Imperial College London


Faculty of MedicineNational Heart & Lung Institute

Professor of Cardiology



+44 (0)20 7351 8810d.pennell




CMR UnitRoyal BromptonRoyal Brompton Campus






BibTex format

author = {Khalique, Z and Ferreira, P and Scott, A and Nielles-Vallespin, S and Firmin, D and Pennell, D},
doi = {10.1016/j.jcmg.2019.07.016},
journal = {JACC: Cardiovascular Imaging},
pages = {1235--1255},
title = {Diffusion tensor cardiovascular magnetic resonance: a clinical perspective},
url = {},
volume = {13},
year = {2020}

RIS format (EndNote, RefMan)

AB - Imaging the heart is central to cardiac phenotyping but in clinical practice this has been restricted to macroscopic interrogation. Diffusion tensor cardiovascular magnetic resonance (DT-CMR) is a novel, non-invasive technique which is beginning to unlock details of this microstructure in humans in-vivo. DT-CMR demonstrates the helical cardiomyocyte arrangement that drives rotation and torsion. Sheetlets (functional units of cardiomyocytes, separated by shear layers) have been shown to reorientate between diastole and systole, revealing how microstructural function facilitates cardiac thickening. Measures of tissue diffusion can also be made; fractional anisotropy (a measure of myocyte organisation) and mean diffusivity (a measure of myocyte packing). Abnormal myocyte orientation and sheetlet function has been demonstrated in congenital heart disease, cardiomyopathy and after myocardial infarction. It is too early to predict the clinical importance of DT-CMR, but such unique in-vivo information will likely prove valuable in early diagnosis and risk prediction of cardiac dysfunction and arrhythmias.
AU - Khalique,Z
AU - Ferreira,P
AU - Scott,A
AU - Nielles-Vallespin,S
AU - Firmin,D
AU - Pennell,D
DO - 10.1016/j.jcmg.2019.07.016
EP - 1255
PY - 2020///
SN - 1936-878X
SP - 1235
TI - Diffusion tensor cardiovascular magnetic resonance: a clinical perspective
T2 - JACC: Cardiovascular Imaging
UR -
UR -
UR -
VL - 13
ER -