Imperial College London

Dr Enrique Castro Sánchez

Faculty of MedicineDepartment of Medicine

Academic Research Nurse



+44 (0)20 3313 2732e.castro-sanchez Website




7N.12Commonwealth BuildingHammersmith Campus





Enrique is currently combining an Early Career Research Fellowship exploring increased participation of nurses in antimicrobial stewardship decision-making and a position as Lead Research Nurse at the Health Protection Research Unit in AMR and HCAI. He works in the theme "Innovations in behaviour change, technology and patient safety to improve infection prevention and antimicrobial use", led by Prof Bryony Dean Franklin and Susan Hopkins.

The HPRU, which was established on 1 April 2014, is a partnership between Imperial College London, Public Health England, Cambridge University Veterinary School, the Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute and Imperial College Health Partners North West London Academic Health Science Network.

He was awarded a PhD in Nursing at the University of Alicante (Spain) in 2015. He trained in nursing and management of nursing services in Spain, followed by an MSc in Public Health at the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine in 2003. His research interests include health literacy in infectious diseases and healthcare-associated infections; the impact of health inequalities on infectious diseases; policy influence on management of infectious diseases; use of social networks on clinicians and patients’ attitudes to infection; and the implementation and evaluation of new roles for nurses.

Enrique has got a broad clinical experience in tropical and infectious diseases including malaria, leprosy, tuberculosis, HIV and sexually transmitted infections. His work as advanced nurse practitioner (developing and evaluating new models of care for people living with HIV) has received national awards. In 2007 he was the National Advisor for Sexual Health and HIV for the Royal College of Nursing, developing a national HIV awareness campaign.

Selected Publications

Journal Articles

Blanco-Mavillard I, Rodríguez-Calero MA, Castro-Sánchez E, et al., 2018, Appraising the quality standard underpinning international clinical practice guidelines for the selection and care of vascular access devices: a systematic review of reviews., Bmj Open, Vol:8

Cabellos-Garcia AC, Martinez-Sabater A, Castro-Sanchez E, et al., 2018, Relation between health literacy, self-care and adherence to treatment with oral anticoagulants in adults: a narrative systematic review, BMC Public Health, Vol:18, ISSN:1471-2458

Castro-Sanchez E, Vila-Candel R, Soriano-Vidal FJ, et al., 2018, Influence of health literacy on acceptance of influenza and pertussis vaccinations: a cross-sectional study among Spanish pregnant women, Bmj Open, Vol:8, ISSN:2044-6055

Courtenay M, Castro-Sánchez E, Deslandes R, et al., 2018, Defining antimicrobial stewardship competencies for undergraduate health professional education in the United Kingdom: A study protocol., J Interprof Care, Vol:32, Pages:638-640

Alividza V, Mariano V, Ahmad R, et al., 2018, Investigating the impact of poverty on colonization and infection with drug-resistant organisms in humans: a systematic review, Infectious Diseases of Poverty, Vol:7, ISSN:2049-9957

Castro-Sanchez E, Bennasar-Veny M, Smith M, et al., 2018, European Commission guidelines for the prudent use of antimicrobials in human health: a missed opportunity to embrace nursing participation in stewardship, Clinical Microbiology and Infection, Vol:24, ISSN:1198-743X, Pages:914-915

Castro Sanchez EM, Iwami M, Ahmad R, et al., 2018, Articulating citizen participation in national antimicrobial resistance plans: a comparison of European countries, European Journal of Public Health, ISSN:1101-1262

Nellums LB, Thompson H, Holmes A, et al., 2018, Antimicrobial resistance among migrants in Europe: a systematic review and meta-analysis, Lancet Infectious Diseases, Vol:18, ISSN:1473-3099, Pages:796-811

Castro Sanchez EM, Gilchrist M, McEwen J, et al., Antimicrobial stewardship: widening the collaborative approach, Journal of Antimicrobial Stewardship

Boyd SE, Moore LSP, Gilchrist M, et al., 2017, Obtaining antibiotics online from within the UK: a cross-sectional study, Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, Vol:72, ISSN:0305-7453, Pages:1521-1528

Micallef C, Kildonaviciute K, Castro-Sanchez E, et al., 2017, Patient and public understanding and knowledge of antimicrobial resistance and stewardship in a UK hospital: should public campaigns change focus?, Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, Vol:72, ISSN:0305-7453, Pages:311-314

Pereira NR, Castro-Sanchez E, Nathwani D, 2017, How can multi-professional education support better stewardship?, Infectious Disease Reports, Vol:9, ISSN:2036-7430, Pages:1-7

Vila-Candel R, Navarro-Illana P, Navarro-Illana E, et al., 2016, Determinants of seasonal influenza vaccination in pregnant women in Valencia, Spain, BMC Public Health, Vol:16, ISSN:1471-2458

Castro-Sanchez E, Kyratsis Y, Iwami M, et al., 2016, Serious electronic games as behavioural change interventions in healthcareassociated infections and infection prevention and control: a scoping review of the literature and future directions, Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control, Vol:5, ISSN:2047-2994

