44 results found
Aerts C, Vink M, Pashtoon SJ, et al., 2019, Cost Effectiveness of New Diagnostic Tools for Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Afghanistan, APPLIED HEALTH ECONOMICS AND HEALTH POLICY, Vol: 17, Pages: 213-230, ISSN: 1175-5652
Sicuri E, Bardají A, Sanz S, et al., 2018, Patients' costs, socio-economic and health system aspects associated with malaria in pregnancy in an endemic area of Colombia, PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, Vol: 12, ISSN: 1935-2727
Malaria in pregnancy threatens birth outcomes and the health of women and their newborns. This is also the case in low transmission areas, such as Colombia, where Plasmodium vivax is the dominant parasite species. Within the Colombian health system, which underwent major reforms in the 90s, malaria treatment is provided free of charge to patients. However, patients still incur costs, such as transportation and value of time lost due to the disease. We estimated such costs among 40 pregnant women with clinical malaria (30% Plasmodium falciparum, 70% Plasmodium vivax) in the municipality of Tierralta, Northern Colombia. In a cross-sectional study, women were interviewed after an outpatient or inpatient laboratory confirmed malaria episode. Women were asked to report all types of cost incurred before (including prevention), during and immediately after the contact with the health facility. Median total cost was over 16US$ for an outpatient visit, rising to nearly 30US$ if other treatments were sought before reaching the health facility. Median total inpatient cost was 26US$ or 54US$ depending on whether costs incurred prior to admission were excluded or included. For both outpatients and inpatients, direct costs were largely due to transportation and indirect costs constituted the largest share of total costs. Estimated costs are likely to represent only one of the constraints that women face when seeking treatment in an area characterized, at the time of the study, by armed conflict, displacement, and high vulnerability of indigenous women, the group at highest risk of malaria. Importantly, the Colombian peace process, which culminated with the cease-fire in August 2016, may have a positive impact on achieving universal access to healthcare in conflict areas. The current study can inform malaria elimination initiatives in Colombia.
Rogerson SJ, Desai M, Mayor A, et al., 2018, Burden, pathology, and costs of malaria in pregnancy: new developments for an old problem, LANCET INFECTIOUS DISEASES, Vol: 18, Pages: E107-E118, ISSN: 1473-3099
Alonso S, Munguambe K, Sicuri E, 2017, Market for Artemether-Lumefantrine to treat childhood malaria in a district of southern Mozambique, HEALTH ECONOMICS, Vol: 26, Pages: E345-E360, ISSN: 1057-9230
Nayagam S, Sicuri E, Lemoine M, et al., 2017, Economic evaluations of HBV testing and treatment strategies and applicability to low and middle-income countries, BMC Infectious Diseases, Vol: 17, Pages: 107-116, ISSN: 1471-2334
Background: Many people living with chronic HBV infection remain undiagnosed until later stages of disease.Increasing testing and treatment rates form part of the strategy to respond to the WHO goal of eliminating viralhepatitis as a public health threat by 2030. However, achieving these ambitious targets is dependent on findingeffective and cost-effective methods of scale up strategies. The aim of this study was to undertake a narrativereview of the literature on economic evaluations of testing and treatment for HBV infection, to help inform thedevelopment of the 2017 WHO Hepatitis Testing Guidelines.Methods: We undertook a focussed literature review for economic evaluations on testing for HBV accompanied byantiviral treatment. The search was carried out in Pubmed and included only articles published after 2000 and writtenin English. We narratively synthesise the results and discuss the key drivers of cost-effectiveness and their applicabilityto low and middle-income countries (LMICs).Results: Nine published studies were included in this review, only one of which was performed in a low or middleincomesetting in West Africa. Eight studies were performed in high-income settings, seven among high risk groupsand one among the general population. The studies were heterogeneous in many respects including the populationand testing strategy under consideration, model structure and baselines parameters, willingness to pay thresholds andoutcome measures used. However, most studies found HBV testing and treatment to be cost-effective, even at lowHBsAg prevalence levels.Conclusions: Currently economic evaluations of HBV testing and treatment strategies in LMICs is lacking, thereforelimiting the ability to provide formal recommendations on the basis of cost-effectiveness alone. Further implementationresearch is needed in order to help guide national policy planning.
