# DrFinnGiuliani

Faculty of EngineeringDepartment of Materials

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### Contact

+44 (0)20 7594 1249f.giuliani

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### Location

RSM LM04DRoyal School of MinesSouth Kensington Campus

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## Publications

Publication Type
Year
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91 results found

Xu Y, Gu T, Xian J, Giuliani F, Britton T, Gourlay C, Dunne Fet al., 2020, Intermetallic size and morphology effects on creep rate of Sn-3Ag-0.5Cu solder, International Journal of Plasticity, ISSN: 0749-6419

The creep behaviour of directionally solidified SAC305 (96.5Sn-3Ag-0.5Cu wt%) alloy has been investigated with integrated particle matrix composite (PMC) crystal plasticity modelling and quantitative experimental characterisation and test. In this manuscript, the mechanistic basis of creep rate dependence is shown to be influenced by plastic strain gradients, and the associated hardening due to geometrically necessary dislocation (GND) density. These gradients are created due to heterogenous deformation at the Sn phase and intermetallic compound (IMCs) boundaries. The size and distribution of IMCs is important, as finer and well dispersed IMCs leading to higher creep resistance and lower creep rates, and this agrees with experimental observations. This understanding has enabled the creation of a new microstructurally homogenized model which captures this mechanistic link between the GND hardening, the intermetallic size, and the corresponding creep rate. The homogenised model relates creep rates to the microstructure found within the solder alloy as they evolve in service, when ageing and coarsening kinetics are known.

Journal article

Wang S, Giuliani F, Britton T, 2020, Slip-hydride interactions in Zircaloy-4: Multiscale mechanical testing and characterisation, Acta Materialia, Vol: 200, Pages: 537-550, ISSN: 1359-6454

The interactions between δ-hydrides and plastic slip in a commercial zirconium alloy, Zircaloy-4, under load were studied using in situ secondary electron microscope (SEM) micropillar compression tests of single crystal samples and ex situ digital image correlation (DIC) macroscale tensile tests of polycrystalline samples. The hydrides decorate near basal planes in orientation, and for micropillars orientated for 〈a〉 basal slip localised shear at the hydride–matrix interface is favoured over slip in α-Zr matrix due to a lower shear stress required. In contrast, for pillars oriented for 〈a〉 prismatic slip the shear stress needed to trigger plastic slip within the hydride is slightly higher than the critical resolved shear stress (CRSS) for the 〈a〉 prismatic slip system. In this case, slip in the hydride is likely achieved through 〈110〉-type shear which is parallel to the activated 〈a〉-type shear in the parent matrix. At a longer lengthscale, these results are used to inform polycrystalline samples analysed using high spatial resolution DIC. Here localised interface shear remains to be a significant deformation path which can both cause and be caused by matrix slip on planes closely-oriented to the phase boundaries. Matrix slip on planes nearly perpendicular to the adjacent hydride–matrix interfaces can either result in plastic slip within the hydrides or get arrested at the interfaces, generating local stress concentration. Through these mechanisms, the presence of δ-hydrides leads to enhanced strain localisation in Zircaloy-4 early in the plastic regime.

Journal article

Diaz OG, Marquardt K, Harris S, Gale L, Vandeperre L, Saiz E, Giuliani Fet al., 2020, Degradation mechanisms of SiC/BN/SiC after low temperature humidity exposure, Journal of the European Ceramic Society, Vol: 40, Pages: 3863-3874, ISSN: 0955-2219

The environmental degradation of SiC/BN/SiC CMCs under low temperature water exposure is still an unexplored field. This work shows how the effect of low temperature humid environments can be detrimental for turbostratic BN interphases, leading to a drop in mechanical properties. Furthermore, initial low-temperature humid environments can induce a faster degradation during subsequent thermal exposure. In order to understand how low temperature water exposure affects the CMC and how these changes affect the material response to subsequent exposures, intermediate temperature (800 °C) exposures have been studied before and after the low temperature humidity tests. The main challenge of this work consists of understanding how different constituents of the CMC structure (e.g. fibres and interphases) are degrading and consequently affecting the overall bulk mechanical performance and failure modes of the material. For this, linking the change in morphology and chemistry of the interphases with the micromechanical properties each constituent has been crucial.

