1151 results found
Obón-Santacana M, Luján-Barroso L, Freisling H, et al., 2020, Consumption of nuts and seeds and pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition, International Journal of Cancer, Vol: 146, Pages: 76-84, ISSN: 0020-7136
Four epidemiologic studies have assessed the association between nut intake and pancreatic cancer risk with contradictory results. The present study aims to investigate the relation between nut intake (including seeds) and pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate hazards ratio (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) for nut intake and PDAC risk. Information on intake of nuts was obtained from the EPIC country-specific dietary questionnaires. After a mean follow-up of 14 years, 476,160 participants were eligible for the present study and included 1,283 PDAC cases. No association was observed between consumption of nuts and PDAC risk (highest intake vs nonconsumers: HR, 0.89; 95% CI, 0.72-1.10; p-trend = 0.70). Furthermore, no evidence for effect-measure modification was observed when different subgroups were analyzed. Overall, in EPIC, the highest intake of nuts was not statistically significantly associated with PDAC risk.
Rolandsson O, Hampe CS, Sharp SJ, et al., 2019, Autoimmunity plays a role in the onset of diabetes after 40 years of age., Diabetologia
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Type 1 and type 2 diabetes differ with respect to pathophysiological factors such as beta cell function, insulin resistance and phenotypic appearance, but there may be overlap between the two forms of diabetes. However, there are relatively few prospective studies that have characterised the relationship between autoimmunity and incident diabetes. We investigated associations of antibodies against the 65 kDa isoform of GAD (GAD65) with type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes genetic risk scores and incident diabetes in adults in European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-InterAct, a case-cohort study nested in the EPIC cohort. METHODS: GAD65 antibodies were analysed in EPIC participants (over 40 years of age and free of known diabetes at baseline) by radioligand binding assay in a random subcohort (n = 15,802) and in incident diabetes cases (n = 11,981). Type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes genetic risk scores were calculated. Associations between GAD65 antibodies and incident diabetes were estimated using Prentice-weighted Cox regression. RESULTS: GAD65 antibody positivity at baseline was associated with development of diabetes during a median follow-up time of 10.9 years (HR for GAD65 antibody positive vs negative 1.78; 95% CI 1.43, 2.20) after adjustment for sex, centre, physical activity, smoking status and education. The genetic risk score for type 1 diabetes but not type 2 diabetes was associated with GAD65 antibody positivity in both the subcohort (OR per SD genetic risk 1.24; 95% CI 1.03, 1.50) and incident cases (OR 1.97; 95% CI 1.72, 2.26) after adjusting for age and sex. The risk of incident diabetes in those in the top tertile of the type 1 diabetes genetic risk score who were also GAD65 antibody positive was 3.23 (95% CI 2.10, 4.97) compared with all other individuals, suggesting that 1.8% of incident diabetes in adults was attributable to this combination of risk factors. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: Our study indica
Papadimitriou N, Muller D, van den Brandt PA, et al., 2019, A nutrient-wide association study for risk of prostate cancer in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition and the Netherlands Cohort Study., Eur J Nutr
PURPOSE: The evidence from the literature regarding the association of dietary factors and risk of prostate cancer is inconclusive. METHODS: A nutrient-wide association study was conducted to systematically and comprehensively evaluate the associations between 92 foods or nutrients and risk of prostate cancer in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). Cox proportional hazard regression models adjusted for total energy intake, smoking status, body mass index, physical activity, diabetes and education were used to estimate hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals for standardized dietary intakes. As in genome-wide association studies, correction for multiple comparisons was applied using the false discovery rate (FDR < 5%) method and suggested results were replicated in an independent cohort, the Netherlands Cohort Study (NLCS). RESULTS: A total of 5916 and 3842 incident cases of prostate cancer were diagnosed during a mean follow-up of 14 and 20 years in EPIC and NLCS, respectively. None of the dietary factors was associated with the risk of total prostate cancer in EPIC (minimum FDR-corrected P, 0.37). Null associations were also observed by disease stage, grade and fatality, except for positive associations observed for intake of dry cakes/biscuits with low-grade and butter with aggressive prostate cancer, respectively, out of which the intake of dry cakes/biscuits was replicated in the NLCS. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings provide little support for an association for the majority of the 92 examined dietary factors and risk of prostate cancer. The association of dry cakes/biscuits with low-grade prostate cancer warrants further replication given the scarcity in the literature.