Kastner RJ, Sicuri E, Stone CM, et al., 2017, How much will it cost to eradicate lymphatic filariasis? An analysis of the financial and economic costs of intensified efforts against lymphatic filariasis, PLOS NEGLECTED TROPICAL DISEASES, Vol: 11, ISSN: 1935-2735
Alonso S, Tachfouti N, Najdi A, et al., 2017, Cost-effectiveness of diagnostic-therapeutic strategies for paediatric visceral leishmaniasis in Morocco, BMJ Global Health, Vol: 2, ISSN: 2059-7908
Introduction Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a neglected parasitic disease with a high fatality rate if left untreated. Endemic in Morocco, as well as in other countries in the Mediterranean basin, VL mainly affects children living in rural areas. In Morocco, the direct observation of Leishmania parasites in bone marrow (BM) aspirates is used to diagnose VL and meglumine antimoniate (SB) is the first line of treatment. Less invasive, more efficacious and safer alternatives exist. In this study we estimate the cost-effectiveness of alternative diagnostic-therapeutic algorithms for paediatric VL in Morocco.Methods A decision tree was used to estimate the cost-effectiveness of using BM or rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) as diagnostic tools and/or SB or two liposomal amphotericin B (L-AmB) regimens: 6-day and 2-day courses to treat VL. Incremental cost-effectiveness ratios, expressed as cost per death averted, were estimated by comparing costs and effectiveness of the alternative algorithms. A threshold analysis evaluated at which price L-AmB became cost-effective compared with current practices.Results Implementing RDT and/or L-AmB treatments would be cost-effective in Morocco according to the WHO thresholds. Introducing the 6-day course L-AmB, current second-line treatment, would be highly cost-effective if L-AmB price was below US$100/phial. The 2-day L-AmB treatment, current standard treatment of paediatric VL in France, is highly cost-effective, with L-AmB at its market price (US$165/phial).Conclusions The results of this study should encourage the implementation of RDT and/or short-course L-AmB treatments for paediatric VL management in Morocco and other North African countries.
Aerts C, Sunyoto T, Tediosi F, et al., 2017, Are public-private partnerships the solution to tackle neglected tropical diseases? A systematic review of the literature, HEALTH POLICY, Vol: 121, Pages: 745-754, ISSN: 0168-8510
Requena-Mendez A, Bussion S, Aldasoro E, et al., 2017, Cost-effectiveness of Chagas disease screening in Latin American migrants at primary health-care centres in Europe: a Markov model analysis, LANCET GLOBAL HEALTH, Vol: 5, Pages: E439-E447, ISSN: 2214-109X
Background:Chagas disease is currently prevalent in European countries hosting large communities from Latin America. Whether asymptomatic individuals at risk of Chagas disease living in Europe should be screened and treated accordingly is unclear. We performed an economic evaluation of systematic Chagas disease screening of the Latin American population attending primary care centres in Europe.Methods:We constructed a decision tree model that compared the test option (screening of asymptomatic individuals, treatment, and follow-up of positive cases) with the no-test option (screening, treating, and follow-up of symptomatic individuals). The decision tree included a Markov model with five states, related to the chronic stage of the disease: indeterminate, cardiomyopathy, gastrointestinal, response to treatment, and death. The model started with a target population of 100 000 individuals, of which 4·2% (95% CI 2·2–6·8) were estimated to be infected by Trypanosoma cruzi. The primary outcome was the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) between test and no-test options. Deterministic and probabilistic analyses (Monte Carlo simulations) were performed.Findings:In the deterministic analysis, total costs referred to 100 000 individuals in the test and no-test option were €30 903 406 and €6 597 403 respectively, with a difference of €24 306 003. The respective number of quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) gained in the test and no-test option were 61 820·82 and 57 354·42. The ICER was €5442. In the probabilistic analysis, total costs for the test and no-test option were €32 163 649 (95% CI 31 263 705–33 063 593) and €6 904 764 (6 703 258–7 106 270), respectively. The respective number of QALYs gained was 64 634·35 (95% CI 62 809·6–66 459·1) and 59 875·73 (58 191·18–61 560·28). The difference in QALYs gained between the test and no te
Garcia-Basteiro AL, Quinto L, Macete E, et al., 2017, Infant mortality and morbidity associated with preterm and small-for-gestational-age births in Southern Mozambique: A retrospective cohort study, PLOS ONE, Vol: 12, ISSN: 1932-6203
Background:Preterm and small for gestational age (SGA) births have been associated with adverse outcomes during the first stages of life. We evaluated the morbidity and mortality associated with preterm and SGA births during the first year of life in a rural area of Southern Mozambique.Methods:This is a retrospective cohort study using previously collected data from children born at the Manhiça District Hospital in two different periods (2003–2005 and 2010–2012). Newborns were classified as being preterm and/or SGA or as babies not fulfilling any of the previous conditions (term non-SGA). All children were followed up for a year for morbidity and mortality outcomes.Results:A total of 5574 live babies were included in the analysis. The prevalence of preterm delivery was 6.2% (345/5574); the prevalence of SGA was 14.0% (776/5542) and 2.2% (114/5542) of the children presented both conditions. During the neonatal period, preterm delivery and SGA were associated with 13 (HR: 13.0, 95% CI 4.0–42.2) and 5 times (HR: 4.5, 95% CI: 1.6–12.6) higher mortality compared to term non SGA babies. Risk of hospitalization was only increased when both conditions were present (IRR: 3.5, 95%CI: 1.5–8.1). Mortality is also increased during the entire first year, although at a lower rate.Conclusions:Neonatal and infant mortality rates are remarkably high among preterm and SGA babies in southern Mozambique. These increased rates are concentrated within the neonatal period. Prompt identification of these conditions is needed to implement interventions aimed at increasing survival of these high-risk newborns.
