417 results found
Sailer E, Taborda D, Zdravkovic L, et al., 2019, Fundamentals of the coupled thermo-hydro-mechanical behaviour of thermo-active retaining walls, Computers and Geotechnics, Vol: 109, Pages: 189-203, ISSN: 0266-352X
Geotechnical structures can be employed to provide renewable and cost-effective thermal energy to buildings. To date, limited field studies regarding thermo-active retaining walls exist and therefore their mechanical response under non-isothermal conditions requires further research to comprehend their behaviour. This paper investigates the response of a hypothetical thermo-active diaphragm wall by performing finite element analysis to characterise in detail its short and long term response. The soil-structure interaction mechanisms arising from the coupled thermo-hydro-mechanical nature of soil behaviour are for the first time identified and shown to be complex and highly non-linear. Subsequently, simpler modelling approaches are used to isolate and quantify the impact of the various identified mechanisms on the design of thermo-active retaining walls. It is concluded that simpler approaches tend to overestimate structural forces developing due to temperature changes in the retaining wall, while severely underestimating the associated ground movements, which are highly influenced by the development of thermally-induced excess pore water pressures. Furthermore, the results suggest that the behaviour of thermo-active retaining walls is highly transient in nature, as a result of the high rates of heat transfer and pore water pressure dissipation under plane strain assumptions.
Tsaparli V, Kontoe S, Taborda D, et al., 2019, A case study of liquefaction: demonstrating the application of an advanced model and understanding the pitfalls of the simplified procedure, Géotechnique, ISSN: 0016-8505
The complexity of advanced constitutive models often dictates that their capabilities are only demonstrated in the context of model testing under controlled conditions. In the case of earthquake engineering and liquefaction in particular, this restriction is magnified by the difficulties in measuring field behaviour under seismic loading. In this paper, the well documented case of the Canterbury Earthquake Sequence in New Zealand, for which extensive field and laboratory data are available, is utilised to demonstrate the accuracy of a bounding surface plasticity model in fully-coupled finite element analyses. A strong motion station with manifestation of liquefaction and the second highest peak vertical ground acceleration during the Mw 6.2 February 2011 event is modelled. An empirical assessment predicted no liquefaction for this station, making this an interesting case for rigorous numerical modelling. The calibration of the model aims at capturing both the laboratory tests and the field measurements in a consistent manner. The characterisation of the ground conditions is presented, while, to specify the bedrock motion, the records of two stations without liquefaction are deconvolved and scaled to account for wave attenuation with distance. The numerical predictions are compared to both the horizontal and vertical acceleration records and other field observations, showing a remarkable agreement, also demonstrating that the high vertical accelerations can be attributed to compressional resonance. The results provide further insights into the underperformance of the simplified procedure.
Taborda D, Zdravkovic L, Potts DM, et al., Finite element modelling of laterally loaded piles in a dense marine sand at Dunkirk, Géotechnique, ISSN: 0016-8505
The paper presentsthedevelopment of a three-dimensional finite element model for pile tests in dense Dunkirk sand,conducted as part of the PISA project.The projectwas aimed at developing improved design methods for laterally loadedpiles, as used in offshore wind turbine foundations. The importance of the consistent and integrated interpretation of the soil data from laboratory and field investigations is particularly emphasised. The chosen constitutive model for sand is an enhanced version of the state parameter-based bounding surface plasticity model, which, crucially, is able to reproduce the dependency of sand behaviour on void ratio and stress level. The predictions from three-dimensional finite element analyses,performed before the field tests, show good agreement with the measured behaviour, proving the adequacy of the developed numerical model and the calibration process for the constitutive model. This numerical model directly facilitated the development of new soil reaction curves for use in Winkler-type design models for laterally loaded piles in natural marine sands.
Cui W, Gawecka KA, Taborda D, et al., 2019, Time-step constraints for finite element analysis of two-dimensional transient heat diffusion, Computers and Geotechnics, Vol: 108, Pages: 1-6, ISSN: 0266-352X
In a FE analysis of transient heat transfer, a lower limit of the time-step size exists below which numerical oscillations of temperatures may occur. Although time-step constraints for simulating 1D heat diffusion have been well established in the literature, the conclusions cannot be directly applied to 2D cases. In this paper, both analytical and computational studies are carried out to obtain the time-step constraints for 2D linear and quadratic elements. It is noted that in the simulation of 2D heat diffusion employing quadratic elements is not always beneficial. Recommendations are provided on selecting the numerical scheme to minimise numerical oscillations.
© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019. Geotechnical structures, such as foundation piles, retaining walls and tunnel linings, are increasingly employed to produce geothermal energy for space heating and cooling. However, the exchange of heat between the structure and the ground induces additional structural forces and contributes to further structural and ground movements, which may affect the serviceability and stability of such structures. While numerous field and numerical studies exist regarding the response of geothermal piles, no investigations have been carried out to characterise the response of thermo-active shafts. This paper presents a numerical study of the short and long term behaviour of hypothetical thermo-active shafts through fully coupled thermo-hydro-mechanical (THM) finite element (FE) analyses using the Imperial College Finite Element Program (ICFEP), where the effect of changing the structure’s geometric characteristics is investigated.
Gawecka KA, Potts DM, Cui W, et al., 2018, A coupled thermo-hydro-mechanical finite element formulation of one-dimensional beam elements for three-dimensional analysis, Computers and Geotechnics, Vol: 104, Pages: 29-41, ISSN: 0266-352X
Finite element (FE) analysis in geotechnical engineering often involves entities which can be represented as one-dimensional elements in three-dimensions (e.g. structural components, drains, heat exchanger pipes). Although structural components require an FE formulation accounting only for their mechanical behaviour, for the latter two examples, a coupled approach is necessary. This paper presents the first complete coupled thermo-hydro-mechanical FE formulation for one-dimensional beam elements for three-dimensional analysis. The possibility of deactivating each of the systems enables simulation of both coupled and uncoupled behaviour, and hence a range of engineering problems. The performance of these elements is demonstrated through various numerical simulations.
Pedro A, Zdravkovic L, Potts D, et al., 2018, Numerical modelling of the Ivens shaft construction in Lisbon, Proceedings of the ICE - Geotechnical Engineering, ISSN: 1353-2618
The traditional use of shafts is that of simple geotechnical structures, built to provide direct access to the subsoil to either access existing facilities, or to provide a launch chamber for new excavations. More recently, shafts have been constructed with complex geometries and directly incorporated as part of a permanent basement or metro station. One such complex structure is the Ivens shaft in Lisbon, Portugal, which is yet to be built. The construction of this shaft represents a geotechnical challenge due to its complex shape and location in central Lisbon, surrounded by several historic buildings and having in its close vicinity the Baixa-Chiado metro station. This paper presents a sophisticated 3D numerical simulation of the Ivens shaft construction, with a focus on assessing its effect on the existing buildings and the metro station and on the structural forces induced in its lining. The importance of integrating in the analysis the appropriate constitutive modelling of the different formations, the realistic initialisation of the ground conditions and the stiffness of the buildings, is discussed in detail. Although this is a class A prediction of a specific case study, it provides an insight into the general soil-structure interaction of a complex underground excavation.
Zdravkovic L, Taborda D, Potts D, et al., Finite element modelling of laterally loaded piles in a stiff glacial clay till at Cowden, Géotechnique, ISSN: 0016-8505
The PISA project was a combined field testing/numerical modelling study with the aim ofdevelopingimproved design procedures for large diameter piles subjected to lateral loading. This paper describes the development ofa three-dimensional finite elementmodel for the medium-scale pile tests that were conducted in Cowden tillas part of the PISA work.The paper places particular emphasis on the consistent interpretation of the soil data determined from the available field and laboratory information.An enhancedversion of the modified Cam clay model was employedin the numerical analyses, featuring a non-linear Hvorslevsurface, a generalised shape for the yield and plastic potential surfaces in the deviatoric planeand a non-linear formulation for the elastic shear modulus.Three-dimensional finite element analyses were performed prior to the field tests.Excellent agreement between the measured and simulated behaviourfora range of pile geometrieswas observed, demonstrating the accuracy of the numerical model and the adequacy of the calibration process for theconstitutive model.The developed numerical modelconfirmed the premise of the PISA design method that site-specific ground characterisation and advanced numerical modelling candirectly facilitate the development of additionalsoil reaction curves for use in new design models for laterally loaded piles in a stiff clay till.