Journal article

McGilvery C, Jiang J, Rounthwaite N, Williams R, Giuliani F, Britton Tet al., 2020, Characterisation of carbonaceous deposits on diesel injector nozzles, Fuel: the science and technology of fuel and energy, Vol: 274, Pages: 1-9, ISSN: 0016-2361

Diesel injector nozzles are highly engineered components designed to optimise delivery of fuel into the combustion chamber of modern engines. These components contain narrow channels to enhance spray formation and penetration, hence mixing and combustion. Over time, these injectors can become clogged due to fouling by carbonaceous deposits which may affect the long-term performance of a diesel engine. In this paper we explore the chemical composition and structure of deposits formed within the nozzle at the nanometre scale using electron microscopy. We focus on comparing deposits generated using a chassis dynamometer-based test with Zn fouled fuel with a DW10B dirty up test. We have developed and applied a method to precisely section the deposits for ‘top view’ scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) analysis of the morphology and relative accumulation of deposits formed during chassis dynamometer and engine based dirty-up tests. We extend this analysis to finer length scales through lift-out of ~70 nm thick electron transparent cross section foils, including both the metal substrate and deposit, using focussed ion beam (FIB) machining. These foils are analysed using scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) and STEM-EDS. These thin foils reveal thin-film growth and chemical stratification of Zn, C, O and other elements in the organic deposit layers developed during growth on the steel substrate during industry standard fouling tests.

Journal article

Bhowmik A, Lee J, Adande S, Wang-Koh M, Jun T-S, Sernicola G, Ben Britton T, Rae CMF, Balint D, Giuliani Fet al., 2020, Investigating spatio-temporal deformation in single crystal Ni-based superalloys using in-situ diffraction experiments and modelling, MATERIALIA, Vol: 9, ISSN: 2589-1529

Journal article

Wang S, Kalacska S, Maeder X, Michler J, Giuliani F, Ben Britton Tet al., 2019, The effect of delta-hydride on the micromechanical deformation of a Zr alloy studied by in situ high angular resolution electron backscatter diffraction, Publisher: PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD

Working paper

Giuliani F, Ciurea C, Bhakhri V, Werchota M, Vandeperre LJ, Mayrhofer PHet al., 2019, Deformation behaviour of TiN and Ti–Al–N coatings at 295 to 573 K, Thin Solid Films, Vol: 688, ISSN: 0040-6090

Temperature-dependent nanoindentation testing was employed to investigate the deformation behaviour of magnetron sputtered (100) TiN and Ti1-xAlxN (x = 0.34, 0.52, 0.62) coatings in the temperature range from 295 to 573 K. The maximum temperature is sufficiently below the deposition temperature of 773 K to guarantee for stable microstructure and stress state during testing. The TiN coating displayed the same hardness as bulk single crystal (SC) TiNbulk. The addition of aluminium to TiN (to form single-phase face centred cubic structured Ti1-xAlxN coatings) increased the room temperature hardness due to increased bond strength, lattice strain and higher activation energy for the dislocation slip. For coatings with a low aluminium content, Ti0.66Al0.34N, the decrease in hardness with temperature was similar to the TiN coating and SC-TiNbulk. In contrast, the hardness of coatings with moderate, Ti0.48Al0.52N, and high, Ti0.38Al0.62N, aluminium contents varied little up to 573 K. Thus, the Ti1-xAlxN matrix is mechanically more stable at elevated temperatures than its TiN relative, by providing a lower decrease in lattice resistance to the dislocation flow with increasing temperature. The findings suggest that the addition of Al to TiN (to form Ti1-xAlxN solid solutions) not only improves the hardness but also leads to stable hardness with temperature, and emphasizes the importance of bonding states and chemical fluctuations, next to structure and morphology of the coatings that develop with changing the chemistry.

Journal article

Wang S, Kalácska S, Maeder X, Michler J, Giuliani F, Britton Tet al., 2019, The effect of δ-hydride on the micromechanical deformation of Zircaloy-4 studied by in situ high angular resolution electron backscatter diffraction, Scripta Materialia, ISSN: 1359-6462

Zircaloy-4(Zr-1.5%Sn-0.2%Fe-0.1%Cr wt%)is usedas nuclear fuel cladding materials and hydride embrittlementis amajor failure mechanism. To explore the effect of δ-hydrideon plastic deformation and performance of Zircaloy-4, in situhigh angular resolution electron backscatter diffraction(HR-EBSD)was used to quantify stress andgeometrically necessarydislocation(GND)density during bending tests of hydride-free and hydride-containingsingle crystalZircaloy-4 microcantilevers. Results suggest that while the stress applied was accommodated by plastic slip in the hydride-free cantilever,the hydride-containing cantilever showedprecipitation-induced GND pile-up at hydride-matrix interfacepre-deformation, andconsiderable locally-increasing GNDdensity under tensile stressupon plastic deformation.

