anti-tumour treatments.
Zac H, Suha A, Azeem A, et al., Ketamine: Old Drug but New Use for Neuropathic Pain, Translational Perioperative and Pain Medicine, Vol: 5
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