Castro-Sanchez E, Moore LSP, Husson F, et al., 2016, What are the factors driving antimicrobial resistance? Perspectives from a public event in London, England, BMC Infectious Diseases, Vol:16, ISSN:1471-2334

Micallef C, Kildonavaciute K, Castro-Sanchez E, et al., 2016, Is There a Role for a Bespoke App on Antimicrobial Stewardship Targeting Patients and the Public?, Clinical Infectious Diseases, Vol:63, ISSN:1058-4838, Pages:140-U166

Zingg W, Castro-Sanchez E, Secci FV, et al., 2016, Innovative tools for quality assessment: integrated quality criteria for review of multiple study designs (ICROMS), Public Health, Vol:133, ISSN:0033-3506, Pages:19-37

Castro-Sanchez E, Drumright LN, Gharbi M, et al., 2016, Mapping Antimicrobial Stewardship in Undergraduate Medical, Dental, Pharmacy, Nursing and Veterinary Education in the United Kingdom, PLOS One, Vol:11, ISSN:1932-6203

Castro-Sanchez E, Chang PWS, Vila-Candel R, et al., 2016, Health literacy and infectious diseases: why does it matter?, International Journal of Infectious Diseases, Vol:43, ISSN:1201-9712, Pages:103-110

Rawson TM, Moore LSP, Hernandez B, et al., 2016, Patient engagement with infection management in secondary care: a qualitative investigation of current experiences, Bmj Open, Vol:6, ISSN:2044-6055

Castro-Sanchez E, Spanoudakis E, Holmes AH, 2015, Readability of Ebola Information on Websites of Public Health Agencies, United States, United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, and Europe, Emerging Infectious Diseases, Vol:21, ISSN:1080-6040, Pages:1217-1219

Shah N, Castro-Sanchez E, Charani E, et al., 2015, Towards changing healthcare workers' behaviour: a qualitative study exploring non-compliance through appraisals of infection prevention and control practices, Journal of Hospital Infection, Vol:90, ISSN:0195-6701, Pages:126-134

Castro-Sanchez E, Holmes AH, 2015, Impact of organizations on healthcare-associated infections, Journal of Hospital Infection, Vol:89, ISSN:0195-6701, Pages:346-350

Dyar OJ, Castro-Sanchez E, Holmes AH, 2014, What makes people talk about antibiotics on social media? A retrospective analysis of Twitter use, Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, Vol:69, ISSN:0305-7453, Pages:2568-2572

Castro-Sanchez E, Charani E, Drumright LN, et al., 2014, Fragmentation of Care Threatens Patient Safety in Peripheral Vascular Catheter Management in Acute Care- A Qualitative Study, PLOS One, Vol:9, ISSN:1932-6203

Charani E, Castro-Sanchez E, Sevdalis N, et al., 2013, Understanding the Determinants of Antimicrobial Prescribing Within Hospitals: The Role of "Prescribing Etiquette", Clinical Infectious Diseases, Vol:57, ISSN:1058-4838, Pages:188-196

Sanchez EC, Holmes A, 2012, Public behaviour and the response to pandemic influenza, Lancet Infectious Diseases, Vol:12, ISSN:1473-3099, Pages:819-820


Castro Sanchez EM, 2018, The role of the nurse in stewardship, Antimicrobial stewardship: from principles to practice

Castro Sanchez EM, Holmes A, Pittet D, 2017, Chapter 28: Institutional safety climate., Hand Hygiene: A Handbook for Medical Professionals, Editor(s): Wiley-Blackwell

Castro Sanchez EM, Charani E, Moore LSP, et al., 2014, “On call: antibiotics”- development and evaluation of a serious antimicrobial prescribing game for hospital care, Games for Health 2014. Proceedings of the 4th conference on gaming and playful interaction in healthcare., Editor(s): Schouten, Fedtke, Schijven, Vosmeer, Gekker, Springer


Castro Sanchez EM, Iwami M, Ahmad R, et al., 2017, Articulating citizen participation in national policies for addressing antimicrobial resistance in European countries - an updated analysis, ECCMID 2017, European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases

Castro Sanchez EM, Spanoudakis E, Holmes A, 2015, Ebola information for the public: an assessment of suitability and readability of information available through US, UK, Canadian and European public health agencies, ECCMID 2015, ESCMID

Castro Sanchez EM, Charani E, Moore LSP, et al., 2014, “On call: antibiotics”- development and evaluation of a serious antimicrobial prescribing game for hospital care, Games for Health europe 2014

Castro-Sanchez E, Charani E, Moore LSP, et al., 2014, Taking antimicrobial stewardship initiatives to the next level: Development of a serious prescribing game for acute care, ELSEVIER SCI LTD, Pages:46-47, ISSN:1201-9712

Castro Sanchez EM, 2013, Alfabetización en salud en emigrantes: revisión sistemática de la literatura, 17th International Nursing Research Conference



Castro Sanchez EM, 2016, Building Nursing Capacity In Antimicrobial Stewardship: Learning From Low- And Middle-Income Countries

Holmes A, Dixon-Woods M, Ahmad R, et al., 2015, Infection prevention and control: lessons from acute care in England. Towards a whole health economy approach, Infection prevention and control: lessons from acute care in England, Health Foundation

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