Journal article

Boughton O, Ma S, Cai X, Yan L, Peralta L, Laugier P, Marrow J, Giuliani F, Hansen U, Abel R, Grimal Q, Cobb Jet al., 2019, Computed tomography porosity and spherical indentation for determining cortical bone millimetre-scale mechanical properties, Scientific Reports, Vol: 9, ISSN: 2045-2322

The cortex of the femoral neck is a key structural element of the human body, yet there is not a reliable metric for predicting the mechanical properties of the bone in this critical region. This study explored the use of a range of non-destructive metrics to measure femoral neck cortical bone stiffness at the millimetre length scale. A range of testing methods and imaging techniques were assessed for their ability to measure or predict the mechanical properties of cortical bone samples obtained from the femoral neck of hip replacement patients. Techniques that can potentially be applied in vivo to measure bone stiffness, including computed tomography (CT), bulk wave ultrasound (BWUS) and indentation, were compared against in vitro techniques, including compression testing, density measurements and resonant ultrasound spectroscopy. Porosity, as measured by micro-CT, correlated with femoral neck cortical bone’s elastic modulus and ultimate compressive strength at the millimetre length scale. Large-tip spherical indentation also correlated with bone mechanical properties at this length scale but to a lesser extent. As the elastic mechanical properties of cortical bone correlated with porosity, we would recommend further development of technologies that can safely measure cortical porosity in vivo.Introduction

Journal article

Wang S, Giuliani F, Britton TB, 2019, Microstructure and formation mechanisms of δ-hydrides in variable grain size Zircaloy-4 studied by electron backscatter diffraction, Acta Materialia, Vol: 169, Pages: 76-87, ISSN: 1359-6454

Microstructure and crystallography of δ phase hydrides in as-received fine grain and ‘blocky alpha’ large grain Zircaloy-4 (average grain size ∼11 μm and >200 μm, respectively) were examined using electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD). Results suggest that the matrix-hydride orientation relationship is {0001} α ||{111} δ ;<112¯0> α ||<110> δ for all the cases studied. The habit plane of intragranular hydrides and some intergranular hydrides has been found to be {101¯7} of the surrounding matrix. The morphology of intergranular hydrides can vary depending upon the angle between the grain boundary and the hydride habit plane. The misfit strain between α-Zr and δ-hydride is accommodated mainly by high density of dislocations and twin structures in the hydrides, and a mechanism of twin formation in the hydrides has been proposed. The growth of hydrides across grain boundaries is achieved through an auto-catalytic manner similar to the growth pattern of intragranular hydrides. Easy collective shear along <11¯00> makes it possible for hydride nucleation at any grain boundaries, while the process seems to favour grain boundaries with low (<40°) and high (>80°) c-axis misorientation angles. Moreover, the angle between the grain boundary and the adjacent basal planes does not influence the propensity for hydride nucleation.

Journal article

Wang S, Giuliani F, Britton T, 2019, Variable temperature micropillar compression to reveal <a> basal slip properties of Zircaloy-4, Scripta Materialia, Vol: 162, Pages: 451-455, ISSN: 1359-6462

Zircaloy-4 is widely used as nuclear fuel cladding materials, where it is important to understand the mechanical properties between room temperature and reactor operating temperatures (around 623 K). To aid in this understanding, we have performed compression tests on micropillars aligned to activate <a> basal slip across this temperature range. Engineering analysis of the results indicates that the plastic yield follows a thermally activated constitutive law. We also observe the nature of the slip bands formed on the side surface of our pillars and see characteristic ‘bulging’ that tends to localise as temperature increases.

Journal article

Jun T-S, Maeder X, Bhowmik A, Guillonneau G, Michler J, Giuliani F, Britton TBet al., 2019, The role of β-titanium ligaments in the deformation of dual phase titanium alloys, Materials Science and Engineering: A, Vol: 746, Pages: 394-405, ISSN: 0921-5093

Multiphase titanium alloys are critical materials in high value engineeringcomponents, for instance in aero engines. Microstructural complexity isexploited through interface engineering during mechanical processing to realisesignificant improvements in fatigue and fracture resistance and strength. Inthis work, we explore the role of select interfaces using in-situmicromechanical testing with concurrent observations from high angularresolution electron backscatter diffraction (HR-EBSD). Our results aresupported with post mortem transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Usingmicro-pillar compression, we performed in-depth analysis of the role of select{\beta}-titanium (body centred cubic) ligaments which separate neighbouring{\alpha}-titanium (hexagonal close packed) regions and inhibit the dislocationmotion and impact strength during mechanical deformation. These results shedlight on the strengthening mechanisms and those that can lead to strainlocalisation during fatigue and failure.