Cui W, Potts DM, Zdravkovic L, et al., 2018, A coupled thermo-hydro-mechanical finite element formulation for curved beams in two-dimensions, Computers and Geotechnics, Vol: 103, Pages: 103-114, ISSN: 0266-352X
To enable the use of beam elements in the modelling of coupled thermo-hydro-mechanical (THM) geotechnical problems, a fully coupled and robust THM formulation is required. This paper presents such a formulation which allows both fluid flow and heat transfer along a 2D curved beam, while ensuring compatibility with coupled THM solid elements commonly used to discretise soils. Verification exercises and application with the proposed coupled beam element are carried out to demonstrate its satisfactory behaviour. The results of these analyses are compared against closed form solutions, solutions obtained using solid elements, and field measurements, showing an excellent agreement.
Byrne B, McAdam RA, Burd HJ, et al., Monotonic laterally loaded pile testing in a stiff glacial clay till at Cowden, Géotechnique, ISSN: 0016-8505
This paper describes theresults obtained from a field testing campaign on laterally-loaded monopiles conducted at Cowden, UK, where the soil consists principally of aheavilyoverconsolidatedglacial till. These tests formed part of the PISA projecton the development of improved design methods for monopile foundations for offshore wind turbines. Results obtained for monotonic loading tests on piles of three different diameters (0.273m, 0.762m and 2.0m) are presented. The piles had length-to-diameter ratios (L/D) of between 3 and 10. Thetests includedthe application of monotonic loading incorporating periods of constant load to investigate creep effects,and investigations on the influence of loading rate. Data are presented on measured bending moments and inclinations induced in the piles. Inferred data on lateral displacements of the embedded section of the pilesare determined usingan optimisedstructural model. Thesefield data support the developmentof a new 1D modelling approach forthe design of monopile foundations for offshore wind turbines.They also form a unique database of field measurements in an overconsolidated clay, from lateral loading of piles at a vertical distance abovethe ground surface.
Byrne BW, Burd HJ, Gavin K, et al., PISA: Recent Developments in Offshore Wind Turbine Monopile Design, 1st Vietnam Symposium on Advances in Offshore Engineering
Zdravkovic L, Jardine R, Taborda DMG, et al., Ground characterisation for PISA pile testing and analysis, Géotechnique, ISSN: 0016-8505
This paper is the first of a set of linked publications on the PISA Joint Industry Research Project, which was concerned with the development of improved design methods for monopile foundations in offshore wind applications. PISA involved large-scale pile tests in overconsolidated glacial till at Cowden, north-east England,and in dense normally consolidated marine sand at Dunkirk, northern France. The paper presents the characterisationof the two sites, whichwas crucial to the design of the field experiments and advanced numerical modelling of the pile-soil interactions. The studies described, which had to be completed at an early stage of the PISA project, added new laboratory and field campaignsto historic investigations at both sites.Theyenabledanaccurate description ofsoilbehaviour from small strains to ultimate statesto be derived, allowing analyses to be undertaken that captured both the serviceability and limit statebehaviour of the test monopiles.
McAdam RA, Byrne BW, Houlsby GT, et al., Monotonic lateral loaded pile testing in a dense marine sand at Dunkirk, Géotechnique, ISSN: 0016-8505
Theresults obtained from a field testing campaignon laterally-loaded monopiles,conducted ata dense sand site inDunkirk, Northern Franceare described.These tests formed part of thePISA projecton the development of improved design methods for monopile foundations for offshore wind turbines. Results obtained frommonotonic loading tests on piles of three different diameters (0.273m, 0.762m and 2.0m) are presented. The piles had aspectratios (L/D) of between 3 and 10. Thetests consisted principally of the application of monotonic loads,incorporating periods of held constant load to investigate creep effects.The influence of loading ratewas also investigated. Data are presented on the overall load displacement behaviour of each of the test piles. Measured data on bending moments and inclinations induced in the pilesare also provided.Inferences are made forthe displacements in the embedded length of the piles. Thesefield data will support the development of a new 1D modelling approach forthe design of monopile foundations for offshore wind turbines.They also form a unique database of field measurements in a dense sand, from lateral loading of piles at a vertical distance abovethe ground surface.