Aune D, Yahya M-S, Norat T, et al., 2019, Body mass index, abdominal fatness, weight gain and the risk of urinary incontinence: A systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis of prospective studies, BJOG: an International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Vol: 126, Pages: 1424-1433, ISSN: 1470-0328
BACKGROUND: Adiposity has been associated with elevated risk of urinary incontinence in epidemiological studies, however, the strength of the association has differed between studies. OBJECTIVES: To conduct a systematic literature review and dose-response meta-analysis of prospective studies on adiposity and risk of urinary incontinence. SEARCH STRATEGY: We searched PubMed and Embase databases up to July 19th 2017. SELECTION CRITERIA: Prospective cohort studies were included. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Data were extracted by one reviewer and checked for accuracy by a second reviewer. Summary relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using random effects models. MAIN RESULTS: Twenty four prospective studies were included. The summary RR per 5 kg/m2 increment in BMI was 1.20 (95% confidence interval: 1.16-1.25, I2 =58%, n=13) for population-based studies and 1.19 (95% CI: 1.08-1.30, I2 =87.1%, n=8) for pregnancy-based studies, 1.18 (95% CI: 1.14-1.22, I2 =0%, n=2) per 10 cm increase in waist circumference and 1.34 (95% CI: 1.11-1.62, I2 =90%, n=2) per 10 kg of weight gain. Although the test for nonlinearity was significant for BMI, p=0.04, the association was approximately linear. For subtypes of urinary incontinence the summary RR per 5 BMI units was 1.45 (95% CI: 1.25-1.68, I2 =85%, n=3) for frequent incontinence, 1.52 (95% CI: 1.37-1.68, I2 =34%, n=4) for severe incontinence, 1.33 (95% CI: 1.26-1.41, I2 =0%, n=8) for stress incontinence, 1.26 (95% CI: 1.14-1.40, I2 =70%, n=7) for urge incontinence, and 1.52 (95% CI: 1.36-1.69, I2 =0%, n=3) for mixed incontinence. CONCLUSION: These results suggest excess weight may increase risk of urinary incontinence. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Vrieling A, Bueno-De-Mesquita HB, Ros MM, et al., 2019, One-carbon metabolism biomarkers and risk of urothelial cell carcinoma in the European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition, International Journal of Cancer, Vol: 145, Pages: 2349-2359, ISSN: 0020-7136
Published associations between dietary folate and bladder cancer risk are inconsistent. Biomarkers may provide more accurate measures of nutrient status. This nested case-control analysis within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) investigated associations between pre-diagnostic serum folate, homocysteine, vitamins B6 and B12 and the risk of urothelial cell carcinomas of the bladder (UCC). A total of 824 patients with newly diagnosed UCC were matched with 824 cohort members. Serum folate, homocysteine, and vitamins B6 and B12 were measured. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for total, aggressive, and non-aggressive UCC were estimated using conditional logistic regression with adjustment for smoking status, smoking duration and intensity, and other potential confounders. Additionally, statistical interaction with smoking status was assessed. A halving in serum folate concentrations was moderately associated with risk of UCC (OR: 1.18; 95% CI: 0.98-1.43), in particular aggressive UCC (OR: 1.34; 95% CI: 1.02-1.75; p-heterogeneity = 0.19). Compared to never smokers in the highest quartile of folate concentrations, this association seemed only apparent among current smokers in the lowest quartile of folate concentrations (OR: 6.26; 95% CI: 3.62-10.81, p-interaction = 0.07). Dietary folate was not associated with aggressive UCC (OR: 1.26; 95% CI: 0.81-1.95; p-heterogeneity = 0.14). No association was observed between serum homocysteine, vitamins B6 and B12 and risk of UCC. This study suggests that lower serum folate concentrations are associated with increased UCC risk, in particular aggressive UCC. Residual confounding by smoking cannot be ruled out and these findings require confirmation in future studies with multiple measurements.
Kliemann N, Murphy N, Viallon V, et al., 2019, Predicted Basal metabolic rate and cancer risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (Epic), International Journal of Cancer, ISSN: 0020-7136
Emerging evidence suggests that a metabolic profile associated with obesity may be a more relevant risk factor for some cancers than adiposity per se. Basal metabolic rate (BMR) is an indicator of overall body metabolism and may be a proxy for the impact of a specific metabolic profile on cancer risk. Therefore, we investigated the association of estimated BMR with incidence of 13 obesity-related cancers in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition. Estimated BMR at baseline was calculated using the WHO/FAO/UNU equations and the relationships between BMR and cancer risk were investigated using multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression models. A total of 141,295 men and 317,613 women, with a mean follow-up of 14 years were included in the analysis. Overall, higher BMR was associated with a greater risk for most cancers that have been linked with obesity. However, among normal weight participants, higher BMR was associated with elevated risks of esophageal adenocarcinoma (Hazard Ratio per 1-standard deviation change in BMR [HR1-sd ]: 2.46; 95%CI 1.20; 5.03), and distal colon cancer (HR1-sd : 1.33; 95%CI 1.001; 1.77) among men, and with proximal colon (HR1-sd : 1.16; 95%CI 1.01; 1.35), pancreatic (HR1-sd : 1.37; 95%CI 1.13; 1.66), thyroid (HR1-sd : 1.65; 95%CI 1.33; 2.05), postmenopausal breast (HR1-sd : 1.17; 95%CI 1.11; 1.22), and endometrial (HR1-sd : 1.20; 95%CI 1.03; 1.40) cancers in women. These results indicate that higher BMR may be an indicator of a metabolic phenotype associated with risk of certain cancer types, and may be a useful predictor of cancer risk independent of body fatness. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Yang JJ, Yu D, Xiang Y-B, et al., 2019, Association of Dietary Fiber and Yogurt Consumption With Lung Cancer Risk: A Pooled Analysis., JAMA Oncol