Journal article

Boughton OR, Ma S, Zhao S, Arnold M, Lewis A, Hansen U, Cobb J, Giuliani F, Abel Ret al., 2018, Measuring bone stiffness using spherical indentation, PLoS ONE, Vol: 13, ISSN: 1932-6203

ObjectivesBone material properties are a major determinant of bone health in older age, both in terms of fracture risk and implant fixation, in orthopaedics and dentistry. Bone is an anisotropic and hierarchical material so its measured material properties depend upon the scale of metric used. The scale used should reflect the clinical problem, whether it is fracture risk, a whole bone problem, or implant stability, at the millimetre-scale. Indentation, an engineering technique involving pressing a hard-tipped material into another material with a known force, may be able to assess bone stiffness at the millimetre-scale (the apparent elastic modulus). We aimed to investigate whether spherical-tip indentation could reliably measure the apparent elastic modulus of human cortical bone.Materials and methodsCortical bone samples were retrieved from the femoral necks of nineteen patients undergoing total hip replacement surgery (10 females, 9 males, mean age: 69 years). The samples underwent indentation using a 1.5 mm diameter, ruby, spherical indenter tip, with sixty indentations per patient sample, across six locations on the bone surfaces, with ten repeated indentations at each of the six locations. The samples then underwent mechanical compression testing. The repeatability of indentation measurements of elastic modulus was assessed using the co-efficient of repeatability and the correlation between the bone elastic modulus measured by indentation and compression testing was analysed by least-squares regression.ResultsIn total, 1140 indentations in total were performed. Indentation was found to be repeatable for indentations performed at the same locations on the bone samples with a mean co-efficient of repeatability of 0.4 GigaPascals (GPa), confidence interval (C.I): 0.33–0.42 GPa. There was variation in the indentation modulus results between different locations on the bone samples (mean co-efficient of repeatability: 3.1 GPa, C.I: 2.2–3.90 GPa). No cle

Journal article

Knowles A, Tea-Sung J, Bhowmik A, Jones N, Britton TB, Giuliani F, Stone H, Dye Det al., 2018, Data on a new beta titanium alloy system reinforced with superlattice intermetallic precipitates, Data in Brief, Vol: 17, Pages: 863-869, ISSN: 2352-3409

The data presented in this article are related to the research article entitled “a new beta titanium alloy system reinforced with superlattice intermetallic precipitates” (Knowles et al., 2018) [1]. This includes data from the as-cast alloy obtained using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and x-ray diffraction (XRD) as well as SEM data in the solution heat treated condition. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) selected area diffraction patterns (SADPs) are included from the alloy in the solution heat treated condition, as well as the aged condition that contained < 100 nm B2 TiFe precipitates [1], the latter of which was found to exhibit double diffraction owing to the precipitate and matrix channels being of a similar width to the foil thickness (Williams and Carter, 2009) [2]. Further details are provided on the macroscopic compression testing of small scale cylinders. Of the micropillar deformation experiment performed in [1], SEM micrographs of focused ion beam (FIB) prepared 2 µm micropillars are presented alongside those obtained at the end of the in-situ SEM deformation as well as videos of the in-situ deformation. Further, a table is included that lists the Schmidt factors of all the possible slip systems given the crystal orientations and loading axis of the deformed micropillars in the solution heat treated and aged conditions.

Journal article

Waheed S, Hao R, Zheng Z, Wheeler J, Michler J, Balint D, Giuliani Fet al., 2018, Temperature-dependent plastic hysteresis in highly confined polycrystalline Nb films, Modelling and Simulation in Materials Science and Engineering, Vol: 26, ISSN: 0965-0393

In this study, the effect of temperature on the cyclic deformation behaviour of a confined polycrystalline Nb film is investigated. Micropillars encapsulating a thin niobium interlayer are deformed under cyclic axial compression at different test temperatures. A distinct plastic hysteresis is observed for samples tested at elevated temperatures, whereas negligible plastic hysteresis is observed for samples tested at room temperature. These results are interpreted using planar discrete dislocation plasticity incorporating slip transmission across grain boundaries. The effect of temperature-dependent grain boundary energy and dislocation mobility on dislocation penetration and, consequently, the size of plastic hysteresis is simulated to correlate with the experimental results. It is found that the decrease in grain boundary energy barrier caused by the increase in temperature does not lead to any appreciable change in the cyclic response. However, dislocation mobility significantly affects the size of plastic hysteresis, with high mobilities leading to a larger hysteresis. Therefore, it is postulated that the experimental observations are predominantly caused by an increase in dislocation mobility as the temperature is increased above the critical temperature of body-centred cubic niobium.