Nayagam S, Conteh L, Sicuri E, et al., 2016, Community-based screening and treatment for chronic hepatitis B in sub-Saharan Africa - Authors' reply., Lancet Global Health, Vol: 5, Pages: e35-e35, ISSN: 2214-109X
Nayagam S, Conteh L, Sicuri E, 2016, Cost-effectiveness of community-based screening and treatment for chronic hepatitis B in The Gambia: an economic modelling analysis (vol 4, pg e568, 2016), LANCET GLOBAL HEALTH, Vol: 4, Pages: E794-E794, ISSN: 2214-109X
Pons-Duran C, Gonzalez R, Quinto L, et al., 2016, Association between HIV infection and socio-economic status: evidence from a semirural area of southern Mozambique, Tropical Medicine and International Health, Vol: 21, Pages: 1513-1521, ISSN: 1360-2276
ObjectivesTo analyse the association between socio-economic status (SES) and HIV in Manhiça, a district of Southern Mozambique with one of the highest HIV prevalences in the world.MethodsData were gathered from two cross-sectional surveys performed in 2010 and 2012 among 1511 adults and from the household census of the district's population. Fractional polynomial logit models were used to analyse the association between HIV and SES, controlling for age and sex and taking into account the nonlinearity of covariates. The inequality of the distribution of HIV infection with regard to SES was computed through a concentration index.ResultsFourth and fifth wealth quintiles, the least poor, were associated with a reduced probability of HIV infection compared to the first quintile (OR = 0.595, P-value = 0.009 and OR = 0.474, P-value < 0.001, respectively). Probability of HIV infection peaked at 36 years and then fell, and was always higher for women regardless of age and SES. HIV infection was unequally distributed across the SES strata.ConclusionsDespite the high HIV prevalence across the entire population of Manhiça, the poorest are at greatest risk of being HIV infected. While women have a higher probability of being HIV positive than men, both sexes showed the same infection reduction at higher levels of SES. HIV interventions in the area should particularly focus on the poorest and on women without neglecting anyone else, as the HIV risk is high for everyone.
Fernandes S, Sicuri E, Halimatou D, et al., 2016, Cost effectiveness of intermittent screening followed by treatment versus intermittent preventive treatment during pregnancy in West Africa: analysis and modelling of results from a non-inferiority trial., Malaria Journal, Vol: 15, ISSN: 1475-2875
BACKGROUND: Emergence of high-grade sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) resistance in parts of Africa has led to growing concerns about the efficacy of intermittent preventive treatment of malaria during pregnancy (IPTp) with SP. The incremental cost-effectiveness of intermittent screening and treatment (ISTp) with artemether-lumefantrine (AL) as an alternative strategy to IPTp-SP was estimated followed by a simulation of the effects on cost-effectiveness of decreasing efficacy of IPTp-SP due to SP resistance. The analysis was based on results from a multi-centre, non-inferiority trial conducted in West Africa. METHODS: A decision tree model was analysed from a health provider perspective. Model parameters for all trial countries with appropriate ranges and distributions were used in a probabilistic sensitivity analysis. Simulations were performed in hypothetical cohorts of 1000 pregnant women who received either ISTp-AL or IPTp-SP. In addition a cost-consequences analysis was conducted. Trial estimates were used to calculate disability-adjusted-life-years (DALYs) for low birth weight and severe/moderate anaemia (both shown to be non-inferior for ISTp-AL) and clinical malaria (inferior for ISTp-AL). Cost estimates were obtained from observational studies, health facility costings and public procurement databases. Results were calculated as incremental cost per DALY averted. Finally, the cost-effectiveness changes with decreasing SP efficacy were explored by simulation. RESULTS: Relative to IPTp-SP, delivering ISTp-AL to 1000 pregnant women cost US$ 4966.25 more (95 % CI US$ 3703.53; 6376.83) and led to a small excess of 28.36 DALYs (95 % CI -75.78; 134.18), with LBW contributing 81.3 % of this difference. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio was -175.12 (95 % CI -1166.29; 1267.71) US$/DALY averted. Simulations show that cost-effectiveness of ISTp-AL increases as the efficacy of IPTp-SP decreases, though the specific threshold at which ISTp-AL beco
Nayagam S, Thursz M, Sicuri E, et al., 2016, Requirements for global elimination of hepatitis B: a modelling study., Lancet Infectious Diseases, Vol: 16, Pages: 1399-1408, ISSN: 1473-3099
BackgroundDespite the existence of effective prevention and treatment interventions, hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection continues to cause nearly 1 million deaths each year. WHO aspires to global control and elimination of HBV infection. We aimed to evaluate the potential impact of public health interventions against HBV, propose targets for reducing incidence and mortality, and identify the key developments required to achieve them.MethodsWe developed a simulation model of the global HBV epidemic, incorporating data on the natural history of HBV, prevalence, mortality, vaccine coverage, treatment dynamics, and demographics. We estimate the impact of current interventions and scaling up of existing interventions for prevention of infection and introducing wide-scale population screening and treatment interventions on the worldwide epidemic.FindingsVaccination of infants and neonates is already driving a large decrease in new infections; vaccination has already prevented 210 million new chronic infections by 2015 and will have averted 1·1 million deaths by 2030. However, without scale-up of existing interventions, our model showed that there will be a cumulative 63 million new cases of chronic infection and 17 million HBV-related deaths between 2015 and 2030 because of ongoing transmission in some regions and poor access to treatment for people already infected. A target of a 90% reduction in new chronic infections and 65% reduction in mortality could be achieved by scaling up the coverage of infant vaccination (to 90% of infants), birth-dose vaccination (to 80% of neonates), use of peripartum antivirals (to 80% of hepatitis B e antigen-positive mothers), and population-wide testing and treatment (to 80% of eligible people). These interventions would avert 7·3 million deaths between 2015 and 2030, including 1·5 million cases of cancer deaths. An elimination threshold for incidence of new chronic infections would be reached by 2090 worldwide. The a