Importance: Dietary fiber (the main source of prebiotics) and yogurt (a probiotic food) confer various health benefits via modulating the gut microbiota and metabolic pathways. However, their associations with lung cancer risk have not been well investigated. Objective: To evaluate the individual and joint associations of dietary fiber and yogurt consumption with lung cancer risk and to assess the potential effect modification of the associations by lifestyle and other dietary factors. Design, Setting, and Participants: This pooled analysis included 10 prospective cohorts involving 1 445 850 adults from studies that were conducted in the United States, Europe, and Asia. Data analyses were performed between November 2017 and February 2019. Using harmonized individual participant data, hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals for lung cancer risk associated with dietary fiber and yogurt intakes were estimated for each cohort by Cox regression and pooled using random-effects meta-analysis. Participants who had a history of cancer at enrollment or developed any cancer, died, or were lost to follow-up within 2 years after enrollment were excluded. Exposures: Dietary fiber intake and yogurt consumption measured by validated instruments. Main Outcomes and Measures: Incident lung cancer, subclassified by histologic type (eg, adenocarcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, and small cell carcinoma). Results: The analytic sample included 627 988 men, with a mean (SD) age of 57.9 (9.0) years, and 817 862 women, with a mean (SD) age of 54.8 (9.7) years. During a median follow-up of 8.6 years, 18 822 incident lung cancer cases were documented. Both fiber and yogurt intakes were inversely associated with lung cancer risk after adjustment for status and pack-years of smoking and other lung cancer risk factors: hazard ratio, 0.83 (95% CI, 0.76-0.91) for the highest vs lowest quintile of fiber intake; and hazard ratio, 0.81 (95% CI, 0.76-0.87) for high vs no yogurt consumption. The fiber
Harms LM, Scalbert A, Zamora-Ros R, et al., 2019, Plasma polyphenols associated with lower high-sensitivity C-reactive protein concentrations: a cross-sectional study within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort., Br J Nutr, Pages: 1-35
Experimental studies have reported on the anti-inflammatory properties of polyphenols. However, results from epidemiological investigations have been inconsistent, and especially studies using biomarkers for assessment of polyphenol intake have been scant. We aimed to characterize the association between plasma concentrations of 35 polyphenol compounds and low-grade systemic inflammation state as measured by high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP). A cross-sectional data analysis was performed based on 315 participants in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort with available measurements of plasma polyphenols and hsCRP. In logistic regression analysis the odds and 95% confidence intervals (CI-s) of elevated serum hsCRP (>3 mg/L) were calculated within quartiles and per standard deviation (SD) higher level of plasma polyphenol concentrations. In multivariable-adjusted model, the sum of plasma concentrations of all polyphenols measured (per SD) was associated with 29% lower odds of elevated hsCRP (95% CI: 50%-1%). In the class of flavonoids, daidzein was inversely associated with elevated hsCRP (OR= 0.66, 95%CI 0.46-0.96). Among phenolic acids, statistically significant associations were observed for 3,5-dihydroxyphenylpropionic acid (OR=0.58, 95%CI 0.39-0.86), 3,4-dihydroxyphenylpropionic acid (OR= 0.63, 95% CI 0.46-0.87), ferulic acid (OR= 0.65, 95%CI 0.44-0.96), and caffeic acid (OR= 0.69, 95%CI 0.51-0.93). The odds of elevated hsCRP were significantly reduced for hydroxytyrosol (OR= 0.67, 95%CI 0.48-0.93). This study showed that polyphenol biomarkers are associated with lower odds of elevated hsCRP. Whether diet rich in bioactive polyphenol compounds could be an effective strategy to prevent or modulate deleterious health effects of inflammation should be addressed by further well-powered longitudinal studies.
Greenwood DC, Hardie LJ, Frost GS, et al., 2019, Validation of the Oxford WebQ Online 24-hour dietary questionnaire using biomarkers, American Journal of Epidemiology, Vol: 188, Pages: 1858-1867, ISSN: 1476-6256
Oxford WebQ is an online dietary questionnaire covering 24 hours, appropriate for repeated administration in large-scale prospective studies including UK Biobank and the Million Women Study. We compared performance of the Oxford WebQ and a traditional interviewer-administered multi-pass 24-hour recall against biomarkers for protein, potassium and total sugar intake, and total energy expenditure estimated by accelerometry. 160 participants were recruited between 2014 and 2016 in London, UK, and measured at 3 non-consecutive time-points. The measurement error model simultaneously compared all 3 methods. Attenuation factors for protein, potassium, sugars and total energy intake estimated by the mean of 2 Oxford WebQs were 0.37, 0.42, 0.45, and 0.31 respectively, with performance improving incrementally for the mean of more measures. Correlation between the mean of 2 Oxford WebQs and estimated true intakes, reflecting attenuation when intake is categorised or ranked, was 0.47, 0.39, 0.40, and 0.38 respectively, also improving with repeated administration. These were similar to the more administratively burdensome interviewer-based recall. Using objective biomarkers as the standard, Oxford WebQ performs well across key nutrients in comparison with more administratively burdensome interviewer-based 24-hour recalls. Attenuation improves when the average is taken over repeated administration, reducing measurement error bias in assessment of diet-disease associations.
