338 results found
Banks-Leite C, Larrosa C, Carrasco LR, et al., 2021, The suggestion that landscapes should contain 40% of forest cover lacks evidence and is problematic, Ecology Letters, Vol: 24, Pages: 1112-1113, ISSN: 1461-023X
A recent review suggests that forest cover needs to be restored or maintained on at least 40% of land area. In the absence of empirical evidence to support this threshold, we discuss how this suggestion is unhelpful and potentially dangerous. We advocate for regionally defined thresholds to inform conservation and restoration.
Booth H, Clark M, Milner-Gulland EJ, et al., 2021, Investigating the risks of removing wild meat from global food systems., Curr Biol, Vol: 31, Pages: 1788-1797.e3
The COVID-19 pandemic has brought humanity's strained relationship with nature into sharp focus, with calls for cessation of wild meat trade and consumption, to protect public health and biodiversity.1,2 However, the importance of wild meat for human nutrition, and its tele-couplings to other food production systems, mean that the complete removal of wild meat from diets and markets would represent a shock to global food systems.3-6 The negative consequences of this shock deserve consideration in policy responses to COVID-19. We demonstrate that the sudden policy-induced loss of wild meat from food systems could have negative consequences for people and nature. Loss of wild meat from diets could lead to food insecurity, due to reduced protein and nutrition, and/or drive land-use change to replace lost nutrients with animal agriculture, which could increase biodiversity loss and emerging infectious disease risk. We estimate the magnitude of these consequences for 83 countries, and qualitatively explore how prohibitions might play out in 10 case study places. Results indicate that risks are greatest for food-insecure developing nations, where feasible, sustainable, and socially desirable wild meat alternatives are limited. Some developed nations would also face shocks, and while high-capacity food systems could more easily adapt, certain places and people would be disproportionately impacted. We urge decision-makers to consider potential unintended consequences of policy-induced shocks amidst COVID-19; and take holistic approach to wildlife trade interventions, which acknowledge the interconnectivity of global food systems and nature, and include safeguards for vulnerable people.
Olmedo A, Verissimo D, Challender DWS, et al., 2021, Who eats wild meat? Profiling consumers in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, PEOPLE AND NATURE
Mair L, Bennun LA, Brooks TM, et al., 2021, A metric for spatially explicit contributions to science-based species targets, NATURE ECOLOGY & EVOLUTION, ISSN: 2397-334X
Doughty H, Oliver K, Veríssimo D, et al., 2021, Using theory and evidence to design behaviour change interventions for reducing unsustainable wildlife consumption, People and Nature, Vol: 3, Pages: 469-483, ISSN: 2575-8314
Kuiper T, Massé F, Ngwenya NA, et al., 2021, Ranger perceptions of, and engagement with, monitoring of elephant poaching, People and Nature, Vol: 3, Pages: 148-161, ISSN: 2575-8314
Cheung H, Doughty H, Hinsley A, et al., 2021, Understanding Traditional Chinese Medicine to strengthen conservation outcomes, People and Nature, Vol: 3, Pages: 115-128, ISSN: 2575-8314
Milner-Gulland EJ, Addison P, Arlidge WNS, et al., 2021, Four steps for the Earth: mainstreaming the post-2020 global biodiversity framework, One Earth, Vol: 4, Pages: 75-87, ISSN: 2590-3330
The upcoming Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) meeting, and adoption of the new Global Biodiversity Framework, represent an opportunity to transform humanity's relationship with nature. Restoring nature while meeting human needs requires a bold vision, including mainstreaming biodiversity conservation in society. We present a framework that could support this: the Mitigation and Conservation Hierarchy. This places the Mitigation Hierarchy for mitigating and compensating the biodiversity impacts of developments (1, avoid; 2, minimize; 3, restore; and 4, offset, toward a target such as “no net loss” of biodiversity) within a broader framing encompassing all conservation actions. We illustrate its application by national governments, sub-national levels (specifically the city of London, a fishery, and Indigenous groups), companies, and individuals. The Mitigation and Conservation Hierarchy supports the choice of actions to conserve and restore nature, and evaluation of the effectiveness of those actions, across sectors and scales. It can guide actions toward a sustainable future for people and nature, supporting the CBD's vision. The adoption of the new Global Biodiversity Framework requires mainstreaming of biodiversity conservation into society. The Mitigation and Conservation Hierarchy places the Mitigation Hierarchy (1, avoid; 2, minimize; 3, restore; and 4, offset biodiversity impacts) within a broader framing encompassing all conservation actions. We illustrate its application by national governments, sub-national levels, companies, and individuals. This integrated framework supports the choice of actions to conserve and restore nature, and evaluation of their effectiveness, across sectors and scales.