Nayagam S, Conteh L, Sicuri E, et al., 2016, Cost-effectiveness of community-based screening and treatment for chronic hepatitis B in The Gambia: an economic modelling analysis, Lancet Global Health, Vol: 4, Pages: e568-e578, ISSN: 2214-109X
Background: Despite the high burden of hepatitis B virus (HBV)infection in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), a lack of access to widespreadscreening or treatment leads to most people remaining undiagnosed untillater stages of disease when prognosis is poor and treatment options arelimited. We evaluated the cost-effectiveness of community-based screeningand early treatment with antiviral therapy for HBV in The Gambia.Methods: An economic evaluation comparing adult community-based screeningusing a Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) rapid test and subsequent HBVantiviral therapy to a status quo scenario, where no treatment isavailable, was performed by combining a decision tree with a Markov statetransition model. This was parameterised with primary screening and costdata from the PROLIFICA study. A health provider perspective was takenand costs and health outcomes were discounted at 3% per annum.Findings: In The Gambia, where the HBsAg prevalence is 8.8% among thoseaged over 30 years old, adult screening and treatment for HBV, has anIncremental Cost-Effectiveness Ratio (ICER) of $540 per DisabilityAdjusted Life Year (DALY) averted, $645 per Life Year (LY) saved and $511per Quality Adjusted Life Year (QALY) gained, compared to status quo.These ICERs are in line with willingness-to-pay levels of one times thecountry's Gross Domestic Product (GDP) per capita ($487) per DALYaverted, whilst remaining robust, over a wide range of epidemiologicaland cost parameters.Interpretation: Adult community-based screening and treatment for HBV inthe Gambia is likely to be a cost-effective intervention with an ICERthat is comparable with those of HIV screening and treatmentinterventions in SSA. Even higher cost-effectiveness, may be achievablewith targeted facility-based screening, price reductions of drug and diagnostics and integration of HBV screening with other public healthinterventions.
Pinder M, Conteh L, Jeffries D, et al., 2016, The RooPfs study to assess whether improved housing provides additional protection against clinical malaria over current best practice in The Gambia: study protocol for a randomized controlled study and ancillary studies, Trials, Vol: 17, ISSN: 1745-6215
BACKGROUND: In malaria-endemic areas, residents of modern houses have less malaria than those living in traditional houses. This study will determine if modern housing provides incremental protection against clinical malaria over the current best practice of long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) and prompt treatment in The Gambia, determine the incremental cost-effectiveness of the interventions, and analyze the housing market in The Gambia. METHODS/DESIGN: A two-armed, household, cluster-randomized, controlled study will be conducted to assess whether improved housing and LLINs combine to provide better protection against clinical malaria in children than LLINs alone in The Gambia. The unit of randomization will be the household, defined as a house and its occupants. A total of 800 households will be enrolled and will receive LLINs, and 400 will receive improved housing before clinical follow-up. One child aged 6 months to 13 years will be enrolled from each household and followed for clinical malaria using active case detection to estimate malaria incidence for two malaria transmission seasons. Episodes of clinical malaria will be the primary endpoint. Study children will be surveyed at the end of each transmission season to estimate the prevalence of Plasmodium falciparum infection, parasite density, and the prevalence of anemia. Exposure to malaria parasites will be assessed using light traps, followed by detection of Anopheles gambiae species and sporozoite infection. Ancillary economic and social science studies will undertake a cost-effectiveness analysis and use qualitative and participatory methods to explore the acceptability of the housing modifications and to design strategies for scaling-up housing interventions. DISCUSSION: The study is the first of its kind to measure the efficacy of housing on reducing clinical malaria, assess the incremental cost-effectiveness of improved housing, and identify mechanisms for scaling up housing interventio
Tachfouti N, Najdi A, Alonso S, et al., 2016, Cost of Pediatric Visceral Leishmaniasis Care in Morocco., PLOS One, Vol: 11, ISSN: 1932-6203
BACKGROUND: Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a neglected parasitic disease that is fatal if left untreated. VL is endemic in Morocco and other countries in North Africa were it mainly affects children from rural areas. In Morocco, the direct observation of Leishmania parasites in bone marrow aspirates and serological tests are used to diagnose VL. Glucantime is the first line of treatment. The objective of this study was to report the costs associated to standard clinical management of pediatric VL from the provider perspective in Morocco. As a secondary objective we described the current clinical practices and the epidemiological characteristics of pediatric VL patients. METHODS: From March to June 2014 we conducted a survey in eight hospitals treating pediatric VL patients in Morocco. A pro-forma was used to collect demographic, clinical and management data from medical records. We specifically collected data on VL diagnosis and treatment. We also estimated the days of hospitalization and the time to start VL treatment. Costs were estimated by multiplying the use of resources in terms of number of days in hospital, tests performed and drugs provided by the official prices. For patients receiving part of their treatment at Primary Health Centers (PHC) we estimated the cost of administering the Glucantime as outpatient. We calculated the median cost per VL patient. We also estimated the cost of managing a VL case when different treatment strategies were applied: inpatient and outpatient. RESULTS: We obtained data from 127 VL patients. The median total cost per pediatric VL case in Morocco is 520 US$. The cost in hospitals applying an outpatient strategy is significantly lower (307 US$) than hospitals keeping the patients for the whole treatment (636 US$). However the outpatient strategy is not yet recommended as VL treatment for children in the Moroccan guidelines. VL diagnosis and treatment regimens should be standardized following the current guidelines in Morocco.