Naudin S, Viallon V, Hashim D, et al., 2019, Healthy lifestyle and the risk of pancreatic cancer in the EPIC study., Eur J Epidemiol
Pancreatic cancer (PC) is a highly fatal cancer with currently limited opportunities for early detection and effective treatment. Modifiable factors may offer pathways for primary prevention. In this study, the association between the Healthy Lifestyle Index (HLI) and PC risk was examined. Within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort, 1113 incident PC (57% women) were diagnosed from 400,577 participants followed-up for 15 years (median). HLI scores combined smoking, alcohol intake, dietary exposure, physical activity and, in turn, overall and central adiposity using BMI (HLIBMI) and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR, HLIWHR), respectively. High values of HLI indicate adherence to healthy behaviors. Cox proportional hazard models with age as primary time variable were used to estimate PC hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Sensitivity analyses were performed by excluding, in turn, each factor from the HLI score. Population attributable fractions (PAF) were estimated assuming participants' shift to healthier lifestyles. The HRs for a one-standard deviation increment of HLIBMI and HLIWHR were 0.84 (95% CI: 0.79, 0.89; ptrend = 4.3e-09) and 0.77 (0.72, 0.82; ptrend = 1.7e-15), respectively. Exclusions of smoking from HLIWHR resulted in HRs of 0.88 (0.82, 0.94; ptrend = 4.9e-04). The overall PAF estimate was 19% (95% CI: 11%, 26%), and 14% (6%, 21%) when smoking was removed from the score. Adherence to a healthy lifestyle was inversely associated with PC risk, beyond the beneficial role of smoking avoidance. Public health measures targeting compliance with healthy lifestyles may have an impact on PC incidence.
His M, Viallon V, Dossus L, et al., 2019, Prospective analysis of circulating metabolites and breast cancer in EPIC, BMC Medicine, Vol: 17, Pages: 1-13, ISSN: 1741-7015
BackgroundMetabolomics is a promising molecular tool to identify novel etiologic pathways leading to cancer. Using a targeted approach, we prospectively investigated the associations between metabolite concentrations in plasma and breast cancer risk.MethodsA nested case-control study was established within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer cohort, which included 1624 first primary incident invasive breast cancer cases (with known estrogen and progesterone receptor and HER2 status) and 1624 matched controls. Metabolites (n = 127, acylcarnitines, amino acids, biogenic amines, glycerophospholipids, hexose, sphingolipids) were measured by mass spectrometry in pre-diagnostic plasma samples and tested for associations with breast cancer incidence using multivariable conditional logistic regression.ResultsAmong women not using hormones at baseline (n = 2248), and after control for multiple tests, concentrations of arginine (odds ratio [OR] per SD = 0.79, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.70–0.90), asparagine (OR = 0.83 (0.74–0.92)), and phosphatidylcholines (PCs) ae C36:3 (OR = 0.83 (0.76–0.90)), aa C36:3 (OR = 0.84 (0.77–0.93)), ae C34:2 (OR = 0.85 (0.78–0.94)), ae C36:2 (OR = 0.85 (0.78–0.88)), and ae C38:2 (OR = 0.84 (0.76–0.93)) were inversely associated with breast cancer risk, while the acylcarnitine C2 (OR = 1.23 (1.11–1.35)) was positively associated with disease risk. In the overall population, C2 (OR = 1.15 (1.06–1.24)) and PC ae C36:3 (OR = 0.88 (0.82–0.95)) were associated with risk of breast cancer, and these relationships did not differ by breast cancer subtype, age at diagnosis, fasting status, menopausal status, or adiposity.ConclusionsThese findings point to potentially novel pathways and biomarkers of
Ward HA, Murphy N, Weiderpass E, et al., 2019, Gallstones and incident colorectal cancer in a large pan-European cohort study, International Journal of Cancer, Vol: 145, Pages: 1510-1516, ISSN: 0020-7136
Gallstones, a common gastrointestinal condition, can lead to several digestive complications and can result in inflammation. Risk factors for gallstones include obesity, diabetes, smoking and physical inactivity, all of which are known risk factors for colorectal cancer (CRC), as is inflammation. However, it is unclear whether gallstones are a risk factor for CRC. We examined the association between history of gallstones and CRC in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study, a prospective cohort of over half a million participants from ten European countries. History of gallstones was assessed at baseline using a self-reported questionnaire. The analytic cohort included 334,986 participants; a history of gallstones was reported by 3,917 men and 19,836 women, and incident CRC was diagnosed among 1,832 men and 2,178 women (mean follow-up: 13.6 years). Hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the association between gallstones and CRC were estimated using Cox proportional hazards regression models, stratified by sex, study centre and age at recruitment. The models were adjusted for body mass index, diabetes, alcohol intake and physical activity. A positive, marginally significant association was detected between gallstones and CRC among women in multivariable analyses (HR = 1.14, 95%CI 0.99-1.31, p = 0.077). The relationship between gallstones and CRC among men was inverse but not significant (HR = 0.81, 95%CI 0.63-1.04, p = 0.10). Additional adjustment for details of reproductive history or waist circumference yielded minimal changes to the observed associations. Further research is required to confirm the nature of the association between gallstones and CRC by sex.
Aune D, Mahamat-Saleh Y, Norat T, et al., 2019, Tobacco smoking and the risk of pancreatitis: A systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective studies., Pancreatology
BACKGROUND: Tobacco smoking has been associated with increased risk of pancreatitis in several studies, however, not all studies have found an association and it is unclear whether there is a dose-response relationship between increasing amount of tobacco smoked and pancreatitis risk. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective studies on tobacco smoking and pancreatitis to clarify the association. METHODS: PubMed and Embase databases were searched for relevant studies up to April 13th, 2019. Prospective studies that reported adjusted relative risk (RR) estimates and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the association between tobacco smoking and pancreatitis were included and summary RRs were calculated using a random effects model. RESULTS: Ten prospective studies were included. The summary RR for acute pancreatitis was 1.49 (95% CI: 1.29-1.72, I2 = 68%, n = 7) for current smokers, 1.24 (95% CI: 1.15-1.34, I2 = 0%, n = 7) for former smokers, and 1.39 (95% CI: 1.25-1.54, I2 = 69%, n = 7) for ever smokers compared to never smokers. Similar results were observed for chronic pancreatitis and acute/chronic pancreatitis combined. The summary RR per 10 cigarettes per day was 1.30 (95% CI: 1.18-1.42, I2 = 42%, n = 3) and per 10 pack-years in current smokers was 1.13 (95% CI: 1.08-1.17, I2 = 14%, n = 4) for acute pancreatitis and results were similar for chronic pancreatitis and acute/chronic pancreatitis combined. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that tobacco smoking increases the risk of acute and chronic pancreatitis and acute and chronic pancreatitis combined and that there is a dose-response relationship between increasing number of cigarettes and pack-years and pancreatitis risk.