Journal article

Bhowmik A, Britton TB, Lee J, Liu W, Jun T-S, Sernicola G, Karimpour M, Balint D, Giuliani Fet al., 2017, Deformation behaviour of [001] oriented MgO using combined in-situ nano-indentation and micro-Laue diffraction, Acta Materialia, Vol: 145, Pages: 516-531, ISSN: 1359-6454

We report a coupled in-situ micro-Laue diffraction and nano-indentation experiment, with spatial and time resolution, to investigate the deformation mechanisms in [001]-oriented single crystal MgO. Crystal plasticity finite element modelling was applied to aid interpretation of the experimental observations of plasticity. The Laue spots showed both rotation and streaking upon indentation that is typically indicative of both elastic lattice rotation and plastic strain gradients respectively in the material. Multiple facets of streaking of the Laue peaks suggested plastic slip occurring on almost all the {101}-type slip planes oriented 45° to the sample surface with no indication of slip on the 90° {110} planes. Crystal plasticity modelling also supported these experimental observations. Owing to asymmetric slip beneath the indenter, as predicted by modelling results and observed through Laue analysis, sub-grains were found to nucleate with distinct misorientation. With cyclic loading, the mechanical hysteresis behaviour in MgO is revealed through the changing profiles of the Laue reflections, driven by reversal of plastic strain by the stored elastic energy. Crystal plasticity simulations have also shown explicitly that in subsequent loading cycles after first, the secondary slip system unloads completely elastically while some plastic strain of the primary slip reverses. Tracking the Laue peak movement, a higher degree of lattice rotation was seen to occur in the material under the indent, which gradually decreased moving laterally away. With the progress of deformation, the full field elastic strain and rotation gradients were also constructed which showed opposite lattice rotations on either sides of the indent.

Journal article

Pelissari PIBGB, Bouville F, Pandolfelli VC, Carnelli D, Giuliani F, Luz AP, Saiz E, Studart ARet al., 2017, Nacre-like ceramic refractories for high temperature applications, Journal of the European Ceramic Society, Vol: 38, Pages: 2186-2193, ISSN: 0955-2219

High-temperature ceramics, so-called refractories, are widely used for the manufacturing of metals, for energy generation and aerospace applications. Refractories are usually strong and stiff but fragile due to the lack of plastic deformation and other intrinsic toughening mechanisms. This inherent brittleness limits their use in applications where catastrophic failure is not tolerated. The present work reports the design and fabrication of refractories with a bio inspired nacre-like microstructure comprising aligned alumina platelets, separated by an aluminium borate interphase, obtained through transient liquid phase sintering. The bioinspired composites exhibit high strength, 672 MPa, toughness, 7.4 MPa m1/2, and stable crack propagation at high temperatures, above 600 °C, due to the aluminium borate interlayer. This makes nacre-like ceramic refractories sintered with a transient liquid phase good candidate for high temperature applications, competing favourably with ceramic matrix composites and following a simpler and cheaper processing route.

Journal article

Feilden E, Ferraro C, Zhang Q, García-Tuñón E, D'Elia E, Giuliani F, Vandeperre L, Saiz Eet al., 2017, 3D Printing Bioinspired Ceramic Composites., Scientific Reports, Vol: 7, ISSN: 2045-2322

Natural structural materials like bone and shell have complex, hierarchical architectures designed to control crack propagation and fracture. In modern composites there is a critical trade-off between strength and toughness. Natural structures provide blueprints to overcome this, however this approach introduces another trade-off between fine structural manipulation and manufacturing complex shapes in practical sizes and times. Here we show that robocasting can be used to build ceramic-based composite parts with a range of geometries, possessing microstructures unattainable by other production technologies. This is achieved by manipulating the rheology of ceramic pastes and the shear forces they experience during printing. To demonstrate the versatility of the approach we have fabricated highly mineralized composites with microscopic Bouligand structures that guide crack propagation and twisting in three dimensions, which we have followed using an original in-situ crack opening technique. In this way we can retain strength while enhancing toughness by using strategies taken from crustacean shells.