Sharma S, van Teijlingen E, Belizan JM, et al., 2016, Measuring What Works: An Impact Evaluation of Women’s Groups on Maternal Health Uptake in Rural Nepal, PLOS One, Vol: 11, ISSN: 1932-6203
BackgroundThere is a need for studies evaluating maternal health interventions in low-income countries. This paper evaluates one such intervention designed to promote maternal health among rural women in Nepal.Methods and ResultsThis was a five-year controlled, non-randomised, repeated cross-sectional study (2007, 2010, 2012) of a participatory community-based maternal health promotion intervention focusing on women’s groups to improve maternal health services uptake. In total 1,236 women of childbearing age, who had their last child ≤ two years ago, were interviewed. Difference-in-Difference estimation assessed the effects of the intervention on selected outcome variables while controlling for a constructed wealth index and women’s characteristics. In the first three years (from 2007 to the 2010), the intervention increased women’s likelihood of attending for antenatal care at least once during pregnancy by seven times [OR = 7.0, 95%CI (2.3; 21.4)], of taking iron and folic acid by three times [OR = 3.0, 95%CI (1.2; 7.8)], and of seeking four or more antenatal care visits of two times, although not significantly [OR = 2.2, 95%CI (1.0; 4.7)]. Over five years, women were more likely to seek antenatal care at least once [OR = 3.0, 95%CI (1.5; 5.2)], to take iron/folic acid [OR = 1.9, [95% CI (1.1; 3.2)], and to attend postnatal care [OR = 1.5, [95% CI (1.1; 2.2)]. No improvement was found on attending antenatal care in the first trimester, birthing at an institution or with a skilled birth attendant.ConclusionCommunity-based health promotion has a much stronger effect on the uptake of antenatal care and less on delivery care. Other factors not easily resolved through health promotion interventions may influence these outcomes, such as costs or geographical constraints. The evaluation has implications for policy and practice in public health, especially maternal health promotion.
Vilajeliu A, Sequera VG, García-Basteiro AL, et al., 2016, Immunogenicity and immunization costs of adjuvanted versus non-adjuvanted hepatitis B vaccine in chronic kidney disease patients, Human Vaccines and Immunotherapeutics, ISSN: 2164-554X
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) vaccination is recommended for all susceptible chronic pre-hemodialysis and hemodialysis patients. This study assessed the immunogenicity of HBV vaccines (adjuvanted and non-adjuvanted) in chronic kidney disease patients vaccinated at the Hospital Clinic of Barcelona (Spain) between January 2007 and July 2012. In addition, the costs for the health system were evaluated accor-ding to the proportion of vaccine responders after receiving either vaccine. Patients receiving 3 doses of hepatitis B adjuvanted vaccine were 3 times more likely to seroconvert than patients immunized with non-adjuvanted vaccines, OR 3.56 (95% CI 1.84-6.85). This resulted in fewer patients requiring a second course of HBV vaccination and fewer outpatient visits, saving more than €9,500 per 100 patients. The higher immunogenicity of the adjuvanted HBV vaccine would counterbalance the lower costs associated with the non-adjuvanted vaccine.