Olmedo A, Veríssimo D, Milner-Gulland EJ, et al., 2021, Uncovering prevalence of pangolin consumption using a technique for investigating sensitive behaviour, ORYX, Pages: 1-9, ISSN: 0030-6053
Pangolins have been exploited throughout history but evidence points to population declines across parts of their ranges since the 1960s, especially in Asia. This is the result of overexploitation for local use and international trade and trafficking of their derivatives. The prevalence of the consumption of pangolin products has been estimated for different localities in Viet Nam but, considering that national legislation prohibits the purchase of pangolin products, previous research has not accounted for the potential for biased responses. In this study, we treat pangolin consumption as a sensitive behaviour and estimate consumption prevalence of pangolin meat, scales and wine (a whole pangolin or pangolin parts or fluids soaked or mixed in rice wine) in Ho Chi Minh City using a specialized questioning method, the unmatched count technique. We also characterize the demographics of consumers. Our results suggest there is active consumption of all three pangolin products, with a best-estimate prevalence of 7% of a representative sample of Ho Chi Minh City residents for pangolin meat, 10% for scales and 6% for wine. Our prevalence estimates exceed estimates from direct questions, providing evidence for the sensitivity of pangolin consumption. We compared our analysis of consumer characteristics with existing profiles of pangolin consumers and found substantial differences, suggesting that consumption occurs among broader demographic groups than previously described. Our findings suggest that efforts to reduce demand for pangolin consumption in Viet Nam should focus on a broader range of consumers than previously identified.
Burgman M, Addison PFE, Stephenson PJ, et al., 2020, Bringing sustainability to life: A framework to guide biodiversity indicator development for business performance management, Business Strategy and the Environment, Vol: 29, Pages: 3303-3313, ISSN: 0964-4733
Biodiversity loss is a critical sustainability issue, and companies are beginning to seek ways to assess their biodiversity performance. Initiatives to date have developed biodiversity indicators for specific business contexts (e.g., spatial scales—from site, to product, to regional, or corporate scales); however, many are not widely translatable across different contexts making it challenging for businesses seeking indicators to manage their biodiversity performance. By synthesising the steps of common conservation and business decision‐making systems, we propose a framework to support more comprehensive development of quantitative biodiversity indicators, for a range of business contexts. The framework integrates experience from existing tried‐and‐tested conservation frameworks. We illustrate how our framework offers a pathway for businesses to assess their biodiversity performance and demonstrate responsible management by mitigating and reversing their biodiversity impacts and sustaining their dependencies, enabling them to demonstrate their contribution to emerging global biodiversity targets (e.g., Convention on Biological Diversity post‐2020 targets).