Journal article

Arnold M, Zhao S, Ma S, Giuliani F, Hansen U, Cobb JP, Abel RL, Boughton Oet al., 2017, Microindentation - a tool for measuring cortical bone stiffness?, BONE & JOINT RESEARCH, Vol: 6, Pages: 542-549, ISSN: 2046-3758

Journal article

Arnold M, Zhao S, Ma S, Giuliani F, Hansen U, Cobb JP, Abel RL, Boughton ORet al., 2017, Microindentation: a tool for measuring cortical bone stiffness? A systematic review, Bone & Joint Research, Vol: 6, Pages: 542-549, ISSN: 2046-3758

Objectives: Microindentation hasthe potential to measuretheelasticity(stiffness)of individualpatients’bone. Bone elasticity plays a crucial role in the press-fit stability of orthopaedic implants.Arming surgeons with accuratebone elasticityinformation may reduce surgical complicationsincluding peri-prosthetic fractures. The question we address with this systematicreview is whether microindentation can accurately measure cortical bone stiffness.Methods: A systematic review of all English language articles using a keyword search was undertaken in Medline, Embase, PubMed, Scopus and Cochrane databases. Studies thatonly used nanoindentation, cancellous boneoranimal tissue were excluded.Results: 1094abstracts were retrieved and 32papers were included in the analysis, 20 of which used reference point indentation and 12of which used traditional depth sensing indentation.There are a number of factors thatmust be taken into account when using microindentation such as tip size, depth and method of analysis.Only two studies validated microindentation againsttraditional mechanical testing techniques. Bothstudies used reference point indentation(RPI) with one showing that RPI parameters correlate well with mechanical testing, butanother suggestedthatthey do not. Conclusion: Microindentation has been used in various studies to assess bone elasticity but only two studies with conflicting results compared microindentation to traditional mechanical testing techniques. Further research,includingmore studies comparingmicroindentationto other mechanical testing methodsare needed,before microindentation can be reliably used to calculate cortical bone stiffness.

Journal article

Knowles A, Bhowmik A, Purkayastha S, Jones NG, Giuliani F, Clegg WJ, Dye D, Stone HJet al., 2017, Data on a Laves phase intermetallic matrix composite in situ toughened by ductile precipitates, Data in Brief, Vol: 14, Pages: 489-493, ISSN: 2352-3409

The data presented in this article are related to the research article entitled “Laves phase intermetallic matrix composite in situ toughened by ductile precipitates” (Knowles et al.) [1]. The composite comprised a Fe2(Mo, Ti) matrix with bcc (Mo, Ti) precipitated laths produced in situ by an aging heat treatment, which was shown to confer a toughening effect (Knowles et al.) [1]. Here, details are given on a focused ion beam (FIB) slice and view experiment performed on the composite so as to determine that the 3D morphology of the bcc (Mo, Ti) precipitates were laths rather than needles. Scanning transmission electron microscopy (S(TEM)) micrographs of the microstructure as well as energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) maps are presented that identify the elemental partitioning between the C14 Laves matrix and the bcc laths, with Mo rejected from the matrix into laths. A TEM selected area diffraction pattern (SADP) and key is provided that was used to validate the orientation relation between the matrix and laths identified in (Knowles et al.) [1] along with details of the transformation matrix determined.

Journal article

Sernicola G, Giovannini T, Patel P, Kermode J, Balint D, Britton TB, Giuliani Fet al., 2017, In situ stable crack growth at the micron scale, Nature Communications, Vol: 8, ISSN: 2041-1723

Grain boundaries typically dominate fracture toughness, strength, slow crack growth of ceramics. To improve these properties through mechanistically informed grain boundary engineering, precise measurement of the mechanical properties of individual boundaries is essential, although this is rarely achieved due to its complexity. Here we present a new approach to characterise the fracture energy at the lengthscale of individual grain boundaries and demonstrate this capability with measurement of the surface energy of silicon carbide (SiC) single crystals. We perform experiments using an in situscanning electron microscopy based double cantilever beam test, thus enabling viewing and measurement of stable crack growth directly. These experiments correlate well with our density functional theory (DFT) calculations of the surface energy of the same SiC plane. Subsequently, we measure the fracture energy for a bi-crystal of SiC, diffusion bonded with a thin glassy layer. These measurements ultimately promote microstructural engineering of novel and advanced ceramics.