Mtenga S, Kimweri A, Romore I, et al., 2016, Stakeholders' opinions and questions regarding the anticipated malaria vaccine in Tanzania, Malaria Journal, Vol: 15, ISSN: 1475-2875
BackgroundWithin the context of combined interventions, malaria vaccine may provide additional value in malaria prevention. Stakeholders’ perspectives are thus critical for informed recommendation of the vaccine in Tanzania. This paper presents the views of stakeholders with regards to malaria vaccine in 12 Tanzanian districts.MethodsQuantitative and qualitative methods were employed. A structured questionnaire was administered to 2123 mothers of under five children. Forty-six in-depth interviews and 12 focus group discussions were conducted with teachers, religious leaders, community health workers, health care professionals, and scientists. Quantitative data analysis involved frequency distributions and cross tabulations using Chi square test to determine the association between malaria vaccine acceptability and independent variables. Qualitative data were analysed thematically.ResultsOverall, 84.2 % of the mothers had perfect acceptance of malaria vaccine. Acceptance varied significantly according to religion, occupation, tribe and region (p < 0.001). Ninety two percent reported that they will accept the malaria vaccine despite the need to continue using insecticide-treated nets (ITNs), while 88.4 % reported that they will accept malaria vaccine even if their children get malaria less often than non-vaccinated children. Qualitative results revealed that the positive opinions towards malaria vaccine were due to a need for additional malaria prevention strategies and expectations that the vaccine will reduce visits to the health facility, deaths, malaria episodes and treatment-related expenses. Vaccine related questions included its side effects, efficacy, protective duration, composition, interaction with other medications, provision schedule, availability to the pregnant women, mode of administration (oral or injection?) and whether a child born of HIV virus or with a chronic illness will be eligible for the vaccine?ConclusionStakeholders had high accept
Bôtto-Menezes C, Bardají A, Dos Santos Campos G, et al., 2016, Costs Associated with Malaria in Pregnancy in the Brazilian Amazon, a Low Endemic Area Where Plasmodium vivax Predominates., PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases, Vol: 10, ISSN: 1935-2735
BACKGROUND: Information on costs associated with malaria in pregnancy (MiP) in low transmission areas where Plasmodium vivax predominates is so far missing. This study estimates health system and patient costs of MiP in the Brazilian Amazon. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Between January 2011 and March 2012 patient costs for the treatment of MiP were collected through an exit survey at a tertiary referral hospital and at a primary health care centre in the Manaus metropolitan area, Amazonas state. Pregnant and post-partum women diagnosed with malaria were interviewed after an outpatient consultation or at discharge after admission. Seventy-three interviews were included in the analysis. Ninety-six percent of episodes were due to P. vivax and 4% to Plasmodium falciparum. In 2010, the total median costs from the patient perspective were estimated at US $45.91 and US $216.29 for an outpatient consultation and an admission, respectively. When multiple P. vivax infections during the same pregnancy were considered, patient costs increased up to US $335.85, representing the costs of an admission plus an outpatient consultation. Provider direct and overhead cost data were obtained from several sources. The provider cost associated with an outpatient case, which includes several consultations at the tertiary hospital was US $103.51 for a P. vivax malaria episode and US $83.59 for a P. falciparum malaria episode. The cost of an inpatient day and average admission of 3 days was US $118.51 and US $355.53, respectively. Total provider costs for the diagnosis and treatment of all malaria cases reported in pregnant women in Manaus in 2010 (N = 364) were US $17,038.50, of which 92.4% (US$ 15,741.14) due to P. vivax infection. CONCLUSION: Despite being an area of low risk malaria transmission, MiP is responsible for a significant economic burden in Manaus. Especially when multiple infections are considered, costs associated with P. vivax are higher than costs associated with P. falcipa
Kim YE, Sicuri E, Tediosi F, 2015, Financial and Economic Costs of the Elimination and Eradication of Onchocerciasis (River Blindness) in Africa, PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases, Vol: 9, ISSN: 1935-2735
BACKGROUND: Onchocerciasis (river blindness) is a parasitic disease transmitted by blackflies. Symptoms include severe itching, skin lesions, and vision impairment including blindness. More than 99% of all cases are concentrated in sub-Saharan Africa. Fortunately, vector control and community-directed treatment with ivermectin have significantly decreased morbidity, and the treatment goal is shifting from control to elimination in Africa. METHODS: We estimated financial resources and societal opportunity costs associated with scaling up community-directed treatment with ivermectin and implementing surveillance and response systems in endemic African regions for alternative treatment goals--control, elimination, and eradication. We used a micro-costing approach that allows adjustment for time-variant resource utilization and for the heterogeneity in the demographic, epidemiological, and political situation. RESULTS: The elimination and eradication scenarios, which include scaling up treatments to hypo-endemic and operationally challenging areas at the latest by 2021 and implementing intensive surveillance, would allow savings of $1.5 billion and $1.6 billion over 2013-2045 as compared to the control scenario. Although the elimination and eradication scenarios would require higher surveillance costs ($215 million and $242 million) than the control scenario ($47 million), intensive surveillance would enable treatments to be safely stopped earlier, thereby saving unnecessary costs for prolonged treatments as in the control scenario lacking such surveillance and response systems. CONCLUSIONS: The elimination and eradication of onchocerciasis are predicted to allow substantial cost-savings in the long run. To realize cost-savings, policymakers should keep empowering community volunteers, and pharmaceutical companies would need to continue drug donation. To sustain high surveillance costs required for elimination and eradication, endemic countries would need to enhance the