Mullee A, Romaguera D, Pearson-Stuttard J, et al., 2019, Association between soft drink consumption and mortality in 10 European countries., JAMA Internal Medicine, ISSN: 2168-6106
Importance: Soft drinks are frequently consumed, but whether this consumption is associated with mortality risk is unknown and has been understudied in European populations to date. Objective: To examine the association between total, sugar-sweetened, and artificially sweetened soft drink consumption and subsequent total and cause-specific mortality. Design, Setting, and Participants: This population-based cohort study involved participants (n = 451 743 of the full cohort) in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC), an ongoing, large multinational cohort of people from 10 European countries (Denmark, France, Germany, Greece, Italy, the Netherlands, Norway, Spain, Sweden, and the United Kingdom), with participants recruited between January 1, 1992, and December 31, 2000. Excluded participants were those who reported cancer, heart disease, stroke, or diabetes at baseline; those with implausible dietary intake data; and those with missing soft drink consumption or follow-up information. Data analyses were performed from February 1, 2018, to October 1, 2018. Exposure: Consumption of total, sugar-sweetened, and artificially sweetened soft drinks. Main Outcomes and Measures: Total mortality and cause-specific mortality. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CIs were estimated using multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression models adjusted for other mortality risk factors. Results: In total, 521 330 individuals were enrolled. Of this total, 451 743 (86.7%) were included in the study, with a mean (SD) age of 50.8 (9.8) years and with 321 081 women (71.1%). During a mean (range) follow-up of 16.4 (11.1 in Greece to 19.2 in France) years, 41 693 deaths occurred. Higher all-cause mortality was found among participants who consumed 2 or more glasses per day (vs consumers of <1 glass per month) of total soft drinks (hazard ratio [HR], 1.17; 95% CI, 1.11-1.22; P < .001), sugar-sweetened soft drinks (HR, 1.08;
Kühn T, Stepien M, López-Nogueroles M, et al., 2019, Pre-diagnostic plasma bile acid levels and colon cancer risk: A prospective study, Journal of the National Cancer Institute, ISSN: 0027-8874
BACKGROUND: Bile acids have been proposed to promote colon carcinogenesis. However, there are limited prospective data on circulating bile acid levels and colon cancer risk in humans. METHODS: Associations between pre-diagnostic plasma levels of 17 primary, secondary and tertiary bile acid metabolites (conjugated and unconjugated) and colon cancer risk were evaluated in a nested case-control study within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort. Bile acid levels were quantified by tandem mass spectrometry in samples from 569 incident colon cancer cases and 569 matched controls. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) for colon cancer risk across quartiles of bile acid concentrations. RESULTS: Positive associations were observed between colon cancer risk and plasma levels of 7 conjugated bile acid metabolites, i.e. primary bile acids glycocholic acid (ORQuartile 4 vs. Quartile 1=2.22,95 % confidence interval[CI]=1.52, 3.26), taurocholic acid (OR = 1.78, 95%CI=1.23, 2.58), glycochenodeoxycholic acid (OR = 1.68, 95%CI=1.13, 2.48), taurochenodeoxycholic acid (OR = 1.62, 95%CI=1.11-2.36), and glycohyocholic acid (OR = 1.65, 95%CI=1.13, 2.40) as well as the secondary bile acids glycodeoxycholic acid (OR = 1.68, 95%CI=1.12, 2.54) and taurodeoxycholic acid (OR = 1.54, 95%CI=1.02, 2.31). By contrast, unconjugated bile acids and tertiary bile acids were not associated with risk. CONCLUSIONS: This prospective study showed that pre-diagnostic levels of certain conjugated primary and secondary bile acids were positively associated with risk of colon cancer. Our findings support experimental data to suggest that a high bile acid load is colon cancer promotive.
Christakoudi S, Kakourou A, Markozannes G, et al., Blood pressure and risk of cancer in the European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition, International Journal of Cancer, ISSN: 0020-7136
Several studies have reported associations of hypertension with cancer, but not allresults were conclusive. We examined the association of systolic (SBP) and diastolic (DBP)blood pressure with the development of incident cancer at all anatomical sites in theEuropean Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). Hazard ratios (HR)(95% confidence intervals) were estimated using multivariable Cox proportional hazardsmodels, stratified by EPIC-participating centre and age at recruitment, and adjusted for sex,education, smoking, body mass index, physical activity, diabetes and dietary (in women alsoreproductive) factors. The study included 307,318 men and women, with an average followup of 13.7 (standard deviation 4.4) years and 39,298 incident cancers. We confirmed theexpected positive association with renal cell carcinoma: HR=1.12 (1.08-1.17) per 10mmHghigher SBP and HR=1.23 (1.14-1.32) for DBP. We additionally found positive associationsfor esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC): HR=1.16 (1.07-1.26) (SBP), HR=1.31 (1.13-1.51) (DBP), weaker for head and neck cancers: HR=1.08 (1.04-1.12) (SBP), HR=1.09(1.01-1.17) (DBP) and, similarly, for skin SCC, colon cancer, post-menopausal breast cancerand uterine adenocarcinoma (AC), but not for esophageal AC, lung SCC, lung AC, or uterineendometroid cancer. We observed weak inverse associations of SBP with cervical SCC:HR=0.91 (0.82-1.00) and lymphomas: HR=0.97 (0.93-1.00). There were no consistentassociations with cancers in other locations.Our results are largely compatible with published studies and support weak associations ofblood pressure with cancers in specific locations and morphologies.