Journal article

Knowles AJ, Bhowmik, Purkayastha S, Jones NG, Giuliani F, Clegg WJ, Dye D, Stone HJet al., 2017, Laves phase intermetallic matrix composite in situ toughened by ductile precipitates, Scripta Materialia, Vol: 140, Pages: 59-62, ISSN: 1872-8456

Laves phase based materials are of interest for elevated temperature applications for their high melting points and strengths but are critically limited by their low fracture toughness. Here, a Laves phase intermetallic matrix composite toughened by ductile precipitates has been studied. This microstructure was produced in situ by heat treating a Fe2(Mo,Ti) based alloy to precipitate ∼ 12% volume fraction of fine ∼ 250 nm bcc, A2 (Mo,Ti), phase, with an orientation relationship of . The precipitated A2 phase increased the indentation fracture toughness from 1.1 to 2.2 MPa m1/2 while maintaining a high hardness of HV0.5 = 8.9 GPa similar to monolithic Laves phases.

Journal article

Knowles AJ, Jun T-S, Bhowmik A, Jones NG, Giuliani F, Britton TB, Stone HJ, Dye Det al., 2017, A new beta titanium alloy system reinforced with superlattice intermetallic precipitates, Scripta Materialia, Vol: 140, Pages: 71-75, ISSN: 1872-8456

Titanium alloys traditionally lack a nm-scale intermetallic precipitate that can be exploited for age-hardening from solid solution. Here such a strengthening concept is developed in the Ti-Fe-Mo system, with it being found that a high temperature β (bcc A2) single-phase field for homogenisation can be obtained, which following ageing (750 °C/80 h) precipitated B2 TiFe <100 nm in size. The orientation relationship was found to be ⟨100⟩A2//⟨100⟩B2, {100}A2//{100}B2, with a misfit of −6.1%. The alloy was found to be very hard (HV0.5 = 6.4 GPa) and strong (σy, 0.2 = 1.9 GPa) with a density of 6.68 g cm−3. TEM observation and micropillar deformation showed that the precipitates resist dislocation cutting.

Journal article

Waheed S, Hao R, Bhowmik A, Balint DS, Giuliani Fet al., 2017, A unifying scaling for the Bauschinger effect in highly confined thin films: a discrete dislocation plasticity study, Modelling and Simulation in Materials Science and Engineering, Vol: 25, ISSN: 0965-0393

In this study, sequential sputter deposition, diffusion bonding and focused ion beam milling are used to fabricate sapphire micropillars encapsulating a thin single crystal niobium film. A distinct Bauschinger effect is observed during the cyclic axial compression of the samples. Plain strain discrete dislocation plasticity is used to interpret the experimental results obtained for the encapsulated film-micropillar geometry. The simulations show that the experimental samples correspond to a saturated source density regime, producing the maximum Bauschinger effect for the chosen mean nucleation strength. Next, the source density and mean nucleation strength are shown to have a coupled effect on the size of the Bauschinger effect, understood in terms of the differing number of pile-ups occurring per source in the film. The coupled effect is found to be represented by the density of dislocations annihilated upon unloading: a consistent linear relationship is observed between the size of the Bauschinger effect and the annihilated dislocation density over the entire source density and nucleation strength parameter space investigated. It is found that different film orientations fulfil the same linear relationship, whereas changing the film thickness causes the slope of the linear trend to vary suggesting a length-scale dependence on reverse plasticity. Finally, all results are found to be unified by a power-law relationship quantifying the Bauschinger effect of the form ${{\rm{\Gamma }}}_{{\rm{B}}}\propto {\rm{\Delta }}{\rho }_{{\rm{ann}}}{l}^{n}$ where it is argued that the number of dislocations undergoing reverse glide in the confined film is represented by ${\rm{\Delta }}{\rho }_{{\rm{ann}}}$, the mean free path of dislocations by l and the effect of hardening processes by the exponent n. The net reverse glide is thus represented by ${\rm{\Delta }}{\rho }_{{\rm{ann}}}{l}^{n}$ which can be used as a measure of the Bauschinger effect.