Sicuri E, Evans DB, Tediosi F, 2015, Can Economic Analysis Contribute to Disease Elimination and Eradication? A Systematic Review, PLOS One, Vol: 10, ISSN: 1932-6203
BACKGROUND: Infectious diseases elimination and eradication have become important areas of focus for global health and countries. Due to the substantial up-front investments required to eliminate and eradicate, and the overall shortage of resources for health, economic analysis can inform decision making on whether elimination/eradication makes economic sense and on the costs and benefits of alternative strategies. In order to draw lessons for current and future initiatives, we review the economic literature that has addressed questions related to the elimination and eradication of infectious diseases focusing on: why, how and for whom? METHODS: A systematic review was performed by searching economic literature (cost-benefit, cost-effectiveness and economic impact analyses) on elimination/eradication of infectious diseases published from 1980 to 2013 from three large bibliographic databases: one general (SCOPUS), one bio-medical (MEDLINE/PUBMED) and one economic (IDEAS/REPEC). RESULTS: A total of 690 non-duplicate papers were identified from which only 43 met the inclusion criteria. In addition, only one paper focusing on equity issues, the "for whom?" question, was found. The literature relating to "why?" is the largest, much of it focusing on how much it would cost. A more limited literature estimates the benefits in terms of impact on economic growth with mixed results. The question of how to eradicate or eliminate was informed by an economic literature highlighting that there will be opportunities for individuals and countries to free-ride and that forms of incentives and/or disincentives will be needed. This requires government involvement at country level and global coordination. While there is little doubt that eliminating infectious diseases will eventually improve equity, it will only happen if active steps to promote equity are followed on the path to elimination and eradication. CONCLUSION: The largest part of the literature has focuse
Agarwal K, Alonso P, Chico RM, et al., 2015, Global Call to Action to scale-up coverage of intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in pregnancy: seminar report, Malaria Journal, Vol: 14, ISSN: 1475-2875
In 2014, a global 'Call to Action' seminar for the scale-up of intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in pregnancy was held during the 63rd Annual Meeting of the American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. This report summarizes the presentations and main discussion points from the meeting.
Sicuri E, Fernandes S, Macete E, et al., 2015, Economic Evaluation of an Alternative Drug to Sulfadoxine-Pyrimethamine as Intermittent Preventive Treatment of Malaria in Pregnancy, PLOS One, Vol: 10, ISSN: 1932-6203
BACKGROUND: Intermittent preventive treatment in pregnancy (IPTp) with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) is recommended in HIV-negative women to avert malaria, while this relies on cotrimoxazole prophylaxis (CTXp) in HIV-positive women. Alternative antimalarials are required in areas where parasite resistance to antifolate drugs is high. The cost-effectiveness of IPTp with alternative drugs is needed to inform policy. METHODS: The cost-effectiveness of 2-dose IPTp-mefloquine (MQ) was compared with IPTp-SP in HIV-negative women (Benin, Gabon, Mozambique and Tanzania). In HIV-positive women the cost-effectiveness of 3-dose IPTp-MQ added to CTXp was compared with CTXp alone (Kenya, Mozambique and Tanzania). The outcomes used were maternal clinical malaria, anaemia at delivery and non-obstetric hospital admissions. The poor tolerability to MQ was included as the value of women's loss of working days. Incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) were calculated and threshold analysis undertaken. RESULTS: For HIV-negative women, the ICER for IPTp-MQ versus IPTp-SP was 136.30 US$ (2012 US$) (95%CI 131.41; 141.18) per disability-adjusted life-year (DALY) averted, or 237.78 US$ (95%CI 230.99; 244.57), depending on whether estimates from Gabon were included or not. For HIV-positive women, the ICER per DALY averted for IPTp-MQ added to CTXp, versus CTXp alone was 6.96 US$ (95%CI 4.22; 9.70). In HIV-negative women, moderate shifts of variables such as malaria incidence, drug cost, and IPTp efficacy increased the ICERs above the cost-effectiveness threshold. In HIV-positive women the intervention remained cost-effective for a substantial (up to 21 times) increase in cost per tablet. CONCLUSIONS: Addition of IPTp with an effective antimalarial to CTXp was very cost-effective in HIV-positive women. IPTp with an efficacious antimalarial was more cost-effective than IPTp-SP in HIV-negative women. However, the poor tolerability of MQ does not favour its use as IPTp. Regardless of HIV s
Fernandes S, Sicuri E, Kayentao K, et al., 2015, Cost-effectiveness of two versus three or more doses of intermittent preventive treatment for malaria during pregnancy in sub-Saharan Africa: a modelling study of meta-analysis and cost data, Lancet Global Health, Vol: 3, Pages: e143-e153, ISSN: 2214-109X