de Lange E, Milner-Gulland EJ, Yim V, et al., 2020, Using mixed methods to understand sensitive wildlife poisoning behaviours in northern Cambodia, Oryx, Pages: 1-14, ISSN: 0030-6053
<jats:title>Abstract</jats:title> <jats:p>In northern Cambodia, threatened wildlife, livestock and people are being poisoned by pesticides deposited in seasonal waterholes. Addressing this critical conservation threat requires understanding the drivers of poisoning behaviours and the social contexts in which they occur. This study across 10 communities in two protected areas aimed to provide a first assessment of this phenomenon. We used the theory of planned behaviour to measure socio-psychological determinants of behaviour and deepened this understanding using informant interviews and focus group discussions. Informants reported that so-called termite poisons, including powerful carbamates, are deliberately deposited at waterholes to catch wildlife for consumption. This method is perceived to be low effort and high efficacy, and perceptions of the health risks vary. Predominant users are young men and children, but it is unclear whether the practice is related to food insecurity. Threatened wildlife species reported as affected include the giant ibis <jats:italic>Pseudibis gigantea</jats:italic> and vulture species. Overall, social norms are strongly negative towards poisoning; 75% of survey respondents perceived negative norms because of impacts on human and livestock health, environmental quality, and risks of legal sanctions. This has led to interventions by local authorities in half of the studied villages. We suggest that future interventions should raise the salience of negative norms by providing a non-conflictual mechanism for community members to participate in monitoring and sanctioning, such as a reporting hotline. Regulatory interventions are also required to control the supply of restricted pesticides.</jats:p>
Doughty H, Wright J, Verissimo D, et al., 2020, Strategic advertising of online news articles as an intervention to influence wildlife product consumers, CONSERVATION SCIENCE AND PRACTICE, Vol: 2
Oyanedel R, Gelcich S, Milner-Gulland EJ, 2020, A synthesis of (non-)compliance theories with applications to small-scale fisheries research and practice, FISH AND FISHERIES, Vol: 21, Pages: 1120-1134, ISSN: 1467-2960
Oyanedel R, Gelcich S, Milner-Gulland EJ, 2020, Motivations for (non-)compliance with conservation rules by small-scale resource users, CONSERVATION LETTERS, Vol: 13, ISSN: 1755-263X
Short RE, Mussa J, Hill NAO, et al., 2020, Challenging assumptions: the gendered nature of mosquito net fishing and the implications for management, GENDER TECHNOLOGY & DEVELOPMENT, Vol: 24, Pages: 66-88, ISSN: 0971-8524
Booth H, Squires D, Milner-Gulland EJ, 2020, The mitigation hierarchy for sharks: A risk-based framework for reconciling trade-offs between shark conservation and fisheries objectives, FISH AND FISHERIES, Vol: 21, Pages: 269-289, ISSN: 1467-2960
Betts J, Young RP, Hilton-Taylor C, et al., 2020, A framework for evaluating the impact of the IUCN Red List of threatened species, CONSERVATION BIOLOGY, Vol: 34, Pages: 632-643, ISSN: 0888-8892
Davis KJ, Alfaro-Shigueto J, Arlidge WNS, et al., 2020, Disconnects in global discourses—the unintended consequences of marine mammal protection on small-scale fishers
<jats:title>Abstract</jats:title><jats:p>Globally, the populations of many marine mammals remain of critical concern after centuries of exploitation and hunting. However, some marine mammal populations (e.g. pinnipeds) have largely recovered from exploitation, and interactions between these species and fisheries—particularly small-scale fisheries—is once again of concern globally. The large scope and widespread scale of interactions highlights the local disconnect between two global policies: marine mammal conservation and small-scale fisheries protection. In this research, we explore these conflicting global policies by assessing the perceptions of coastal small-scale fishers in Peru and Chile regarding their interactions with pinnipeds, including the South American sea lion (<jats:italic>Otaria flavescens</jats:italic>) and South American fur seal (<jats:italic>Arctocephalus australis</jats:italic>). We surveyed 301 gill net fishers and assess perceptions using a best-worst scaling methodology. We find that fishers are chiefly concerned with the increase in pinniped