Journal article

Rounthwaite N, McGilvery CM, Jiang J, Williams R, Giuliani F, Britton TBet al., 2017, A chemical and morphological study of diesel injector nozzle deposits - insights into their formation and growth mechanisms, SAE 2017 World Congress and Exhibition, Publisher: SAE International, Pages: 106-114, ISSN: 1946-3960

Modern diesel passenger car technology continues to develop rapidly in response to demanding emissions, performance, refinement, cost and fuel efficiency requirements. This has included the implementation of high pressure common rail fuel systems employing high precision injectors with complex injection strategies, higher hydraulic efficiency injector nozzles and in some cases <100µm nozzle hole diameters. With the trend towards lower diameter diesel injector nozzle holes and reduced cleaning through cavitation with higher hydraulic efficiency nozzles, it is increasingly important to focus on understanding the mechanism of diesel injector nozzle deposit formation and growth. In this study such deposits were analysed by cross-sectioning the diesel injector along the length of the nozzle hole enabling in-depth analysis of deposit morphology and composition change from the inlet to the outlet, using state-of-the-art electron microscopy techniques. Deposits produced in the injector nozzles of the industry standard fouling test (CEC F-98-08 DW10B bench engine) were compared with those formed in a vehicle driven on a chassis dynamometer, using a drive cycle more representative of real world vehicle conditions, to explore the effects of differing drive cycles and engine technologies. Fouling in all tests was accelerated with the addition of 1ppm zinc neodecanoate, as specified in the CEC DW10B test. This in-depth characterisation revealed a complex multi-layered system of deposits inside the diesel injector nozzle. Through analysing these layers the mechanisms enabling the initial deposit formation and growth can be postulated.

Conference paper

Boughton OR, Zhao S, Arnold M, Ma S, Cobb JP, Giuliani F, Hansen U, Abel RLet al., 2017, Measuring bone stiffness using microindentation, British Orthopaedic Research Society (BORS) 2016 Conference, Publisher: British Editorial Society of Bone and Joint Surgery, Pages: 31-31, ISSN: 2049-4416

Conference paper

Feilden E, Giovannini T, Ni N, Ferraro C, Saiz E, Vandeperre L, Giuliani Fet al., 2017, Micromechanical strength of individual Al2O3 platelets, Scripta Materialia, Vol: 131, Pages: 55-58, ISSN: 1359-6462

Optimising the properties of platelet reinforced composites requires the strength of the reinforcing phase to be known, however strength measurements at such small scales are difficult and therefore data is sparse. In this work the flexural strength and Weibull modulus of microscopic, alumina platelets has been measured as 5.3 ± 1.3 GPa and 3.7 respectively, using an in-situ micro 3-point bend test. A general approach to correct for the effect of variation in sample size on the Weibull modulus is presented, and the internal structure of the platelets is revealed by TEM.

Journal article

Glymond D, Vick M, Giuliani F, Vandeperre LJMet al., 2017, High Temperature Fracture Toughness of Mullite with Monoclinic Zirconia, Journal of the American Ceramic Society, Vol: 100, Pages: 1570-1577, ISSN: 1551-2916

Reactive sintering of zircon and alumina and zirconia additions to mullite are well establishedmethods for improving the poor fracture toughness of mullite. While it is clear that transformationtoughening is responsible for the improved toughness by addition of partially stabilised zirconia, it isnot clear why adding unstabilised zirconia increases the toughness although microcracking and crackdeflection have been suggested. Therefore the fracture toughness of a mullite composite with 20vol% unstabilised zirconia and a monolithic mullite were investigated at ambient conditions and attemperatures up to 1225 oC. It was found that monoclinic zirconia increases the toughness atambient conditions from the monolithic mullite value of 1.9 MPa m1/2 to 3.9 MPa m1/2. Thetoughness of the composite with zirconia remains relatively constant from ambient to 600 °C butthen decreases rapidly. The mechanism for the toughness enhancement as well as the reason for itsvariation with temperature are explained using changes in residual stress state as deduced using thesphere in shell model from the measured thermal expansion behaviour.

Journal article

Feilden E, Giovannini T, Ni N, Ferraro C, Saiz E, Vandeperre L, Giuliani Fet al., 2017, Micromechanical strength of Al2O3 platelets, Scripta Materialia, ISSN: 1359-6462

Optimising the properties of platelet reinforced composites requires the strength of the reinforcing phase to be known, however strength measurements at such small scales are difficult and therefore data is sparse. In this work the flexural strength and Weibull modulus of microscopic, alumina platelets has been measured as 5.3±1.3 GPa and 3.7 respectively, using an in-situ micro 3-point bend test. A general approach to correct for the effect of variation in sample size on the Weibull modulus is presented, and the internal structure of the platelets is revealed by TEM.

Journal article

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