Burd HJ, Beuckelaers WJAP, Byrne BW, et al., New data analysis methods for instrumented medium scale monopile field tests, Géotechnique, ISSN: 0016-8505
The PISA Joint Industry Research Project was concerned with the development of improved design methods for monopile foundations in offshore wind applications. PISA involved large-scale pile tests in overconsolidated glacial till at Cowden, north-east England, andin dense normally consolidated marine sand at Dunkirk, northern France. This paper describes the experimental set up for pile testing, with unique features of load-application mechanisms and built-in fibre optic strain gauges.New procedures are describedfor the interpretation of pile loading data, and specifically for providing precise interpretation of pile displacements.
Avgerinos V, Potts DM, Standing JR, 2018, Numerical investigation of the effects of tunnelling on existing tunnels., Géotechnique, Vol: 67, Pages: 808-822, ISSN: 0016-8505
Construction of the Crossrail tunnels just beneath the existing Central line tunnels at the northern side of Hyde Park provided the impetus for this paper. A basic three-dimensional (3D) finite-element (FE) model was developed to study a general case of a new tunnel (NT) crossing perpendicularly below an existing tunnel (ET). A series of 3D FE analyses was carried out and the results presented in this paper reveal some of the interaction effects. Changes in hoop forces, bending moments and lining deformations of the ET due to excavation of the NT are discussed. Conclusions are drawn about how the relative position of the excavation face of the NT in relation to the ET's axis affects the latter's behaviour. Cross-sectional and longitudinal deformations of the ET are discussed, leading to recommendations for field monitoring of similar interaction cases. Two parametric studies were also carried out to quantify the effects of the magnitude of the earth pressure balance machine face pressure and the longitudinal stiffness of the ET on the predicted behaviour of the ET due to construction of the NT.
Zdravkovic L, Tsiampousi A, Potts DM, 2018, On the modelling of soil-atmosphere interaction in cut and natural slopes, 7th International Conference on Unsaturated Soils
The need to predict the consequences of atmospheric conditions on the stability of slopes is widely evident from numerous examples of slope failures around the world, which often result in material and human loss.Equally, the serviceability conditions of cut slopes very much depend onthe heave mobilised byexcavation, the magnitude of which is partly governed by the hydraulic boundary conditions.Soil-atmosphere interaction is complex, involving precipitation and evapotranspiration across the slope surface, and acts in ad-dition to theground water regime within the slope body. As a consequence, calculation tools cannot be overly simplified if realistic predictions are expected. This paper provides an overview of recent research at Imperial College in modellingunsaturatednatural and cut slopes, using finite element analysis and advanced constitutive models and boundary conditions.
Ghiadistri GM, Potts DM, Zdravkovic L, et al., 2018, A new double structure model for expansive clays, 7th International Conference on Unsaturated Soils
The behaviourof compacted bentonite upon hydration is numerically investigated here by simu-lating a swelling pressure teston aMX-80 bentonitesample. Two constitutive modelsareemployed in the analysis: the “Imperial College Single-Structure Model” (ICSSM)andthe “Imperial College Double-Structure Model” (ICDSM), the latterspecifically developed for expansive clays. It is shown that the latter exhibits a considerably improved performance as it is able to accurately capture the swelling pressure developed in the materialupon wetting. Nevertheless, a limited knowledge of the evolution of the material’s fabric, notably at the micro-scale,is an obstacle for deriving with certainty some of the model parameters. This issue is high-lightedhere by performing analyses of theswelling pressure test with two sets ofmaterial characterisations, with model parameters differinginthe derivation of the microstructural component.Both analyses show a very good match with the testdata, but it is difficult to justify one set of microstructural parametersoverthe other. The paper emphasises what aspects of experimental research could be helpful in studying the fabric of compacted bentonite upon wetting, and hence improve the calibration procedure of thedouble-structure mod-el.
Kirkham AD, Tsiampousi A, Potts DM, 2018, Temperature-controlled oedometer testing on compacted bentonite, 7th International Conference on Unsaturated Soils
A new temperature-controlled oedometer has been designed at Imperial College London and commissioned to investigate the thermo-hydro-mechanicalbehaviour of soils. Temperature control is achieved by submerging the specimenin a water bath. The water temperature is regulated byheaters positionedradially around the specimen, or by an external unit. The temperature can be varied between 5°C and 85°C. The temperature gradient across the specimenis minimised by circulating water beneath the specimenthrough a hollow plate.A thermo-mechanical, elastic, finite element model of the equipment has been produced using the Imperial College Finite Element Program (ICFEP). The experimental results are used to develop and validate the numerical model. The model is then used to inform and improve the experimental testing programme.The accuracy of temperature control has already been established. The testing programme includes heating tests at constant applied stress, and loading tests at discrete temperature values. Of particular interest is thermally-inducedoverconsolidation behaviour. The experimental results are used to verify the existing numerical framework and to establish the effect of temperature on the behaviourofsaturated soil.
