Imperial College London

Professor Dan Elson

Faculty of MedicineDepartment of Surgery & Cancer

Professor of Surgical Imaging



+44 (0)20 7594 1700daniel.elson Website




415 Bessemer BuildingBessemer BuildingSouth Kensington Campus






BibTex format

author = {He, C and Chang, J and Hu, Q and Wang, J and Antonello, J and He, H and Liu, S and Lin, J and Dai, B and Elson, DS and Xi, P and Ma, H and Booth, MJ},
doi = {10.1038/s41467-019-12286-3},
journal = {Nature Communications},
title = {Complex vectorial optics through gradient index lens cascades},
url = {},
volume = {10},
year = {2019}

RIS format (EndNote, RefMan)

AB - Graded index (GRIN) lenses are commonly used for compact imaging systems. It is not widely appreciated that the ion-exchange process that creates the rotationally symmetric GRIN lens index profile also causes a symmetric birefringence variation. This property is usually considered a nuisance, such that manufacturing processes are optimized to keep it to a minimum. Here, rather than avoiding this birefringence, we understand and harness it by using GRIN lenses in cascade with other optical components to enable extra functionality in commonplace GRIN lens systems. We show how birefringence in the GRIN cascades can generate vector vortex beams and foci, and how it can be used advantageously to improve axial resolution. Through using the birefringence for analysis, we show that the GRIN cascades form the basis of a new single-shot Müller matrix polarimeter with potential for endoscopic label-free cancer diagnostics. The versatility of these cascades opens up new technological directions.
AU - He,C
AU - Chang,J
AU - Hu,Q
AU - Wang,J
AU - Antonello,J
AU - He,H
AU - Liu,S
AU - Lin,J
AU - Dai,B
AU - Elson,DS
AU - Xi,P
AU - Ma,H
AU - Booth,MJ
DO - 10.1038/s41467-019-12286-3
PY - 2019///
SN - 2041-1723
TI - Complex vectorial optics through gradient index lens cascades
T2 - Nature Communications
UR -
UR -
UR -
VL - 10
ER -