BACKGROUND: In 2012, WHO changed its recommendation for intermittent preventive treatment of malaria during pregnancy (IPTp) from two doses to monthly doses of sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine during the second and third trimesters, but noted the importance of a cost-effectiveness analysis to lend support to the decision of policy makers. We therefore estimated the incremental cost-effectiveness of IPTp with three or more (IPTp-SP3+) versus two doses of sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (IPTp-SP2). METHODS: For this analysis, we used data from a 2013 meta-analysis of seven studies in sub-Saharan Africa. We developed a decision tree model with a lifetime horizon. We analysed the base case from a societal perspective. We did deterministic and probabilistic sensitivity analyses with appropriate parameter ranges and distributions for settings with low, moderate, and high background risk of low birthweight, and did a separate analysis for HIV-negative women. Parameters in the model were obtained for all countries included in the original meta-analysis. We did simulations in hypothetical cohorts of 1000 pregnant women receiving either IPTp-SP3+ or IPTp-SP2. We calculated disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) for low birthweight, severe to moderate anaemia, and clinical malaria. We calculated cost estimates from data obtained in observational studies, exit surveys, and from public procurement databases. We give financial and economic costs in constant 2012 US$. The main outcome measure was the incremental cost per DALY averted. FINDINGS: The delivery of IPTp-SP3+ to 1000 pregnant women averted 113·4 DALYs at an incremental cost of $825·67 producing an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of $7·28 per DALY averted. The results remained robust in the deterministic sensitivity analysis. In the probabilistic sensitivity analyses, the ICER was $7·7 per DALY averted for moderate risk of low birthweight, $19·4 per DALY averted for low risk, and $4&midd
Requena-Méndez A, Aldasoro E, de Lazzari E, et al., 2015, Prevalence of Chagas Disease in Latin-American Migrants Living in Europe: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis, PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases, Vol: 9, ISSN: 1935-2735
BACKGROUND: Few studies have assessed the burden of Chagas disease in non-endemic countries and most of them are based on prevalence estimates from Latin American (LA) countries that likely differ from the prevalence in migrants living in Europe. The aim of this study was to systematically review the existing data informing current understanding of the prevalence of Chagas disease in LA migrants living in European countries. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies reporting prevalence of Chagas disease in European countries belonging to the European Union (EU) before 2004 in accordance with the MOOSE guidelines and based on the database sources MEDLINE and Global Health. No restrictions were placed on study date, study design or language of publication. The pooled prevalence was estimated using random effect models based on DerSimonian & Laird method. RESULTS: We identified 18 studies conducted in five European countries. The random effect pooled prevalence was 4.2% (95%CI:2.2-6.7%); and the heterogeneity of Chagas disease prevalence among studies was high (I2 = 97%,p<0.001). Migrants from Bolivia had the highest prevalence of Chagas disease (18.1%, 95%CI:13.9-22.7%). CONCLUSIONS: Prevalence of Chagas in LA migrants living in Europe is high, particularly in migrants from Bolivia and Paraguay. Data are highly heterogeneous dependent upon country of origin and within studies of migrants from the same country of origin. Country-specific prevalence differs from the estimates available from LA countries. Our meta-analysis provides prevalence estimates of Chagas disease that should be used to estimate the burden of disease in European countries.
Sicuri E, Vieta A, Lindner L, et al., 2013, The economic costs of malaria in children in three sub-Saharan countries: Ghana, Tanzania and Kenya, Malaria Journal, Vol: 12, ISSN: 1475-2875
BACKGROUND: Malaria causes significant mortality and morbidity in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), especially among children less than five years of age (U5 children). Although the economic burden of malaria in this region has been assessed previously, the extent and variation of this burden remains unclear. This study aimed to estimate the economic costs of malaria in U5 children in three countries (Ghana, Tanzania and Kenya). METHODS: Health system and household costs previously estimated were integrated with costs associated with co-morbidities, complications and productivity losses due to death. Several models were developed to estimate the expected treatment cost per episode per child, across different age groups, by level of severity and with or without controlling for treatment-seeking behaviour. Total annual costs (2009) were calculated by multiplying the treatment cost per episode according to severity by the number of episodes. Annual health system prevention costs were added to this estimate. RESULTS: Household and health system costs per malaria episode ranged from approximately US$ 5 for non-complicated malaria in Tanzania to US$ 288 for cerebral malaria with neurological sequelae in Kenya. On average, up to 55% of these costs in Ghana and Tanzania and 70% in Kenya were assumed by the household, and of these costs 46% in Ghana and 85% in Tanzania and Kenya were indirect costs. Expected values of potential future earnings (in thousands) lost due to premature death of children aged 0-1 and 1-4 years were US$ 11.8 and US$ 13.8 in Ghana, US$ 6.9 and US$ 8.1 in Tanzania, and US$ 7.6 and US$ 8.9 in Kenya, respectively. The expected treatment costs per episode per child ranged from a minimum of US$ 1.29 for children aged 2-11 months in Tanzania to a maximum of US$ 22.9 for children aged 0-24 months in Kenya. The total annual costs (in millions) were estimated at US$ 37.8, US$ 131.9 and US$ 109.0 nationwide in Ghana, Tanzania and Kenya and included average treatment c
Brotons P, Gelabert G, Launes C, et al., 2013, Cost of hospitalizing children with invasive pneumococcal pneumonia, VACCINE, Vol: 31, Pages: 1117-1122, ISSN: 0264-410X
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