Cui W, Gawecka KA, Potts DM, et al., 2018, A Petrov-Galerkin finite element method for 2D transient and steady state highly advective flows in porous media, Computers and Geotechnics, Vol: 100, Pages: 158-173, ISSN: 0266-352X
A new Petrov-Galerkin finite element method for two-dimensional (2D) highly advective flows in porous media, which removes numerical oscillations and retains its precision compared to the conventional Galerkin finite element method, is presented. A new continuous weighting function for quadratic elements is proposed. Moreover, a numerical scheme is developed to ensure the weighting factors are accurately determined for 2D non-uniform flows and 2D distorted elements. Finally, a series of numerical examples are performed to demonstrate the capability of the approach. Comparison against existing methods in the simulation of a benchmark problem further verifies the robustness of the proposed method.
Summersgill F, Kontoe S, Potts DM, 2018, Stabilisation of excavated slopes in strain softening materials with piles, Géotechnique, Vol: 68, Pages: 626-639, ISSN: 0016-8505
The use of a row of discrete vertical piles is an established method, successfully used to remediate failure of existing slopes and to stabilise potentially unstable slopes created by widening transport corridors. This paper challenges the assumptions made in current design procedures for these piles, which treat the pile only as an additional force or moment and simplify soil–pile interaction. Two-dimensional plane-strain finite-element analyses were performed to simulate the excavation of a slope in a stiff clay and the interaction of vertical piles within the slope. A non-local strain-softening model was employed for the stiff clay to reduce the mesh dependency of the solution. An extensive parametric study was performed to systematically examine the impact of pile position, dimensions (length and diameter) and time of pile construction on the stability of a cutting in London Clay, which was chosen as a representative strain-softening material. A variety of different failure mechanisms were identified, depending on pile location, dimensions and time of construction. The variability of the pile and slope interaction that was modelled suggests that an oversimplification during design could miss the critical failure mechanism or provide a conservative stabilisation solution. Given the prevalence of stiff clay slopes in the UK, increased capacity requirements of transport infrastructure and the age of slopes in this material, an informed and more realistic design of stabilisation piles will become increasingly necessary.
Kontoe S, Summersgill F, Potts D, et al., 2018, Stabilisation of excavated slopes with piles in soils with distinctly different strain softening behaviour, 9th European Conference on Numerical Methods in Geotechnical Engineering (NUMGE)
The majority of existing design procedures for slope stabilization with piles treat the pile only as an additional force or moment acting on the critical slip surface of the unstabilised slope, effectively ignoring any interaction of the pile with the evolution of the failure mechanism. This paper presents a numerical investigation that challenges this assumption, demonstrating the importance of the soil-pile interaction. Two dimensional plane-strain hydro-mechanically coupled finite element analyses were performed to simulate the excavation of a slope, considering materials with both a strain softening and non-softening response. The impact of pile position and time of pile construction on the stability of a cutting were parametrically examined, comparing and contrasting the findings for the different material types. The results suggest that an oversimplification during design regarding the soil/pile interaction could either entirely miss the critical failure mechanism (unconservative) or provide a conservative stabilisation solution.
Skiada E, Kontoe S, Stafford P, et al., 2018, Ground surface amplification for canyon topographies excited with bi-directional earthquake records, 16th European Conference on Earthquake Engineering
Tsaparli V, Kontoe S, Taborda D, et al., 2018, Liquefaction triggering due to compressional waves: validation through field records, 16th European Conference on Earthquake Engineering
Wan MSP, Standing JR, Potts DM, et al., 2018, Pore water pressure and total horizontal stress response to EPBM tunnelling in London Clay, Géotechnique, ISSN: 0016-8505
The ground response, in terms of surface and subsurface displacements, to twin-bore Crossrail tunnel construction beneath a research monitoring site in Hyde Park, London, using earth-pressure-balance machines (EPBMs) in London Clay, has recently been reported in two companion papers by the authors. This third paper presents and discusses corresponding changes in pore water pressure and total horizontal stress measured using multi-level piezometers and pushed-in spade cells. The three papers together provide a comprehensive and completely unique field monitoring case history of the short-term ground response to EPBM tunnelling in London Clay, making them invaluable for validating future numerical analyses. The fully grouted vibrating-wire piezometers were able to measure the rapid pore water pressure changes around the tunnels as they were constructed. Five distinct immediate pore water pressure responses are identified, induced by different stages of the tunnel drives as the EPBMs approached and passed the instruments. The responses are correlated with tunnel-boring machine operation variables and a postulated arching mechanism, identified for the first time through field measurements. The sense and magnitude of changes in horizontal total stress were reasonable and are correlated with overall pore water pressure changes. Both responses are linked where possible with measured subsurface displacements and generally correlate well, at least qualitatively. Limitations to the measurements and influencing factors are also discussed.
