110 results found
McLeod J, Stadler E, Wilson R, et al., 2021, Electrochemical detection of cefiderocol for therapeutic drug monitoring, Electrochemistry Communications, Vol: 133, ISSN: 1388-2481
Cefiderocol is a novel siderophore-conjugated β-lactam antibiotic which has been approved for clinical use. It has demonstrated efficacy against infections caused by Gram-negative bacteria, including carbapenem-resistant strains. Novel antibiotics are rarely brought to market and, as such, are ideal candidates for therapeutic drug monitoring which enables optimised dosing across a range of clinical scenarios whilst also reducing the chances of antimicrobial resistance. Here we demonstrate direct electrochemical detection of cefiderocol by oxidation using untreated gold and glassy carbon electrodes as well as multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT)-coated glassy carbon and foamed gold electrodes. Quantification of cefiderocol in the therapeutic range is demonstrated in spiked whole human blood using MWCNT-coated pyrolytic carbon screen-printed electrodes.
Ming DK, Jangam S, Gowers SAN, et al., 2021, Real-time Continuous Measurement of Lactate through a Minimally-invasive Microneedle Biosensor: a Phase I Clinical Study
<jats:title>Abstract</jats:title><jats:sec><jats:title>Introduction</jats:title><jats:p>Determination of blood lactate levels supports decision-making in a range of medical conditions. Invasive blood-sampling and laboratory access are often required, and measurements provide a static profile at each instance. We conducted a Phase I clinical study validating performance of a microneedle patch for minimally-invasive, continuous lactate measurement in healthy volunteers.</jats:p></jats:sec><jats:sec><jats:title>Methods</jats:title><jats:p>Five healthy adult participants wore a solid microneedle biosensor on their forearms and undertook aerobic exercise for 30 minutes. The microneedle biosensor quantifies lactate concentrations in interstitial fluid (ISF) within the dermis continuously and in real-time. Outputs were captured as sensor current and compared with lactate concentrations from venous blood and microdialysis.</jats:p></jats:sec><jats:sec><jats:title>Results</jats:title><jats:p>The biosensor was well-tolerated. Participants generated a median peak venous lactate of 9.25 mmol/L (Interquartile range, 6.73 to 10.71). Microdialysate concentrations of lactate closely correlated with blood. Microneedle biosensor current followed venous lactate concentrations and dynamics, with good agreement seen in all participants. There was an estimated lag-time of 5 minutes (IQR -4 to 11 minutes) between microneedle and blood lactate measurements.</jats:p></jats:sec><jats:sec><jats:title>Conclusion</jats:title><jats:p>This study provides first-in-human data on use of a minimally-invasive microneedle biosensor for continuous lactate measurement, providing dynamic monitoring. The platform offers distinct advantages to frequent blood sampling in a wide range of clinical settings, especially where access to laboratory services is limited or b
Rawson TM, Wilson RC, O'Hare D, et al., 2021, Optimizing antimicrobial use: challenges, advances and opportunities, NATURE REVIEWS MICROBIOLOGY, Vol: 19, Pages: 747-758, ISSN: 1740-1526
Zaman S, Seligman H, Lloyd FH, et al., 2021, Aerosolised fluorescein can quantify FFP mask faceseal leakage: a cost-effective adaptation to the existing point of care fit test, CLINICAL MEDICINE, Vol: 21, Pages: E263-E268, ISSN: 1470-2118
Gillespie P, Channon RB, Meng X, et al., 2021, Nucleic acid sensing via electrochemical oligonucleotide-templated reactions, BIOSENSORS & BIOELECTRONICS, Vol: 176, ISSN: 0956-5663
Colburn AW, Levey KJ, O'Hare D, et al., 2021, Lifting the lid on the potentiostat: a beginner's guide to understanding electrochemical circuitry and practical operation, PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY CHEMICAL PHYSICS, Vol: 23, Pages: 8100-8117, ISSN: 1463-9076
Morgan LD, Mohammed A, Patel BA, et al., 2020, Decreased 14-3-3 expression correlates with age-related regional reductions in CNS dopamine and motor function in the pond snail, Lymnaea, EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF NEUROSCIENCE, Vol: 53, Pages: 1394-1411, ISSN: 0953-816X
Lee M-H, Liu K-T, Thomas JL, et al., 2020, Peptide-Imprinted Poly(hydroxymethyl 3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) Nanotubes for Detection of alpha Synuclein in Human Brain Organoids, ACS APPLIED NANO MATERIALS, Vol: 3, Pages: 8027-8036, ISSN: 2574-0970
Raditya AN, O'Hare D, 2020, Review-Electrochemical Sensor Biofouling in Environmental Sensor Networks: Characterisation, Remediation and Lessons from Biomedical Devices, JOURNAL OF THE ELECTROCHEMICAL SOCIETY, Vol: 167, ISSN: 0013-4651
Chen Y-C, O'Hare D, 2020, Exhaled breath condensate based breath analyser - a disposable hydrogen peroxide sensor and smart analyser, ANALYST, Vol: 145, Pages: 3549-3556, ISSN: 0003-2654
Cass AEG, O'Hare D, Sharma S, 2020, Recent Developments in Continuous Monitoring Diagnostics with Microneedle Arrays, 7th International Conference on the Development of Biomedical Engineering, Publisher: SPRINGER-VERLAG SINGAPORE PTE LTD, Pages: 337-339, ISSN: 1680-0737
Channon RB, Gillespie P, Nazmul Islam M, et al., 2020, Electrochemical oligonucleotide templated reactions, Pages: 476-477
The biosensing of nucleic acids is an excellent approach for medical diagnosis, however established nucleic acid sensing technologies are typically limited by slow throughput, bulky equipment and the difficulty in achieving trace sensitivity with single nucleotide specificity. Here, we describe the first example of an electrochemical oligonucleotide templated reaction (EOTR). The target nucleic acid acts as a template for two probe-modified peptide nucleic acids. Reaction of the probe heads then generates an electrochemically active adduct. We couple EOTR with a lateral flow assay platform, towards developing a screening test for prostate cancer specific miRNA.