populations, perceive that their interactions with pinnipeds have significantly increased over the past 80 years, and report pinniped-driven catch and income losses ≥ 26 per cent. Surprisingly, fishers do not believe that compensation schemes will resolve this issue—instead they overwhelmingly call for pinniped population culls. The reported number of pinnipeds illegally killed by fishers suggests the potential for large negative impacts on these protected species, and a loss of legitimacy in marine regulation. Collectively, our results portray a sense of marginalisation from fishers’—that global policy treats them as less “important” than marine mammals. Our results highlight the increasing disconnect in global policy, which on one hand seeks to protect threatened marine mammal populations, and on the other seeks to
Brittain S, Ngo Bata M, de Ornellas P, et al., 2020, Combining local knowledge and occupancy analysis for a rapid assessment of the forest elephant Loxodonta cyclotis in Cameroon's timber production forests, Oryx, Vol: 54, Pages: 90-100, ISSN: 0030-6053
Information on the distribution and abundance of the forest elephant Loxodonta cyclotis is needed to allocate limited resources appropriately and set conservation goals for the species. However, monitoring at large scales in forest habitats is complicated, expensive and time consuming. We investigated the potential of applying interview-based occupancy analysis as a tool for the rapid assessment of the distribution and relative abundance of forest elephants in eastern Cameroon. Using single-season occupancy models, we explored the covariates that affect forest elephant occupancy and detectability, and identified spatial and temporal patterns in population change and occupancy. Quantitative and qualitative socio-demographic data offer additional depth and understanding, placing the occupancy analysis in context and providing valuable information to guide conservation action. Detectability of forest elephants has decreased since 2008, which is consistent with the decline in perceived abundance in occupied sites. Forest elephants occupy areas outside protected areas and outside the known elephant range defined by IUCN. Critical conservation attention is required to assess forest elephant populations and the threats they face in these poorly understood areas. Interview-based occupancy analysis is a reliable and suitable method for a rapid assessment of forest elephant occupancy on a large scale, as a complement to, or the first stage in, a monitoring process.
Grace M, Akcakaya HR, Bennett E, et al., 2019, Using historical and palaeoecological data to inform ambitious species recovery targets, PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS OF THE ROYAL SOCIETY B-BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES, Vol: 374, ISSN: 0962-8436
Smith T, Beagley L, Bull J, et al., 2019, Biodiversity means business: Reframing global biodiversity goals for the private sector, CONSERVATION LETTERS, Vol: 13, ISSN: 1755-263X
Beauchamp E, Clements T, Milner-Gulland EJ, 2019, Investigating Perceptions of Land Issues in a Threatened Landscape in Northern Cambodia, SUSTAINABILITY, Vol: 11
Castilho LC, De Vleeschouwer KM, Milner-Gulland EJ, et al., 2019, Hunting of mammal species in protected areas of the southern Bahian Atlantic Forest, Brazil, ORYX, Vol: 53, Pages: 687-697, ISSN: 0030-6053
Dobson ADM, de Lange E, Keane A, et al., 2019, Integrating models of human behaviour between the individual and population levels to inform conservation interventions, PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS OF THE ROYAL SOCIETY B-BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES, Vol: 374, ISSN: 0962-8436
Zhang F, Wang Y, Wang W, et al., 2019, Halting the release of the pangolin Manis javanica in China, ORYX, Vol: 53, Pages: 411-412, ISSN: 0030-6053
Cugniere L, Wright J, Milner-Gulland EJ, 2019, Evidence to action: research to address illegal wildlife trade, Oryx, Vol: 53, Pages: 411-411, ISSN: 0030-6053
Addison PFE, Bull JW, Milner-Gulland EJ, 2019, Using conservation science to advance corporate biodiversity accountability, CONSERVATION BIOLOGY, Vol: 33, Pages: 307-318, ISSN: 0888-8892
Ibbett H, Lay C, Phlai P, et al., 2019, Conserving a globally threatened species in a semi-natural, agrarian landscape, ORYX, Vol: 53, Pages: 181-191, ISSN: 0030-6053
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