Cui W, Tsiampousi A, Potts DM, et al., 2018, Finite element modelling of excess pore fluid pressure around a heat source buried in saturated soils, London, 9th European Conference on Numerical Methods in Geotechnical Engineering, Publisher: Taylor Francis Group, Pages: 741-749
Sailer E, Taborda DMG, Zdravkovic L, et al., 2018, Factors affecting the thermo-mechanical response of a retaining wall under non-isothermal conditions, London, 9th European Conference on Numerical Methods in Geotechnical Engineering, Publisher: Taylor Francis Group, Pages: 741-749
Taborda DMG, Potts DM, Zdravkovic L, et al., 2018, Incorporating the state parameter into a simple constitutive model for sand, London, 9th European Conference on Numerical Methods in Geotechnical Engineering, Publisher: Taylor Francis Group, Pages: 327-334
Potts D, Cui W, Gawecka KA, et al., 2018, Numerical modelling of coupled thermo-hydro-mechanical problems: Challenges and pitfalls, 9th European Conference on Numerical Methods in Geotechnical Engineering, Publisher: Taylor Francis Group
Pedro A, Zdravkovic L, Potts DM, et al., 2017, Geotechnical characterisation of the Miocene formations at the location of Ivens shaft, Lisbon, Quarterly Journal of Engineering Geology and Hydrogeology, Vol: 51, Pages: 96-107, ISSN: 1470-9236
The design of complex underground structures in an urban environment requires in the first instance an appropriate characterization and interpretation of the ground conditions and of the mechanical behaviour of soil formations in the ground profile. With such information it is then possible to select and calibrate appropriate soil constitutive models for application in advanced numerical analysis, with the objective of predicting the induced ground movements and the potential damage to existing structures and services. This paper provides an interpretation of the site investigation data collected for the numerical analysis and design of the Ivens shaft excavation in Lisbon, Portugal. For the first time a comprehensive set of interpreted data is obtained for two of the main formations in the Lisbon area, Argilas e Calcários dos Prazeres (AP) and Areolas da Estefânia (AE), improving the understanding of their mechanical behaviour and making the data available for application in most soil constitutive frameworks. It is evident from the results that even with careful testing procedures the data may appear to be inconsistent, requiring further assumptions when deriving soil parameters. Such assumptions are discussed and emphasis is placed on the need to combine data from laboratory and field investigations.
Burd HJ, Byrne BW, McAdam R, et al., 2017, Foundation Design of Offshore Wind Structures, TC209 Workshop on Foundation Design of Offshore Wind Structures, 19th International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering
This paper describes the outcome of a recently completed research project – known as PISA – on the development of a new process for the design of monopile foundations for offshore wind turbine support structures. The PISA research was concerned with the use of field testing and three-dimensional (3D) finite element analysis to develop and calibrate a new one-dimensional (1D) design model. The resulting 1D design model is based on the same basic assumptions and principles that underlie the current p-y method, but the method is extended to include additional components of soil reaction acting on the pile, and enhanced to provide an improved representation of the soil-pile interaction behaviour. Mathematical functions – termed ‘soil reaction curves’ – are employed to represent the individual soil reaction components in the 1D design model. Values of the parameters needed to specify the soil reaction curves for a particular design scenario are determined using a set of 3D finite element calibration analyses. The PISA research was focused on two particular soil types (overconsolidated clay till and dense sand) that commonly occur in north European coastal waters. The current paper provides an overview of the field testing and 3D modelling aspects of the project, and then focuses on the development, calibration and application of the PISA design approach for monopiles in dense sand.
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