Rawson TM, Gowers SAN, Freeman DME, et al., 2019, Microneedle biosensors for real-time, minimally invasive drug monitoring of phenoxymethylpenicillin: a first-in-human evaluation in healthy volunteers, The Lancet Digital Health, Vol: 1, Pages: e335-e343, ISSN: 2589-7500
Background: Enhanced methods of drug monitoring are required to support the individualisation of antibiotic dosing. We report the first-in-human evaluation of real-time phenoxymethylpenicillin monitoring using a minimally invasive microneedle-based β-lactam biosensor in healthy volunteers.Methods: This first-in-human, proof-of-concept study was done at the National Institute of Health Research/Wellcome Trust Imperial Clinical Research Facility (Imperial College London, London, UK). The study was approved by London-Harrow Regional Ethics Committee. Volunteers were identified through emails sent to a healthy volunteer database from the Imperial College Clinical Research Facility. Volunteers, who had to be older than 18 years, were excluded if they had evidence of active infection, allergies to penicillin, were at high risk of skin infection, or presented with anaemia during screening. Participants wore a solid microneedle β-lactam biosensor for up to 6 h while being dosed at steady state with oral phenoxymethylpenicillin (five 500 mg doses every 6 h). On arrival at the study centre, two microneedle sensors were applied to the participant's forearm. Blood samples (via cannula, at −30, 0, 10, 20, 30, 45, 60, 90, 120, 150, 180, 210, 240 min) and extracellular fluid (ECF; via microdialysis, every 15 min) pharmacokinetic (PK) samples were taken during one dosing interval. Phenoxymethylpenicillin concentration data obtained from the microneedles were calibrated using locally estimated scatter plot smoothing and compared with free-blood and microdialysis (gold standard) data. Phenoxymethylpenicillin PK for each method was evaluated using non-compartmental analysis. Area under the concentration–time curve (AUC), maximum concentration, and time to maximum concentration were compared. Bias and limits of agreement were investigated with Bland–Altman plots. Microneedle biosensor limits of detection were estimated. The study was registered with Clinical
Cass A, Sharma S, O'Hare D, 2019, Minimally invasive microneedle sensor arrays: New window on the body, ACS Fall National Meeting and Exposition, Publisher: AMER CHEMICAL SOC, ISSN: 0065-7727
Gowers SAN, Freeman DME, Rawson TM, et al., 2019, Development of a minimally invasive microneedle-based sensor for continuous monitoring of β-lactam antibiotic concentrations in vivo, ACS sensors, Vol: 4, Pages: 1072-1080, ISSN: 2379-3694
Antimicrobial resistance poses a global threat to patient health. Improving the use and effectiveness of antimicrobials is critical in addressing this issue. This includes optimizing the dose of antibiotic delivered to each individual. New sensing approaches that track antimicrobial concentration for each patient in real time could allow individualized drug dosing. This work presents a potentiometric microneedle-based biosensor to detect levels of β-lactam antibiotics in vivo in a healthy human volunteer. The biosensor is coated with a pH-sensitive iridium oxide layer, which detects changes in local pH as a result of β-lactam hydrolysis by β-lactamase immobilized on the electrode surface. Development and optimization of the biosensor coatings are presented, giving a limit of detection of 6.8 μM in 10 mM PBS solution. Biosensors were found to be stable for up to 2 weeks at -20 °C and to withstand sterilization. Sensitivity was retained after application for 6 h in vivo. Proof-of-concept results are presented showing that penicillin concentrations measured using the microneedle-based biosensor track those measured using both discrete blood and microdialysis sampling in vivo. These preliminary results show the potential of this microneedle-based biosensor to provide a minimally invasive means to measure real-time β-lactam concentrations in vivo, representing an important first step toward a closed-loop therapeutic drug monitoring system.