Fedirko V, Mandle HB, Zhu W, et al., 2019, Vitamin D-related genes, blood vitamin D levels and colorectal cancer risk in western European populations., Nutrients, Vol: 11, Pages: 1-24, ISSN: 2072-6643
Higher circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels (25(OH)D) have been found to be associated with lower risk for colorectal cancer (CRC) in prospective studies. Whether this association is modified by genetic variation in genes related to vitamin D metabolism and action has not been well studied in humans. We investigated 1307 functional and tagging single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs; individually, and by gene/pathway) in 86 vitamin D-related genes in 1420 incident CRC cases matched to controls from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort. We also evaluated the association between these SNPs and circulating 25(OH)D in a subset of controls. We confirmed previously reported CRC risk associations between SNPs in the VDR, GC, and CYP27B1 genes. We also identified additional associations with 25(OH)D, as well as CRC risk, and several potentially novel SNPs in genes related to vitamin D transport and action (LRP2, CUBN, NCOA7, and HDAC9). However, none of these SNPs were statistically significant after Benjamini-Hochberg (BH) multiple testing correction. When assessed by a priori defined functional pathways, tumor growth factor β (TGFβ) signaling was associated with CRC risk (P ≤ 0.001), with most statistically significant genes being SMAD7 (PBH = 0.008) and SMAD3 (PBH = 0.008), and 18 SNPs in the vitamin D receptor (VDR) binding sites (P = 0.036). The 25(OH)D-gene pathway analysis suggested that genetic variants in the genes related to VDR complex formation and transcriptional activity are associated with CRC depending on 25(OH)D levels (interaction P = 0.041). Additional studies in large populations and consortia, especially with measured circulating 25(OH)D, are needed to confirm our findings.
Imamura F, Schulze MB, Sharp SJ, et al., 2019, Estimated substitution of tea or coffee for sugar-sweetened beverages was associated with lower type 2 diabetes incidence in case-cohort analysis across 8 European countries in the epic-interact study., Journal of Nutrition, ISSN: 1541-6100
INTRODUCTION: Beverage consumption is a modifiable risk factor for type 2 diabetes (T2D), but there is insufficient evidence to inform the suitability of substituting 1 type of beverage for another. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to estimate the risk of T2D when consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) was replaced with consumption of fruit juice, milk, coffee, or tea. METHODS: In the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-InterAct case-cohort study of 8 European countries (n = 27,662, with 12,333 cases of incident T2D, 1992-2007), beverage consumption was estimated at baseline by dietary questionnaires. Using Prentice-weighted Cox regression adjusting for other beverages and potential confounders, we estimated associations of substituting 1 type of beverage for another on incident T2D. RESULTS: Mean ± SD of estimated consumption of SSB was 55 ± 105 g/d. Means ± SDs for the other beverages were as follows: fruit juice, 59 ± 101 g/d; milk, 209 ± 203 g/d; coffee, 381 ± 372 g/d; and tea, 152 ± 282 g/d. Substituting coffee for SSBs by 250 g/d was associated with a 21% lower incidence of T2D (95% CI: 12%, 29%). The rate difference was -12.0 (95% CI: -20.0, -5.0) per 10,000 person-years among adults consuming SSBs ≥250 g/d (absolute rate = 48.3/10,000). Substituting tea for SSBs was estimated to lower T2D incidence by 22% (95% CI: 15%, 28%) or -11.0 (95% CI: -20.0, -2.6) per 10,000 person-years, whereas substituting fruit juice or milk was estimated not to alter T2D risk significantly. CONCLUSIONS: These findings indicate a potential benefit of substituting coffee or tea for SSBs for the primary prevention of T2D and may help formulate public health recommendations on beverage consumption in different populations.
Dam V, van Der Schouw YT, Onland-Moret NC, et al., 2019, Association of menopausal characteristics and risk of coronary heart disease: a pan-European case-cohort analysis, INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF EPIDEMIOLOGY, Vol: 48, Pages: 1275-1285, ISSN: 0300-5771
Ward HA, Whitman J, Muller DC, et al., 2019, Haem iron intake and risk of lung cancer in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort, European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Vol: 73, Pages: 1122-1132, ISSN: 1476-5640
BACKGROUND: Epidemiological studies suggest that haem iron, which is found predominantly in red meat and increases endogenous formation of carcinogenic N-nitroso compounds, may be positively associated with lung cancer. The objective was to examine the relationship between haem iron intake and lung cancer risk using detailed smoking history data and serum cotinine to control for potential confounding. METHODS: In the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC), 416,746 individuals from 10 countries completed demographic and dietary questionnaires at recruitment. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for incident lung cancer (n = 3731) risk relative to haem iron, non-haem iron, and total dietary iron intake. A corresponding analysis was conducted among a nested subset of 800 lung cancer cases and 1489 matched controls for whom serum cotinine was available. RESULTS: Haem iron was associated with lung cancer risk, including after adjustment for details of smoking history (time since quitting, number of cigarettes per day): as a continuous variable (HR per 0.3 mg/1000 kcal 1.03, 95% CI 1.00-1.07), and in the highest versus lowest quintile (HR 1.16, 95% CI 1.02-1.32; trend across quintiles: P = 0.035). In contrast, non-haem iron intake was related inversely with lung cancer risk; however, this association attenuated after adjustment for smoking history. Additional adjustment for serum cotinine did not considerably alter the associations detected in the nested case-control subset. CONCLUSIONS: Greater haem iron intake may be modestly associated with lung cancer risk.