Wilson RE, Stoianov I, OHare D, 2019, Continuous chlorine detection in drinking water and a review of new detection methods, Johnson Matthey Technology Review, Vol: 63, Pages: 103-118, ISSN: 2056-5135
Chlorination is necessary to prevent epidemics of waterborne disease however excess chlorination is wasteful, produces harmful disinfection byproducts, exacerbates corrosion and causes deterioration in aesthetic qualities, leading to consumer complaints. Residual chlorine must be continuously monitored to prevent both under- and over-chlorination and factors including pH, temperature and fouling must be considered as these also affect the disinfectant strength of residual chlorine. Standard methods used by water utility companies to determine residual chlorine concentration in drinking water distribution systems are appraised and found to be unsuitable for continuous monitoring. A selection of newly developed methods for residual chlorine analysis are evaluated against performance criteria, to direct research towards the development of chlorine sensors that are suitable for use in water systems. It is found that fouling tolerance in particular is generally not well understood for these selected sensor technologies and that long-term trials in real systems is recommended.
Gillespie P, Ladame S, O'Hare D, 2019, Molecular methods in electrochemical microRNA detection, ANALYST, Vol: 144, Pages: 114-129, ISSN: 0003-2654
Rawson T, Ming D, Gowers S, et al., 2019, Public acceptability of computer-controlled antibiotic management: an exploration of automated dosing and opportunities for implementation, Journal of Infection, Vol: 78, Pages: 75-86, ISSN: 0163-4453
Channon RB, Pavagada S, Chang JYH, et al., 2019, Point-of-care nucleic Acid sensors via paper-based oligonucleotide-templated reactions, Pages: 815-816
This paper describes a new and inexpensive approach for specific sensing of endogenous concentrations of miRNAs extracted from blood, based on a fluorogenic oligonucleotide templated reaction (OTR) on a lateral flow assay (LFA). Our method is then applied to develop the first early screening test for Preterm birth.
Rawson TM, Gowers S, Rogers M, et al., 2018, Towards a minimally invasive device for continuous monitoring of beta-lactam antibiotics, Publisher: ELSEVIER SCI LTD, Pages: 109-109, ISSN: 1201-9712
Kim J-Y, O'Hare D, 2018, Monolithic nano-porous polymer in microfluidic channels for lab-chip liquid chromatography, Nano Convergence, Vol: 5, ISSN: 2196-5404
In this paper, a nano-porous polymer has been integrated into the microfluidics device as on-chip monolithic liquid chromatography column for separation of chemical and biological samples. Monolithic nano-porous polymer (MNP) was formed and firmly grafted on the surface of the microfluidic channel. Neurotransmitters, 5-hydroxyindole-3-acetic acid (5-HIAA) and 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin, 5-HT), were successfully separated with the developed on-chip MNP column.
Zafeiropoulos G, O'Hare D, Drakakis E, 2018, PANACEA 2.0: A Wireless, High-Performance Multi-instrument for (Bio)Signals Recording, BioMedEng18
Rawson T, o'hare D, Herrero P, et al., 2018, Delivering precision antimicrobial therapy through closed-loop control systems, Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, Vol: 73, Pages: 835-843, ISSN: 0305-7453
Sub-optimal exposure to antimicrobial therapy is associated with poor patient outcomes and the development of antimicrobial resistance. Mechanisms for optimizing the concentration of a drug within the individual patient are under development. However, several barriers remain in realizing true individualization of therapy. These include problems with plasma drug sampling, availability of appropriate assays, and current mechanisms for dose adjustment. Biosensor technology offers a means of providing real-time monitoring of antimicrobials in a minimally invasive fashion. We report the potential for using microneedle biosensor technology as part of closed-loop control systems for the optimization of antimicrobial therapy in individual patients.