Bauld L, Beeken RJ, Brand J, et al., 2019, Current opportunities to catalyze research in nutrition and cancer prevention - an interdisciplinary perspective, BMC Medicine, Vol: 17, ISSN: 1741-7015
Cancer Research UK and Ludwig Cancer Research convened an inaugural international Cancer Prevention and Nutrition Conference in London on December 3–4, 2018. Much of the discussion focused on the need for systematic, interdisciplinary approaches to better understand the relationships of nutrition, exercise, obesity and metabolic dysfunction with cancer development. Scientists at the meeting underscored the importance of studying the temporal natural history of exposures that may cumulatively impact cancer risk later in life.A robust dialogue identified obesity as a major risk for cancer, and the food environment, especially high energy and low nutrient processed foods, as strong and prevalent risk factors for obesity. Further engagement highlighted challenges in the post-diagnostic setting, where similar opportunities to understand the complex interplay of nutrition, physical activity, and weight will inform better health outcomes.Going forward, holistic research approaches, encompassing insights from multiple disciplines and perspectives, will catalyze progress urgently needed to prevent cancer and improve public health.
Wu L, Wang J, Cai Q, et al., 2019, Identification of Novel Susceptibility Loci and Genes for Prostate Cancer Risk: A Transcriptome-Wide Association Study in over 140,000 European Descendants, CANCER RESEARCH, Vol: 79, Pages: 3192-3204, ISSN: 0008-5472
Mandle H, Jenab M, Hughes D, et al., 2019, Gut barrier function-related genes and colorectal cancer risk in Western European populations, AACR Annual Meeting on Bioinformatics, Convergence Science, and Systems Biology, Publisher: AMER ASSOC CANCER RESEARCH, ISSN: 0008-5472
Solans M, Benavente Y, Saez M, et al., 2019, Adherence to the mediterranean diet and lymphoma risk in the european prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition., International Journal of Cancer, Vol: 145, Pages: 122-131, ISSN: 0020-7136
There is a growing evidence of the protective role of the Mediterranean diet (MD) on cancer. However, no prospective study has yet investigated its influence on lymphoma. We evaluated the association between adherence to the MD and risk of lymphoma and its subtypes in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study. The analysis included 476,160 participants, recruited from 10 European countries between 1991 and 2001. Adherence to the MD was estimated through the adapted relative MD (arMED) score excluding alcohol. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used while adjusting for potential confounders. During an average follow-up of 13.9 years, 3,136 lymphomas (135 Hodgkin lymphoma [HL], 2,606 non-HL and 395 lymphoma not otherwise specified) were identified. Overall, a 1-unit increase in the arMED score was associated with a 2% lower risk of lymphoma (95% CI: 0.97; 1.00, p-trend = 0.03) while a statistically nonsignificant inverse association between a high versus low arMED score and risk of lymphoma was observed (hazard ratio [HR]: 0.91 [95% CI 0.80; 1.03], p-trend = 0.12). Analyses by lymphoma subtype did not reveal any statistically significant associations. Albeit with small numbers of cases (N = 135), a suggestive inverse association was found for HL (HR 1-unit increase = 0.93 [95% CI: 0.86; 1.01], p-trend = 0.07). However, the study may have lacked statistical power to detect small effect sizes for lymphoma subtype. Our findings suggest that an increasing arMED score was inversely related to the risk of overall lymphoma in EPIC but not by subtypes. Further large prospective studies are warranted to confirm these findings.