Bell CG, Seelanan P, O'Hare D, 2017, Microelectrode generator-collector systems for electrolytic titration: theoretical and practical considerations, ANALYST, Vol: 142, Pages: 4048-4057, ISSN: 0003-2654
Rawson TM, Sharma S, Georgiou P, et al., 2017, Towards a minimally invasive device for beta-lactam monitoring in humans, Electrochemistry Communications, Vol: 82, Pages: 1-5, ISSN: 1388-2481
Antimicrobial resistance is a leading patient safety issue. There is a need to develop novel mechanisms for monitoring and subsequently improving the precision of how we use antibiotics. A surface modified microneedle array was developed for monitoring beta-lactam antibiotic levels in human interstitial fluid. The sensor was fabricated by anodically electrodepositing iridium oxide (AEIROF) onto a platinum surface on the microneedle followed by fixation of beta-lactamase enzyme within a hydrogel. Calibration of the sensor was performed to penicillin-G in buffer solution (PBS) and artificial interstitial fluid (ISF). Further calibration of a platinum disc electrode was undertaken using amoxicillin and ceftriaxone. Open-circuit potentials were performed and data analysed using the Hill equation and log(concentration [M]) plots. The microneedle sensor demonstrated high reproducibility between penicillin-G runs in PBS with mean Km (± 1SD) = 0.0044 ± 0.0013 M and mean slope function of log(concentration plots) 29 ± 1.80 mV/decade (r2 = 0.933). Response was reproducible after 28 days storage at 4 °C. In artificial ISF, the sensors response was Km (± 1SD) = 0.0077 ± 0.0187 M and a slope function of 34 ± 1.85 mv/decade (r2 = 0.995). Our results suggest that microneedle array based beta-lactam sensing may be a future application of this AEIROF based enzymatic sensor.
Zhexembekova A, Akhmetova N, Molkenova A, et al., 2017, Thiol-modified activated carbon material for sensor technology, 4th International Conference on Nanomaterials and Advanced Energy Storage Systems (INESS), Publisher: ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV, Pages: 4599-4602, ISSN: 2214-7853
Gandhi SI, Boutelle M, O'Hare D, 2016, A novel electrolytic titrator design - Coating platinum cathodes with an electron sink using Nafion (R) and hexaammineruthenium (III), ELECTROCHEMISTRY COMMUNICATIONS, Vol: 73, Pages: 50-54, ISSN: 1388-2481
Wilson RE, Stoianov I, O'Hare D, 2016, Biofouling and in situ electrochemical cleaning of a boron-doped diamond free chlorine sensor, Electrochemistry Communications, Vol: 71, Pages: 79-83, ISSN: 1873-1902
Biofouling presents a significant obstacle to the long-term use of electrochemical sensors in complex media. Drinking water biofilms reduce performance of sensors by insulating electrode surfaces by inter alia inhibiting mass transport. Boron-doped diamond (BDD) electrodes are relatively resistant to biofouling and inert at high potentials. These qualities can be exploited to create a drinking water quality sensor that resists biofouling to meet performance criteria for longer, and to enable electrochemical cleaning of the sensor surface in situ using high potentials without disconnecting or disassembling the sensor.A purpose-built BDD wall-jet sensor was compared with a glassy carbon (GC) sensor in ability to determine free chlorine, detect biofilm and remove biofilm in situ. It was found that the BDD produced accurate and reliable readings with a 4.86% standard error and a LOD of 0.18 ppm. The BDD could be electrochemically cleaned in situ whereas this was less successful with the GC electrode. The BDD electrode could also detect electroactive pyocyanin, secreted in the biofilm of the drinking water biofilm indicator organism Pseudomonas aeruginosa, potentially enabling biofouling and non-biological fouling such as scaling to be distinguished. Observed changes in flow sensitivity and current-voltage curves that correspond to fouling provide multiple fouling detection methods, resulting in an accurate, sensitive, water quality sensor that can be cleaned without disassembly or replacement of parts and can identify when cleaning is required.
Lee M-H, O'Hare D, Guo H-Z, et al., 2016, Electrochemical sensing of urinary progesterone with molecularly imprinted poly(aniline-co-metanilic acid)s, Journal of Materials Chemistry B, Vol: 4, Pages: 3782-3787, ISSN: 2050-7518
In this work, progesterone is imprinted into poly(aniline-co-metanilic acid) on the working electrode of an electrochemical sensing chip. This sensing chip was used directly to optimize the composition of the imprinting polymer. Poly(aniline-co-metanilic acid) deposited from a 1 : 3 molar ratio of aniline (ANI) : m-aminobenzenesulfonic acid (MSAN) had an imprinting effectiveness which led to a four-fold greater electrochemical response than pure polyaniline. The electrochemical sensing of progesterone had a limit of detection (LOD) less than 1.0 pg mL−1, and the direct electrochemical response was very weak even at high interference concentrations. Results from potential interferents (urea, testosterone, creatinine and 17-β estradiol) are reported. The progesterone levels that were measured in a random urine analysis were compared with those obtained using a commercial ARCHITECT system, and the accuracy of the progesterone concentration was 89.0 ± 5.3% at a concentration of 0.64–5.27 ng mL−1.
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