Bien SA, Su Y-R, Conti DV, et al., 2019, Genetic variant predictors of gene expression provide new insight into risk of colorectal cancer (vol 138, pg 307, 2019), HUMAN GENETICS, Vol: 138, Pages: 789-791, ISSN: 0340-6717
Aglago EK, Huybrechts I, Murphy N, et al., 2019, Consumption of fish and long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids is associated with reduced risk of colorectal cancer in a large European cohort, Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology, ISSN: 1542-3565
BACKGROUND & AIMS: There is an unclear association between intake of fish and long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LC-PUFAs) and colorectal cancer (CRC). We examined the association between fish consumption, dietary and circulating levels of n-3 LC-PUFAs, and ratio of n-6:n-3 LC-PUFA with CRC using data from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort. METHODS: Dietary intake of fish (total, fatty/oily, lean/white) and n-3 LC-PUFA were estimated by food frequency questionnaires given to 521,324 participants in the EPIC study; among these, 6291 individuals developed CRC (median follow up, 14.9 years). Levels of phospholipid LC-PUFA were measured by gas chromatography in plasma samples from a sub-group of 461 CRC cases and 461 matched individuals without CRC (controls). Multivariable Cox proportional hazards and conditional logistic regression models were used to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) and odds ratios (ORs), respectively, with 95% CIs. RESULTS: Total intake of fish (HR for quintile 5 vs 1, 0.88; 95% CI, 0.80-0.96; Ptrend=.005), fatty fish (HR for quintile 5 vs 1, 0.90; 95% CI, 0.82-0.98; Ptrend=.009), and lean fish (HR for quintile 5 vs 1, 0.91; 95% CI, 0.83-1.00; Ptrend=.016) were inversely associated with CRC incidence. Intake of total n-3 LC-PUFA (HR for quintile 5 vs 1, 0.86; 95% CI, 0.78-0.95; Ptrend=.010) was also associated with reduced risk of CRC, whereas dietary ratio of n-6:n-3 LC-PUFA was associated with increased risk of CRC (HR for quintile 5 vs 1, 1.31; 95% CI, 1.18-1.45; Ptrend<.001). Plasma levels of phospholipid n-3 LC-PUFA was not associated with overall CRC risk, but an inverse trend was observed for proximal compared with distal colon cancer (Pheterogeneity=.026). CONCLUSIONS: In an analysis of dietary patterns of participants in the EPIC study, we found regular consumption of fish, at recommended levels, to be associated with a lower risk of CRC, possibly through exposure to n-3 LC-PUFA.
Laskar RS, Muller DC, Li P, et al., 2019, Sex specific associations in genome wide association analysis of renal cell carcinoma, European Journal of Human Genetics, Vol: 27, Pages: 1589-1598, ISSN: 1018-4813
Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) has an undisputed genetic component and a stable 2:1 male to female sex ratio in its incidence across populations, suggesting possible sexual dimorphism in its genetic susceptibility. We conducted the first sex-specific genome-wide association analysis of RCC for men (3227 cases, 4916 controls) and women (1992 cases, 3095 controls) of European ancestry from two RCC genome-wide scans and replicated the top findings using an additional series of men (2261 cases, 5852 controls) and women (1399 cases, 1575 controls) from two independent cohorts of European origin. Our study confirmed sex-specific associations for two known RCC risk loci at 14q24.2 (DPF3) and 2p21(EPAS1). We also identified two additional suggestive male-specific loci at 6q24.3 (SAMD5, male odds ratio (ORmale) = 0.83 [95% CI = 0.78-0.89], Pmale = 1.71 × 10-8 compared with female odds ratio (ORfemale) = 0.98 [95% CI = 0.90-1.07], Pfemale = 0.68) and 12q23.3 (intergenic, ORmale = 0.75 [95% CI = 0.68-0.83], Pmale = 1.59 × 10-8 compared with ORfemale = 0.93 [95% CI = 0.82-1.06], Pfemale = 0.21) that attained genome-wide significance in the joint meta-analysis. Herein, we provide evidence of sex-specific associations in RCC genetic susceptibility and advocate the necessity of larger genetic and genomic studies to unravel the endogenous causes of sex bias in sexually dimorphic traits and diseases like RCC.
Sasamoto N, Babic A, Rosner BA, et al., 2019, Predicting circulating CA125 levels among healthy premenopausal women, Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers and Prevention, Vol: 28, Pages: 1076-1085, ISSN: 1055-9965
Background: CA125 is the most promising ovarian cancer screening biomarker to date. Multiple studies reported CA125 levels vary by personal characteristics, which could inform personalized CA125 thresholds. However, this has not been well described in premenopausal women. Methods: We evaluated predictors of CA125 levels among 815 premenopausal women from the New England Case Control Study (NEC). We developed linear and dichotomous (≥ 35 U/ mL) CA125 prediction models and externally validated an abridged model restricting to available predictors among 473 premenopausal women in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition Study (EPIC).Results: The final linear CA125 prediction model included age, race, tubal ligation, endometriosis, menstrual phase at blood draw, and fibroids, which explained 7% of the total variance of CA125. The correlation between observed and predicted CA125 levels based on the abridged model (including age, race, and menstrual phase at blood draw) had similar correlation coefficients in NEC(r=0.22) and in EPIC(r=0.22). The dichotomous CA125 prediction model included age, tubal ligation, endometriosis, prior personal cancer diagnosis, family history of ovarian cancer, number of miscarriages, menstrual phase at blood draw and smoking status with AUC of 0.83. The abridged dichotomous model (including age, number of miscarriages, menstrual phase at blood draw, and smoking status) showed similar AUCs in NEC(0.73) and in EPIC(0.78).Conclusions: We identified a combination of factors associated with CA125 levels in premenopausal women.Impact: Our model could be valuable in identifying healthy women likely to have elevated CA125 and consequently improve its specificity for ovarian cancer screening.
Jannasch F, Kroeger J, Agnoli C, et al., 2019, Generalizability of a Diabetes-Associated Country-Specific Exploratory Dietary Pattern Is Feasible Across European Populations, JOURNAL OF NUTRITION, Vol: 149, Pages: 1047-1055, ISSN: 0022-3166
Cirera L, Maria Huerta J, Dolores Chirlaque M, et al., 2019, Socioeconomic Effect of Education on Pancreatic Cancer Risk in Western Europe: An Update on the EPIC Cohorts Study, CANCER EPIDEMIOLOGY BIOMARKERS & PREVENTION, Vol: 28, Pages: 1089-1092, ISSN: 1055-9965
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